Guru Nanak Guru Angad Guru Amar Das Guru Ram Das Guru ArjanGuru Guru Har Rai Guru Guru Tegh Guru GobindHargobind Harkrishan Bahadur Singh
Created the institution of Laid the the Guru, who groundwork for became a new, rational central model of authority in Defined the ideal human community life person as a behaviour Gurmukh who based on practised the divine threefold discipline authority, of nam dan ishnan, ‘the divine name, charity and purity’. Guru Nanak Three key institutions1) Sangat (holly fellowship) where allfelt that they belonged to one large Founded the village of spiritual fraternity. Kartarpur in 1519/ Lived2) Dharamsala, original form of the there for the rest of his life Sikh place of worship. as the ‘spiritual guide’ of a Prescribed the new religious community.3) Langar, communal meal served daily routine, in by members of the Sangat. ‘Nanak-Panth ’ is the which communal community that followed devotions was his panth of liberation. recited in the early morning, and ‘so dar’ and Arti were sung in the evening.
Consolidated the nascent Sikh panth in the face of a challenge mounted by Guru Nanak’s eldest son, Sri Chand, founder of the ascetic Undasi sect. Established a new Sikh centre Composed the sixty-two at Khadur, where his wifeshaloks, which threw light Khivi ran the community on historical situation of kitchen. Wife added a the panth during this dessert – boiled rice in milk- period and marked the to the standard vegetarian doctrinal boundaries of meal. Sign of the Sikh’s ability the Sikh faith in strict to attract contributions conformity with Guru substantial enough to offer Nanak’s message. generous meals to one and all. Refined the Gurmukhi script in which the Guru’s hymns were recorded. Original script was a systematisation of the business shorthand that Guru Nanak used to write the Punjabi language as a young man.
He also appointed women Introduced a variety of Introduced a system of as missionaries. Gave allinstitutional innovations that twenty-two Manjis (cots or Sikh women equal rights helped to reinforce the seats of authority) as bases with men to conduct cohesion and unity of the for missionaries seeking to prayers and other ever-growing Sikh panth. attract new converts. ceremonies in the congregational setting. Oversaw the preparation of Established two annual Abolished not only the the Goindval pothis festivals (Divali andwearing of the veil but the (volumes) the initial Baisakhi) that provided practice of Sati, and collection of the regular opportunities for the permitted windows to compositions of the first growing community to get remarry. three Gurus and some of together and meet the the medieval poet-saints. Guru. Founded the town of Goindval (southeast of Amritsar on the river Beas)
The liturgical The new building requirement not projects required only to recite but Contributed 679 considerable to sing the sacred new hymns to the financial and Established a Process of Together the Word became collection that logistical town called distinguishing musicality and part of the very made up the Sikh mobilisation for Ramdaspur in between ‘us’ and the emotional definition of scripture and which the1577 and ordered ‘them’ was appeal of his Sikhism, and expanded the appointment of the construction effectively hymns had a contributed number of ‘deputies’ of a large completed tremendous significantly to melodies (masands) became bathing pool during the period impact on his the Sikh’s self- specified for their necessary to deal there. of Ram Das. audience. image as a singing from 19 to with increasingly distinct and a 30. complex cohesive administrative community. demands.
Built the Darbar Sahib (Divine court) in the sacred pool of Amritsar, a shining monument that remains the central symbol of the Sikh faith. Guru Arjan’s execution (martyrdom) became the decisive factor in the crystallisation of the Sikh panth. By the end of the sixteenth century the Sikh panth had developed a strong sense of identity. Organised the scriptural corpus he had inherited into the Adi Granth, the definitive statement of Sikhism’s unique spiritual stance.
Signalled this new Under his direct direction when, at his leadership the Sikh investiture, he donned panth took up arms to two swords, one defend itself against symbolising spiritual (piril) mughal hostility. After and the other temporal four skirmishes with (miri) authority. Mughal troops, Guru Was Hargobind’s Hargobind withdrew construction, in 1609, of from Amritsar to the the Akal Takhat (Throne jurisdiction of the mughal of the Timeless) facing state. Kiratpur became the Darbar Sahib, to the new centre of the resolve internal disputes mainline Sikh tradition. within the community.
Founded three missions Stressed importance of langer, insisting no one should ever be turned away hungry. Stressed the importance of early morning worship and scripture, implying that whether or not words could be understood, hymns benefited the heart and soul. Sikhs are not to show miraculous powers because that goes against the will of God.
Healed those afflicted with leprosy. Have had no real impact on Sikhism.
Encouraged his followers to be fearless in their pursuit of a just society. His martyrdom helped to make human rights and freedom of concience central to its identity.
Added a collection of works of his father Tegh Bahadur, to the Adi Granth, he closed the Sikh cannon.Reconstructed the panth and created the Khalsa (pure), anorder of loyal Sikhs bound by a common identify Brought an end to the and discipline succession of human (rahit) Gurus. Thereafter, the authority of the Guru would be invested in the scripture (Guru- Granth) and the corporate community (Guru- Panth)