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Social research

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    Social research Social research Presentation Transcript

    • SOCIAL RESEARCH Prepared by:kenedy simwinga BscAF- IRINGA UNIVERSITY OPEN YOUR MIND Simwinga 2013 1
    • Research • Research is defined as the scientific and systematic investigation for searching in depth information about certain , social , geographical and political phenomena. The field research is done in the field. Simwinga 2013 2
    • Characteristics Of Good Research i. It must be verifiable. ii. It must be understandable to use of simple language. iii. It must be systematic and logically. iv. It must have goal direct towards solving specific problems. v. It must be scientific because to use of scientific ways of solving problems. Simwinga 2013 3
    • i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Objectives Of Good Research To apply geographical knowledge gained in the classroom to what is seen and observed in the field. To find out the answers for the questions raised as result of reading. To identify specific geographical problems and to solve them. To acquire skills and competence in map reading and interpretation recording techniques It enables students to identify social problems and how to solve them. To improve classroom learning through projects. Simwinga 2013 4
    • Research Questions • A research question is basically what you want to understand by doing your research • The design of your study revolves around the research question. • A research question is a design component that is directly linked to all of the components of the design. • It is underlies and influences the entire research design. Simwinga 2013 5
    • Functions of a Research Question • To help you to focus the study(the question’s relationship to your purpose and conceptual context). • To give the guidance on how to conduct it(their relationship to methods and validity) Simwinga 2013 6
    • Features Of Good Research Questions • Research questions should begin by raising ‘’what and how questions. They should lead a reader further into the depth of the research topic. • Non directional words should be used. Words with directional orientation such as effects, influence, impact, determine, cause, and relate should be omitted. Simwinga 2013 7
    • Features Of Good Research Questions • Use open-ended questions without reference to the literature or theory, unless otherwise dictated by a qualitative design type. • Use a single focus and specify the research site in the research question. • You must make a distinct separation between dependent and independent variables. Simwinga 2013 8
    • Example Topic: How Basic Science Teachers Help Medical Students Learn: The Student Perspective. Research Questions The research questions to be answered are: 1. How do these basic science teachers help students learns? 2. What do these teachers do to help students learn? 3. How and why do these techniques help students learn? 4. What motivates teachers to do what they do? Simwinga 2013 9
    • A. Formulation Of Hypothesis • What is hypothesis? hypothesis is defined as the tentative diction of out time. OR hypothesis is the quizzing answer towards the problem. It is like a statement of expected results. Research is usually started before the study begins. A well collected it should be clearly and simple for example: if the problem is rapid population growth in Tanzania hypothesis can be like this;  Due to ignorance.  Tradition, culture and religion.  Poverty of the people.  Climatic condition Simwinga 2013 10
    • Hypothesis • The word hypothesis comes from the Greek hypothesis meaning ground work, foundation, supposition. • Hypothesis is a guess, an assumption, an explanation, an informed judgment or an inference that is professionally adopted to explain facts or conditions or to guide one on how to attack the problem • It is helps in determining the investigation methods to be used. Simwinga 2013 11
    • Types Of Research Hypotheses • Alternative Hypothesis: When a hypothesis is stated in a positive form, it is termed as an alternative hypothesis. It is written in a directional statement indicating the kind of relationship anticipated. Examples: 1. Public universities are more popular than private universities. 2. Public universities offer better courses than private universities Simwinga 2013 12
    • Types Of Research Hypothesis • Null hypothesis defined as a negative form of the hypothesis, it is a statement that the phenomenon has occurred because of chance. The research study will determine if the null hypothesis is rejected or accepted. The standard use of language in null hypothesis is there is no relationship between …..and…….Examples 1. There is no relationship between computer literacy and academic achievements of Utengule Theological College. Simwinga 2013 13
    • Relationship Among Hypotheses, Objectives And Research Questions • Research Hypotheses differ from research questions in that hypotheses indicate the questions in a testable form and predict the nature of the answer(more specific and focused). • A clear research question is readily transformed into a hypotheses, by casting it in the form of declarative statements that can be tested, so as to show it to be either true or false. Simwinga 2013 14
    • Example 1. • Objective: To determine if girls and boys differ in their professional career after passing out from college. • Research Question: Do boys and girls differ in their professional careers after passing out from college? • Hypothesis: Boys and girls do not differ in their professional careers after passing out from college or There is no significant difference between boys and girls as regards professional careers after passing out from college. Simwinga 2013 15
    • Problems Of Research i. Shortage of capital. ii. Language barrier. iii. Lack of peace and tranquility eg; areas which have civil wars. iv. Poor transport and communication eg; roads. v. Ignorance and poor traditional beliefs. vi. diseases in some areas are vested in epidemic diseases like cholera and meningitis. vii. Geographical land configuration such as areas with thick forests, steep slope, remoteness and swampy. Simwinga 2013 16
    • Research Variables • Research problem are formulated with a set of concepts. Concepts are abstractions representing empirical phenomena. In order to move from the conceptual to the empirical level, concepts are converted into variables. • A variable is an empirical property that take two or more values. If a property can be changed in value or kind, it can be regarded as a variable. • Variable as a discrete phenomenon that can be measured in two or more categories. It is a symbol to which we assign numerical values. Example: social class is the variable because it can be differentiated by at least five distinct values, i.e.. Low, lower, middle, upper middle, and upper. Simwinga 2013 17
    • Types of Variables There are so many variables but in research two or three types are used for study. 1. Independent Variables. This is variable are treated in a study in order to see what effect differences in them will have on the variables proposed as being dependent on them. Synonyms of Independent Variables: Cause, Input, predisposing factor, risk factors, characteristic, attributes, determinants, influence, effect/outcomes Simwinga 2013 18
    • Types Of Variables 2.Dependant variables. This is variable is or variable predicted to….. Example: In education the dependent variable is the achievement or learning and the independent is the method of teaching. Synonyms of Dependent Variables: Effect, outcome, consequence, result, condition, disease Simwinga 2013 19
    • Independent VS Dependant Variables  The variable which the researcher wish to explain is regarded as the dependent variable.  The variable expected to explain change in the dependent variable is referred to as the independent variable.  The independent variable is the explanatory variable; it is presumed cause of the changes in the values of the independent variable.  The dependent variable is the expected outcome of the independent variable.  Dependent variables are also called as criterion variables; and independent variables predictor variables. Simwinga 2013 20
    • Importance Of Research i. It is used to provide an accurate solutions to social problems. ii. It shows the scientific approach to geographical problems. iii. It provide practical knowledge to the students through selecting geographical data from the field. iv. It identify relationship between geographical phenomena in .eg; relationship between man and his environment. v. It provide the policy maker with accurate information about the subject matter they are going to discuss and therefore enable to make informed judgment on the subjects. Simwinga 2013 21
    • Types Of Research • 1.Pure/Fundamental Research • This type of research is mainly concerned with the formulation of theories. It concerned with some natural phenomena • 2.Qualitative Research • Is concerned with qualitative phenomena relating to quality or kind e.g. When we are interested to investigate the reasons for human behavior such as Why people think to do certain thing • 3.Quantitative Research • Is based on measurement of quantity or amount or deals with numerical form. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity Simwinga 2013 22
    • Stage Of Research • There are specific stages to be followed in organization of field work/research these are:A. Problem identification B. Hypothesis formation C. Literature review D. Collection of data E. Data analysis F. Data reading and presentation G. Testing the hypothesis whether is true or false H. Further generalization if true I. Report writing Simwinga 2013 23
    • B. Identification Of Problem • A problem is a question or ideas of interest to you which ought to be data collection. In taking research of an area you have to know more thing about the nature of the problem how serious and wide. The following are the source of problem identification. These are  Personal experience.  Literature review.  From the overview or review. Simwinga 2013 24
    • Defining A Problem • A proble m is a ga p be twe e n a ctua l pe rforma nce a nd pe rforma nce a ccording to s ta nda rds a nd guide line s Simwinga 2013 25
    • A Good Problem Statement • Cle a r, pre cis e a nd s pe cific • It will a ns we r the following que s tions – who, wha t, whe re , how a nd how big Simwinga 2013 26
    • Good Problem Statements Exa mple 1 Only ha lf of the pa tie nts dia gnos e d a s ha ving TB a re couns e le d for HIV te s ting in Mbe ya Re giona l Hos pita l Simwinga 2013 27
    • Check Quality Of The Statements • • • • Who? P a tie nts dia gnos e d a s ha ving TB Wha t? Couns e ling for HIV te s ting Whe re ? Mbe ya Re giona l Hos pita l How? It is known tha t ½ of pa tie nts with TB a ls o ha ve HIV infe ction. We a re mis s ing the cha nce to tre a t both which brings be tte r re s ults • How big? Ha lf of the pa tie nts dia gnos e d a s ha ving TB Simwinga 2013 28
    • Are The Following Good Problem Statements? (Give Reasons1minute) 1. Mos t of pa tie nts le a ve Vwa wa Dis trict Hos pita l OP D pha rma cy without cle a r ins tructions on how to us e the ir me dica tions 2. The re is a ve ry s e ve re s horta ge of s kille d s ta ff in the hos pita l Simwinga 2013 29
    • Types Of Hypothesis • There are two major types of research hypothesis. There are;  Null hypothesis. It is the one that is started in negation. Eg; if indicate no relationship between variable, boarding and day scholars.  Alienation hypothesis It is started indicates the an actual expectation or relationship. Eg; there is difference in academic performance in science between student boarding and day scholars. Simwinga 2013 30
    • C. Literature Review • Refers to the system identification and on analysis of documents containing related to your problem. This procedure left required a reach to read various books, magazine, journals and news paper. Simwinga 2013 31
    • Importance Of Literature Review i. To enable researches to determine what has been related to the present data. ii. They enable a researcher to avoid unnecessary repetition of what has already done. iii. To enable the researcher to redefine the research problem. iv. To enable the researcher to select an adequate sample. Simwinga 2013 32
    • D. Data Collection • Data collection is an action of railway new information that enables the researcher to reveal new thing. Simwinga 2013 33
    • Source Of Data There are two sources of data that can be collected namely: a. Primary source of data. The original data collected from the field through observation question and interview etc. b. Secondary source of data. These are data obtained from other people findings can be obtained from various record includes textbooks, journals, magazine etc. Simwinga 2013 34
    • Techniques Of Research • Research tools: These are method or ways used to collect data in the field. There are many methods which are used to collect data. The main ones are: A.Observation method B. Interview method C. Questionnaire discussion D.Focus group discussion E. measurement of sampling Simwinga 2013 35
    • A.Observation Method • This is the method in which a person uses his or her eyes to take the phenomena and record what is seen in some geographical phenomena are appreciated when they are actual untested eg; traffic activities. Simwinga 2013 36
    • Advantages Of Observation Methods i. The method is reliable and appropriate since data are obtained first hand. ii. It series as one does not needed to look elsewhere. iii. It help to develop the skills eg; observation recordings. iv. The method help the researcher to store in memory data. Simwinga 2013 37
    • Disadvantages Of Observation Method i. The data are based on personal observation. ii. The method is costly. iii. Some geographical phenomena are not easily obtained. Simwinga 2013 38
    • Types Of Observation There are two types of observation. These are: 1.Participants observation. 2.Non-participants observation. Simwinga 2013 39
    • 1. Participants Observation • It’s also collect direct observation. In this method the researcher becomes a part and parcel of group of people leads observation. The participant observer comments himself to a group of people for a given time such as several, hours, days, weeks or month. Simwinga 2013 40
    • Disadvantages Of Participants Observation i. Information gathered may be incomplete because you cannot ask many questions in deep. ii. It is costly in form of time and money. iii. It is very risk especially when you're are observing people doing something illegal. iv. One may be used and not record the observation correctly. Simwinga 2013 41
    • 2.Non- Participants Observation • A researcher observe behavior activities of the group with our being parts the group he/she is studying he sits when or they may be seen by participants. Simwinga 2013 42
    • Advantages Of Non- Participants Observation i. The researcher is not affected economically with the social situation of the group. ii. Member observed are free to discuss under presence at outside. Simwinga 2013 43
    • Disadvantages Of Non- Participants Observation i. Does not capture the natural content of social group. ii. The method is somehow a problem because you cannot get full information to be observed. Simwinga 2013 44
    • B. Interview Method • Is the verbal interaction between an interview and an interviewer designed to list the new opinions or feeling they have on their own. OR • Is the collection of data by asking questions face to face and recording data. Simwinga 2013 45
    • Advantages Of Interview Method i. ii. iii. iv. v. It enable the researcher to acquire the required data information quality. It permit the researcher to sure that the respondents to have understood the question. It is widely used to be literate and illiterate people. It is possible to get additional information given be through further discussion. Information given can easily be checked it’s direct based of body language. Simwinga 2013 46
    • Disadvantages Of Interview Method i. It is time consuming. ii. It is not reliable in issues happened longtime ago. iii. The respondents tend to be based. iv. It is costly. v. It require interview. Simwinga 2013 47
    • Types Of Interview • There are two types of interview. These are: a) Structured interview. b) Unstructured interview. c) Questionnaires interview. Simwinga 2013 48
    • A. Structured Interview • The researcher is having prepared questions which he/she each respondents in the same order. Simwinga 2013 49
    • B. Unstructured Interview • In this type of the research provide guidance to the respondents in term of possible answers. Simwinga 2013 50
    • C. Questionnaires Interview • Refers to the set of questions established by the researcher in order to gather information from the respondents. It consists of question related to topics and they are used to obtain the data required. Simwinga 2013 51
    • Advantages Of Questionnaires Interview i. Data can be collected of first hard ii. A researcher gets many information from many respondents iii. It saves time a dose ended question used Simwinga 2013 52
    • Disadvantage Of Questionnaires Interview I. It’s used in place with literally rate hence it leaves out illiterate. II. Response rate is low because respondents of not like to answer questions. III. Questions may not be understood thus it can lead to wrong answer. IV. It is difficult to get respond willing to intercept their daily routine. Simwinga 2013 53
    • Types Of Questionnaires Interview • There are two types of questionnaires interview. There are: a. Structured (closed ended) questionnaires. b.Unstructured (open ended) questionnaires. Simwinga 2013 54
    • A. Structured (Closed Ended) Questionnaires. • Refers to the questionnaires which are arranged by the list of all possible alternation from which the respondents of the answer the best describe the situation.  E.g.; what type of housed do you line in a) Bungalow b) Flat and other. Simwinga 2013 55
    • B. Unstructured (Open Ended) Questionnaires • Refer the question which give respondents complete freedom of responses. These questions gives freedom on individual to respond in his/her own words e.g.: i. Why there is poor agriculture production in local areas. ii. What crops do you grow. Simwinga 2013 56
    • D. Focus Group Discussion • Is a research method which involve intensive discussion on particular issue normally done in small group of people of 5-7 people Simwinga 2013 57
    • E. Sampling • Is the method of data collection which involves these election of small of the repetitive individuals from the population  Sample is the position of the population which is selected for observation so it is the subject of population selected to represent the whole population Simwinga 2013 58
    • Types Of Sampling/Sample Technique       Random sampling Systematic sampling Stratified sampling Purposive sampling Line sampling Quote sampling Simwinga 2013 59
    • Random Sampling  . Random sampling-This is a types of sampling where by the items have equal chance of being considered. The choice of individual to be included in a sample is life pure chance e.g. You pick the names from the basket Simwinga 2013 60
    • Systematic Sampling • Systematic sampling-Is the sampling which involve drawing a sample by using a certain regular manner of systematically E.g. You select sample in systematic way after two items the third are taken into sample Simwinga 2013 61
    • Stratified Sampling  Stratified sampling-Is the type of sampling which improve identification of group of people where population is in groups E.g. Age, sex, tribe Simwinga 2013 62
    • Other  Purposive sampling-Are researchers know subject he/she clashed It.  Line sampling-This is a sampling in which the selection is made specific line of population.  Quote sampling-Is a sampling where by the items are selected by equal chance. Simwinga 2013 63
    • F. Measurements • Is the data collection methods through measurement which can be done using very sample equipment are done carefully the results can be used to test hypothesis Simwinga 2013 64
    • Problems Encountered When Collecting Data i. Language barriers-Someone may not understand the languages spoken by respondents. This create problem in conducting interview. In such case interpreter will be required ii. Public transport to various parts of the site-Such as districts or division may insufficient researcher may take long time to reach the respondents. iii. The climate can be harsh. it is difficult to collect data in such condition. iv. Many geographical areas are prone to diseases such as malaria, typhoid, cholera and meningitis. v. Lack of adequate source of data. vi. When instruments are not well presented its management becomes difficult resulting to low response rate. vii. Some people are very suspicious of strangers talking of them. viii. Lack of cooperation from the respondents. Simwinga 2013 65
    • Research Proposal • Is a systematic plan which bring together in organized from the primary planning that will be needed to accomplish the purpose or objective of research. Simwinga 2013 66
    • Components Of Research Proposal i. Title ii. Problem identification iii. Research hypothesis iv. Literature review v. Work plan/time schedule vi. Budget chart vii. Reference Simwinga 2013 67
    • Function Of Research Proposal i. It is a guideline to a researcher which show how he/she will proceed with the research project. ii. It shows the boundary on how a research should end. iii. It provide the means by the which the study can be later evaluated. Simwinga 2013 68
    • E. Data Analysis • Involves the preparation for complication of field work report. Revise the rough drafts by correcting fit for publishing. Simwinga 2013 69
    • F. Data Recording And Presentation • Students should now write up the findings in a concise manner and illustrates the work with graphs, drawings and histograms. Simwinga 2013 70
    • G. Testing The Hypothesis • The original data is then tested against the result of the research. If the fact supports the hypothesis appears wrong the student goes back to the problem and tries to fresh. Simwinga 2013 71
    • H. Further Generalization If True • It to say the facts are true in most cases and ignoring the minor details it goes on day after day. Simwinga 2013 72
    • J. Reporting(conclusion) • Communicate your findings to a researcher or the public. Simwinga 2013 73
    • Other Research Tools • A field study • refers to the learning on activity carried on by individual or by a group of people outside the classroom . • Field work • is the science of selecting observing measuring and reporting the geographical phenomena in specific area. • Class tour • involves journey from the school to given place and returning back to school it involves teachers and students e.g. a visit to factory or industry or national park. • Field research • is the field work approach which deals with finding the problem and solving them daily life. Simwinga 2013 74
    • Seminar Questions • What is research? • Why interview method is more applicable methods than others? • What is sampling and define type of sampling? • What is characteristics of good research? • What is stages should follow to identify a good research title? Simwinga 2013 75
    • Thank you for your attention Simwinga 2013 76