Psychology and Principles of Change Training (Kanaidi, SE., M.Si)
Click to edit Master title style CHANGE MANAGEMENT Training Psychology and Principles o CHANGEBandung, 28 - 30 Oktober 2009 By : Kanaidi, SE., M.Si
Click to edit Master title stylePSYCHOLOGY OF CHANGE
Click to edit Master title styleA Soccer Match Without Rules
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WORKING ON THE GAP Click to edit Master title style db y OD CI better ENBTg te , crea MIodMThe i Ga p T CO Mw m el: PRESENT Rain b o upper FUTUREPAST “GAP” RES Any IS syst TAN lower be h em res CE will armf ists ul (W any oute chang rs & e Frem that it erey believ harmfull ) e s The DELTA GAP’s Theory of CHANGE Ikaputra et.al, Unistaff summer school Unisattt Training, 2005
Click Psychology of Change to edit Master title style We experience changes physically, mentally and emotionally Usually it is subtle and slow but it can be sudden – disrupting our work, dislocating our relationships or ruining our leisure time. Sometimes we can discern a pattern, sometimes not Sometimes we can explain it, sometimes not Changes involves the familiar; sometimes the unknown. Many of us prefer what is familiar Rather than seek change, we continue to live with our old familiar feelings (patterns and routines)
Click Psychology of Change to edit Master title style Like ly re actions from the individual facing with change Acce ptan ce Acceptance Adopt Evaluate Schock Denial changes impactAnnouncement Anger Confusion Testing Cooperation Enthousiasm/ Deception Anno unc eme nt imple men tati on
Click Psychology of Change to edit Master title style Likely Reaction (OF GROUPS OF PEOPLE) TO CHANGE Yes Have PRO-ACTIVE CHANGE RESISTORS necessary AGENTSattitude and BYSTANDERS skills for proposed DEFENSIVE CHANGE change AGENTS RESISTORS IN No WAITING Actively Neutral Strongly Against Supportive Commitment to Proposed Change
Click Psychology of Change to edit Master title style Likely Phases in an Organsation Under Change THE CHANGE HOUSE THE THE CONTENTMENT RENEWAL THE SUN ROOM ROOMLOUNGE THE THE DENIAL CONFUSION WRONG ROOM ROOM DIRECTION DOOR DUNGEON PARALYSIS OF DENIAL PIT
Click Psychology of Change to edit Master title style CHANGE HOUSE : ROOM OF DENIAL Say Act“It’s nothing to do with us” Defend the past“It won’t happen here” Justify the present“Nobody else can do what Blame everybody else we do” Miss the message“If it isn’t broke don’t fix it”
Click Psychology of Change to edit Master title style CHANGE HOUSE : ROOM OF CONFUSION Say Act“We can’t do anything, it’s all been Frustration decided” Withdrawal“I’m looking for another job” Blaming management“The management don’t care, they’ll just move on” No sense of direction“What can we do?”
Click Psychology of Change to edit Master title style CHANGE HOUSE : ROOM OF RENEWAL Say Act“We have to keep improving - Understand and work to targets work smarter not harder” Accept responsibility“We’re all part of the same team” Know what we are trying to achieve“Yes, we can do it” Seek continuous improvement
Click Psychology of Change to edit Master title styleWHY CHANGE?: Theories of change• Economic theory of change: competition, markets and innovation• Psychological theory of change: fullfilment of individual needs• Sociological theory of change: powerful groups• Cultural theory of change: values, myths, beliefs• Biology theory of change: survival of the species / planet• System theory of change: crisis necessitates change• Political theory of change: opportunities for new politics
DRIVERS TO Master title style Click to edit CHANGE Acts of Nature/God New Regulations New Technology Personal fate/Revised healthbudgeting Time for a Change New LeadershipCompetition /Competing programs Changing Values / Needs Institutional Economics reform Growth/Decline
DRIVERS TO CHANGEClick to edit Master title style IN THE MOBILITY COVENANT CASE IN FLANDERS • New minister • Competing political program from Green Party • Changing values and needs re sustainable mobility • Personal health : high number of fatalities in road accidents • Cooperation and partnerships • Institutional reform
DRIVERS TO CHANGE INClick toTHE KOSOVO CASE style edit Master title • Post war recovery • Economic development • Status for Kosovo • Self -government • European Vocation
Click to edit Master title style TRIGGERS FOR CHANGE Create a Sense of Produce more Urgency for change Leadership change and Coalition of Partners Create a VisionEvaluate, and Strategyconsolidate Lead andand communicateinstitutionalize new changeapproaches Empower staff and stakeholders to act on the vision Implement new Ensure Resources for instruments short term projects and demonstrative and wins projects
TRIGGERS FOR CHANGEClick to edit Master title style IN THE MOBILITY COVENANT CASE IN FLANDERS • New regulation and procedures: the mobility covenant • Ensured resources for demonstrative projects • Continued committed leadership and strong coalition of partners • Taskforce to steer and evaluate progress • Consolidation and institutionalisation of system • Affected new programs
TRIGGERS FOR CHANGEClick to edit KOSOVO CASE style IN THE Master title • European Partnership Action Plan • Priority Actions • Capacity Building projects • Additional Resources • Monitoring Progress
ClickTRIGGERS FOR CHANGE to edit Master title style– Trigger 1: Create a common sense of urgency • Identify and discuss anticipation to potential crises or looming crises, or major opportunities for change on objective and on emotional grounds • Examine market and competitive realities • Formulate the “why to change” • Refer to leading and peer scientific research / models / best practice
ClickTRIGGERS FOR CHANGE to edit Master title style– Trigger 2: Form a Powerful Leadership & Coalition of Partners • Assemble a group with enough and potential power to lead the change effort • Encourage the group to work together as a team • Seek strategic partners outside your organisation
ClickTRIGGERS FOR CHANGE to edit Master title style– Trigger 3: Create a Vision and Strategy • Create a vision to help direct the change effort • Develop strategies for achieving that vision • Define demonstrative actions
ClickTRIGGERS FOR CHANGE to edit Master title style– Trigger 4 : Empower staff and stakeholders to act on the Vision • Change systems, structures that seriously undermine the vision • Encourage risk taking and non-traditional ideas, activities and actions • Get rid of obstacles and routines that adverse change • Facilitate new behaviours by the example of the guiding coalition and example
ClickTRIGGERS FOR CHANGE to edit Master title style– Trigger 5 : Ensure resources for Short-term Projects and Wins • Ensure budgets and human resources for demonstrative and innovative projects that have proven to be successful in other countries • Ensure budgets and committed staff to initiate risk projects • Hire and promote employees who can implement the vision.(in case you don’t find them within your organisation, hire expertise for change from outside)
Click TRIGGERS FOR CHANGE to edit Master title style– Trigger 6 : Implement Demonstrative Projects and Instruments • Plan for publicly visible improvements • Facilitate and create those improvements and projects • Encourage demonstrative projects • Recognise and reward employees involved in the improvements
ClickTRIGGERS FOR CHANGE to edit Master title style– Trigger 7 : Evaluate, Consolidate and Institutionalise New Approaches, Produce More Change • Use your increased credibility to change policies, structures and routines that don’t fit the vision • Reinvigorate the process with new projects, themes and change agents • Articulate the connections between the new behaviours and corporate success
Click TRIGGERS FOR CHANGE to edit Master title style – Trigger 8 : Lead and communicate the change process • Use every vehicle possible to communicate the new vision Have Yes PRO-ACTIVE CHANGE and strategies necessaryattitude and RESISTORS AGENTS • Your change agents and change skills for proposed BYSTANDERS CHANGE agents in waiting are the change DEFENSIVE RESISTORS AGENTS IN people you rely on • Mixed approach to the No WAITING Actively Neutral Strongly hesitating and the pro-active resistors. Against Supportive Commitment to Proposed Change • The group of the defensive resistors should not be targeted
Click to edit Master title style CHANGE MANAGEMENT TrainingBandung, 28 - 30 Oktober 2009 By : Kanaidi, SE., M.Si
Click to edit Master title style 7 Principles of Change
7 Principles of ChangeClick to edit Master title style 7
Principle 1 : Click to Senders and receivers edit Master title styleEvery change can be viewed from the perspective of a sender and a receiver.• A sender is anyone providing information about the change.• A receiver is anyone being given information about the change. Senders and receivers are often not in a dialogue at the onset of a change. They often talk right past one another. What a sender says and what a receiver hears are often two very different messages.
Principle 2 : Resistance Click to edit Master title and comfort styleThe natural and normal reaction to change isresistance.Every individual has a threshold for how much changethey can absorb based on:• Their personal history• Current events in their life• Current changes at work• How much other change is going onMoreover, some employees will resist the change no matter what.
Principle 3 :Click to edit Master title style Authority for change• The number one success factor cited for implementing change is visible and active executive sponsorship• Moreover, the credibility of the leading sponsor for change will be judged by employees.• As a change leader, you need to be aware that effective sponsorship at the right level may determine success or failure of the project.
Click to edit4Master systems Principle : Value title styleA new culture evolved in many of todays businesses. Employees:• Take ownership and responsibility for their work• Have pride in workmanship and look to improve their work processes• Feel empowered to make decisions that improve their product and the level of customer service• Focus on results
Principle 5 : IncrementalClick to edit radical change style versus Master titleChange management activities should be scaled based on the type and size of the change.Change can be broken down into two types :• Incremental change• Radical change
Principle 6 : The right answer Click to edit Masternot enough is title style• In fact, a good solution design does not mean that implementation will always be successful or that you will actually realize the business results you expect.• Effective change management programs will engage employees early in the process, focus on results and effectively integrate employee feedback into the business solution.
Click to edit :Master title style Principle 7 Change is a processThe ADKAR change management model (The Perfect Change), characterizes the process for individual change in five key steps:• Awareness of the need to change• Desire to participate and support the change• Knowledge about how to change• Ability to implement new skills and behaviors• Reinforcement to keep the change in placeThe concept of change as a process generates multiple lessons for change management teams. Managers must avoid treating changes as a single meeting or announcement.