HR Planning & Selecting (Kanaidi Ken)


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Kanaidi, SE., M.Si (Penulis “Buku PERIKLANAN”, Service Quality and Motivation Trainer, Dosen Marketing Management, Praktisi Bisnis)
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HR Planning & Selecting (Kanaidi Ken)

  2. 2. Overview• How HRP Relates to Organizational Planning• Linking HRP to the Business Strategy• Steps in HRP Process• Tools and Techniques of HRP• Time Frame of HRP• Common Pitfalls in HRP
  3. 3. HRP Defined• Human Resource Planning is the process of systematically reviewing HR requirements to ensure that the required number of employees, with the required skills, are available when needed
  4. 4. Relationship to Organizational Planning• Derived from long-term operational plans of organization• Seeks to identify various HR factors critical to success of organization• Should provide for – Clear statement of organization’s mission – Commitment of staff members to mission – Explicit statement of assumptions – Plan of action
  5. 5. HRP Link to the Business Strategy Be familiar with the business strategy. Ensure that all traditional human resource programs are satisfying the needs of senior and functional management. Identify the human resource implications of the organization’s business strategy. Source: G. Christopher Wood, “Planning for People” (letters to the editor), Harvard Business Review, November-December 1985, p. 230; David R. Leigh, Business Planning Is People Planning,” Personal Journal, May 1984, pp. 44-54.
  6. 6. Linking HRP to the Business Strategy• Identify those human resource issues that may affect business objectives, and notify the appropriate functional managers.• Convert business objectives into human resource objectives that can provide the foundation for a strategic human resource plan.• Review the strategic-planning process to identify new opportunities to involve human resource personnel.
  7. 7. Human Capital Management Process
  8. 8. RECRUITMENTDiawali dengan :• Penetapan Kebutuhan & Kreteria SDM, Job analysis, job description and job Specification (job design).Dilanjutkan dengan Proses RECRUITMENT:
  9. 9. Steps in the HR Planning Process|
  10. 10. Cascade Approach to Setting Objectives |Source: Redrawn fromAnthony P. Raia,Managing byObjectives (Glenview,IL: Scott Foresman andCompany, 1974), p. 30.Reprinted bypermission of theauthor.
  11. 11. HR Planning ProcessDiawali dengan :• Penetapan Kebutuhan & Kreteria SDM, Job analysis, job description and job Specification (job design).Dilanjutkan dengan Proses Selection (RECRUITMENT)
  12. 12. Methods Used to Forecast HR Planning Needs• Managerial estimates• Delphi techniques• Scenario analysis• Mathematical methods• Judgmental forecasts• Benchmarking
  13. 13. Some Statistical Modeling Techniques Used to Forecast HR Needs Technique Description 1.Time Past staffing levels (instead of workload indicators) are used to project series future human resource requirements. Past staffing levels are examined analysis to isolate seasonal and cyclical variations, long-term trends, and random movements. Long-term trends are then extrapolated or projected using a moving average, exponential smoothing, or regression technique. 2.Personnel Past personnel data are examined to determine historical relationships ratios among the number of employees in various jobs or job categories. Regression analysis or productivity ratios are then used to project either total or key group human resource requirements, and personnel ratios are used to allocate total requirements to various job categories or to estimate requirements for non-key groups.Source: Lee Dyer, “Human Resource Planning,” in Personnel Management, ed.Kendrith M. Rowland and Gerald R. Ferris (Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1982), p. 59.
  14. 14. Some Statistical Modeling Techniques Used to Forecast HR Needs (Continued) Technique Description 3. Productivity Historical data are used to examine past levels of a productivity index, ratios Workload P= Number of people Where constant, or systematic, relationships are found, human resource requirements can be computed by dividing predicted workloads by P. 4. Regression Past levels of various workload indicators, such as sales, production analysis levels, and value added, are examined for statistical relationships with staffing levels. Where sufficiently strong relationships are found, a regression (or multiple regression) model is derived. Forecasted levels of the related indicator(s) are entered into the resulting model and used to calculate the associated level of human resource requirements.Source: Lee Dyer, “Human Resource Planning,” in Personnel Management, ed.Kendrith M. Rowland and Gerald R. Ferris (Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1982), p. 59.
  15. 15. Organizational & HR Planning|
  16. 16. Some Tools to Aid HRP• Skills and management inventories• Commitment manpower planning (CMP)• Ratios and use of vitality index (OVI) analysis
  17. 17. Skills Inventory Form Used by PPG Industries|
  18. 18. Simple Org. Replacement Chart |Source: D. L.Chicci, “Four Stepsto anOrganization/Human Resource Plan,”Personnel Journal,June 1979, p. 392.
  19. 19. Factors Affecting the Time Frame of HRPForecast Short Range Intermediate Range Long Range Factor (0-2 Years) (2-5 Years) (Beyond 5 Years) Authorized Operating needs from In some organizations, the employment including budgets and plans same as “intermediate”; inDemand growth, changes, and others, an increased turnover awareness of changes in environment and technology— essentially judgmental. Employee consensus Human resource vacancies Management expectationsSupply less expected losses expected from individual of changing characteristics plus expected promotability data derived of employees and future promotions from from development plans available human resources. subordinate groups Numbers and kinds of Numbers, kinds, dates and Management expectationsNet needs employees needed levels of needs of future conditions affecting immediate decisions. Source: Adapted from J. Walker, “Forecasting Manpower Needs,” in Manpower Planning and Programming, ed. E. H. Burack and J. W. Walker (Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1972), p. 94.
  20. 20. Common Pitfalls in HRP• Lack of top management support• Size of initial effort• Coordination with other management and HR functions• Integration with organizational Plans
  21. 21. Common Pitfalls in HRP, cont• Quantitative vs Qualitative approaches• Noninvolvement of operating managers• The techniques trap
  22. 22. SelectingBy : Employees Kanaidi, SE., M.Si
  23. 23. Overview• The Selection Process• Validation of Selection Procedures• Reliability• Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures 7-23
  24. 24. The Whole Process of RECRUITMENT• Put out job advert• Filter application forms• Interviewing• Short listing• Selecting• Training or Job Orientation
  25. 25. Selection• Choosing from among available applicants those individuals who are most likely to successfully perform a job.• Necessary prerequisites: – Job Analyses – HRP – Recruitment 7-25
  26. 26. Selection Process Factors– Organization size– Types of jobs to be filled– Number of people to be hired– External pressures from EEOC or union 7-26
  27. 27. Multiple Cutoff Technique in Selection– Applicant judged through a series of screening devices: • Application forms • Interviews • Tests– Applicant eliminated from consideration if unsatisfactory in any of these devices.– All screening devices must be validated if they produce adverse or disparate impact. 7-27
  28. 28. Steps in the Selection Process 7-28
  29. 29. Employment Application Form• First step in most selection procedures: – Provides basic information for use in later steps of selection process. – Can be used to screen out unqualified applicants. 7-29
  30. 30. Employment Application Form• EEOC Requirements – Questions to eliminate from pre-employment inquiries: • Race, color, national origin, and religion • Arrest and conviction records • Credit rating 7-30
  31. 31. Application Processing• Normally HR reviews application Information: – Determines applicant’s qualifications in relation to job requirements.• Weighted application forms: – Assigns different weights to questions. – Determine which responses given more frequently by applicants who prove to be higher performers. – Subject to validity requirements. 7-31
  32. 32. Accuracy of Application Information– Full reliance prudent only with verification.– Information can be verified through reference checking.– Require applicant to sign validity statement.– Employers view falsification of application form as a serious offense; if detected, normally leads to discharge. 7-32
  33. 33. Application Flow Record• Form to obtain information from job applicant that could be used to illegally discriminate: – Applicant voluntarily completes this record. – Information from applicant flow record can be used: • To provide statistical reports to EEOC or OFCCP. • In defense against charges of discrimination concerning employer’s recruitment and selection activities. 7-33
  34. 34. Preliminary Interview– Determine if applicant’s skills, abilities, and job preferences match available jobs.– Explain to applicant available jobs and their requirements.– Answer questions applicant has about available jobs or the employer.– Usually conducted after applicant has completed application form. 7-34
  35. 35. Preliminary Interview• Generally a brief, exploratory interview conducted by HR specialist.• Screens out unqualified or uninterested applicants.• Interview questions: – Must be job related. – Subject to demonstrations of validity. 7-35
  36. 36. Formal Testing• Supreme Court: any procedure used to make selection decisions is a TEST.• If test is used in selection, and selection process has adverse impact on legally protected groups, EEOC requires employer: – Establish validity and reliability using procedures outlined in “Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures”• Many commercial tests have undergone validation and reliability studies. A useful source is ‘Mental Measurements Yearbook’ 7-36
  37. 37. Aptitude Tests• Measuring capacity or ability to learn and perform a job.• Aptitude tests include: – Verbal ability – Numerical ability – Perceptual speed – Spatial ability – Reasoning ability 7-37
  38. 38. Aptitude Tests• Prior to passage of EEO legislation, general intelligence test was most frequently used aptitude test.• Largely abandoned now, since EEOC does not favor them . Intelligence tests often contain questions not related to successful job performance. 7-38
  39. 39. Psychomotor Tests• Measure strength, dexterity, coordination.• Some psychomotor abilities that can be tested: – Finger dexterity – Manual dexterity – Wrist-finger speed – Speed of arm movement• These abilities may be tested for hiring people to fill assembly-line jobs. 7-39
  40. 40. Job Knowledge Tests• Measure job-related knowledge possessed by a job applicant – Tests can be either written or oral – Applicant must answer questions that differentiate experienced and skilled workers from less experienced and less skilled workers 7-40
  41. 41. Job Knowledge and Proficiency Tests• Job Knowledge test – Measures the job-related knowledge possessed by a job applicant.• Proficiency test – Measures how well applicant can do a sample of work. – Example: Word processing test given to applicants for a secretarial job. 7-41
  42. 42. Interest Tests• Designed to determine how a person’s interests compare with interests of successful people in a specific job. – Indicates occupations in which the person is most interested• Primary challenge: responses may not be sincere. 7-42
  43. 43. Personality Tests• Generally characterized by: – Questionable validity – Low reliability• Presently of limited use for selection purposes.• Examples: – Rorschach Inkblot Test – Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) 7-43
  44. 44. Polygraph Test (Lie Detector)• As subject answers questions, records physical changes in the body: – Blood Pressure, Respiration, Perspiration• Polygraph operator makes a judgment as to whether subject’s response was truthful.• Cause-and-effect assumptions: – Lying causes fear and guilt. – Fear and guilt cause stress. – Stress causes physiological changes. 7-44
  45. 45. Polygraph Test• Polygraph machine does not detect lies; it detects only physiological changes.• The Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988, with a few exceptions: – Prohibits employers from conducting polygraph examinations on all job applicants and most employees. – Prevents use of voice stress analyzers and similar devices that attempt to measure honesty. – Does not prohibit paper-and-pencil tests and chemical testing, such as for drugs or AIDS. 7-45
  46. 46. Exceptions: Polygraph Allowed– All local, state, and federal government employees; individual state laws may restrict the use of polygraphs.– Industries with national defense or security contracts.– Businesses with nuclear power–related contracts with the Department of Energy.– Businesses and consultants with access to highly classified information. 7-46
  47. 47. Exceptions: Polygraph AllowedPrivate businesses are allowed to usepolygraphs under certain conditions:– Hiring private security personnel.– Hiring persons with access to drugs.– During investigations of economic injury or loss by employer. 7-47
  48. 48. Graphology (Handwriting Analysis)• Analyzing handwriting to assess person’s personality, performance, emotional problems, and honesty.• Graphology is dependent on training and expertise of graphologist doing the analysis.• Graphology has limited acceptance by organizations in United States.• Acceptance of graphology is increasing, since Employee Polygraph Protection Act does not prohibit its use. 7-48
  49. 49. Drug Testing• Common practice is to test current employees when job performance suggests substance abuse and all new potential employees.• Urine sampling: common form of drug testing.• Some experts believe hair testing is more accurate than urine sampling. 7-49
  50. 50. AIDS Testing• People with AIDS and people who test positive for HIV antibodies are protected in their jobs by Vocational Rehabilitation Act and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). – Voluntary workplace testing is not only permitted but is encouraged by some major health organizations.• Laws permit HIV-antibody testing in certain defined circumstances. 7-50
  51. 51. Genetic Testing• Uses gene coding to identify individuals with gene structures that may make them susceptible to illness.• Concerns about legitimate uses of genetic information and what happens to information: – Who will have access to the information? – What liability does employer have for not using genetic testing if a valid test and a reason for testing exist? 7-51
  52. 52. Second (Follow-Up) Interview– All questions asked during an interview must be job-related.– Employee legislation places limitations on the types of questions that can be asked during an interview. 7-52
  53. 53. Types of Interviews• Structured interview : Predetermined outline of questions based on job analysis. – Advantages: • Provides same type of information on all interviewees. • Systematic coverage of all necessary questions. 7-53
  54. 54. Types of Interviews• Unstructured interview: – No checklist of predetermined questions. – Open-ended questions are used. – Disadvantages; • No systematic coverage of information. • Susceptible to personal biases of interviewer. – Advantage: more relaxed interview atmosphere. 7-54
  55. 55. Types of Interviews• Stress interview: – Interviewer assumes hostile and antagonistic attitude toward interviewee. Purpose is to detect a highly emotional person.• Board or Panel interview – Two or more interviewers conduct one interview.• Group interviews – Several job applicants questioned together in a group discussion.• Panel and group interviews can involve either a structured or an unstructured format. 7-55
  56. 56. Interview Problems• Questionable Validity and Reliability of most.• Easy for interviewer to be favorably or unfavorably impressed with job applicant based on: – Initial Impressions – Halo Effect – Over-Generalizing 7-56
  57. 57. Interview Problems• Other Problems: – Personal Preferences – Prejudices – Biases• Interviewers with biases or prejudices look for behaviors that conform to biases.• Appearance, social status, dress, race, and gender negatively influence many interviews. 7-57
  58. 58. Conducting Effective Interviews• Interviewers should be outgoing and emotionally well-adjusted.• Plan the interview: specify information to be obtained and questions asked.• Interviewer should put applicant at ease.• Interviewer maintains control; primary goal of interview is to gain information for selection decision. 7-58
  59. 59. Conducting Effective Interviews• Interviewer should record information immediately.• Evaluate effectiveness of interview process: – Compare job performance of individuals hired against assessments made during interview. 7-59
  60. 60. Reference Checks• Either before or after second interview.• Personal references: – Limited value. Why?• School references: – May be of limited value for similar reasons.• Past Employment references: – Most often used source; in a position to supply most objective information. 7-60
  61. 61. Reference Checks• Many organizations only answer questions if they are in written form.• Amount and type of information a previous employer is willing to divulge varies.• Verification of information on application form is the least to be verified.• Most employers hesitant to answer questions about previous employees because of threat of defamation lawsuits. 7-61
  62. 62. Physical Examination• Normally required only after a job offer.• Job offer often contingent on individual passing physical examination.• Exam given to determine: – Is applicant physically capable of performing the job? – Eligibility for group life, health, and disability insurance. 7-62
  63. 63. Final Selection Decision• Assumption: More than one qualified person• Value judgment based on information gathered to select most qualified individual.• Chances of successful judgment improve if previous steps performed efficiently.• Responsibility for final selection decision differs within different levels of management in different organizations. 7-63
  64. 64. Final Selection Decision• In many organizations, the HR department: – Handles completion of application forms. – Conducts preliminary interviews, testing, and reference checks. – Arranges for physical exams.• Diagnostic interview and final decision usually left to manager of the hiring department. 7-64
  65. 65. Final Selection Decision• In some organizations, HR department handles all steps in the selection process, including final decision.• In small organizations, owner often makes final choice.• Peer involvement: – Used mainly in selecting upper-level managers and professional employees. – Facilitates acceptance of new employee by work group! 7-65
  66. 66. Final Selection Decision• For selection of managers and supervisors, assessment centers are sometimes used: – Formal procedure to evaluate managerial potential. – Determines developmental needs. – Procedure involves: • Interviews • Tests • Individual and group exercises 7-66
  67. 67. Validation of Selection Procedures• Job Analysis is essential in developing a successful employee selection system: – Job Descriptions and Job Specifications• Job Description – Facilitates determining how successful performance of job will be measured.• Possible criteria of job success: • Performance appraisals • Production data • Personnel data (e.g. absenteeism rates) 7-67
  68. 68. Validation of Selection Procedures• Job Specification – Facilitates identifying factors that predict successful job performance.• Possible Criterion Predictors: • Education • Previous work experience • Test scores • Data from application forms • Previous performance appraisals • Results of employment interviews 7-68
  69. 69. Validation of Selection Procedures• Validity – How accurately a criterion predictor predicts job success.• Reliability – Criterion predictor produces consistent results in repeated measurements. – Criterion predictor (test score) can be reliable without being valid. – It cannot be valid if it is not reliable.• Reliability is necessary, but not sufficient to show validity of a criterion predictor. 7-69
  70. 70. Relationship between Job Analysis and Validity 7-70
  71. 71. Validation of Selection Procedures3 Methods to demonstrate Validity of a criterion predictor: – Criterion-related validity – Content validity – Construct validity 7-71
  72. 72. Criterion-Related Validity• Uses correlation analysis to show relationship between a predictor and criteria of job success: – Correlation Analysis – statistical method to measure relationship between two data sets.• Validity for a predictor indicated by coefficient of correlation (r), ranging from +1 to –1: – Both +1 and – 1 = perfect correlation – Zero = total lack of correlation or validity – Positive correlation – Means two sets of data move in same direction – Negative correlation – Means two sets of data move in opposite directions 7-72
  73. 73. Criterion-Related Validity• Criterion predictor never correlates perfectly with a criterion of job success: – Significant issue in validity – What degree of correlation required between criterion predictor and criterion of job success in order to establish validity? 7-73
  74. 74. Criterion-Related ValidityUniform Guidelines: – No minimum correlation coefficient is applicable to all employment situations. – Correlation coefficients rarely exceed 0.50: • Correlation of 0.40 usually very good. • Correlation of 0.3 or higher is acceptable. • Correlation less than 0.30 not acceptable.• Methods to establish Criterion-Related Validity: Predictive Validity and Concurrent Validity. 7-74
  75. 75. Predictive Validity• Identify a predictor (such as a test): – Administer test to applicant pool. – Hire people without regard to test scores.• At a later date: – Test scores correlated with criteria of job success: Do people with high test scores perform substantially better than those with low test scores?• This method is costly and slow! 7-75
  76. 76. Predictive Validity• To use this method: – Large number of new employees must be hired at the same time without regard to their test scores. – Potentially, an organization may hire both good and bad employees. – For criteria to be predictive, all new employees must receive equivalent orientation and training. 7-76
  77. 77. Predictive Validation Process 7-77
  78. 78. Concurrent Validity• Identify a predictor (such as a test): – Administer test to present employees. – Correlate test scores with present employees’ performance on job.• If acceptable correlation exists, test can be used for selection of future employees. 7-78
  79. 79. Concurrent Validity• Disadvantages: – If racial or sex discrimination was practiced in past, minorities and women will not be adequately represented. – Among present employees in a particular job, poorer performers more likely to have been discharged or quit, and best performers have frequently been promoted. 7-79
  80. 80. Concurrent Validation Process 7-80
  81. 81. Content Validity• Content of a selection procedure or selection instrument (such as a test) is representative of important aspects of job performance: – Useful in situations where number of employees is not large enough to justify use of empirical validation methods.• To use Content validity: – Determine exact performance requirements of a specific job. – Develop selection procedure or selection instrument based on an actual sample of work to be performed. 7-81
  82. 82. Construct Validity• Selection procedure or instrument measures degree to which job candidates have identifiable characteristics determined to be important for successful job performance.• Examples of job-related constructs: – Verbal Ability – Space Visualization – Perceptual Speed 7-82
  83. 83. ReliabilityReproducibility of results with a criterion predictor.• Examples: – A test is reliable if the same person working under the same conditions produces approximately the same test results at different time periods. – A test is not reliable if a person fails on one day but makes an excellent grade taking it again a week later (assuming no learning takes place in the meantime). 7-83
  84. 84. ReliabilityThree methods to demonstrate reliability of acriterion predictor:– Test-Retest– Parallel (or Alternative) Forms– Split Halves 7-84
  85. 85. Reliability: Test-Retest• Administer test to a group of employees and later, usually in 2 to 4 weeks, give the same group the same test: – Correlation analysis determines degree of correlation between two sets of scores. – Higher the correlation coefficient, greater the reliability of test. – Results of correlation can be influenced by whether group members studied during the time between tests. 7-85
  86. 86. Reliability: Parallel (Alternative) Forms• Two separate but similar forms of a test are constructed: – Same group of employees is tested at two different times using alternative forms of the test. – Correlation analysis determines degree of correlation between the two sets of scores. – Higher the correlation coefficient, greater the reliability of test. 7-86
  87. 87. Reliability: Split Halves Simplest and easiest method of determining reliability; compares two halves of a test.– Divide test items purporting to measure the same construct into two sets.– Administer the entire test instrument to a group.– Calculate total scores for each half of the test.– Higher the degree of correlation, greater the reliability 7-87
  88. 88. Uniform Guidelines• Provide framework for determining proper use of tests and other selection procedures.• Employment decisions include: – Hiring, Promotion, Demotion – Membership (e.g., in a labor organization) – Referral and Retention – Licensing and Certification – Selection for training – Transfers 7-88
  89. 89. Uniform Guidelines• Include technical standards and documentation requirements for validation of selection procedures• Selection procedures include decisions on: – Hiring – Promotion – Selection for training programs • Specific guidelines also provided for conducting job analyses 7-89
  90. 90. Adverse (or Disparate) ImpactAdverse Impact: occurs when selection rate for minorities or women is less than 80 percent (four-fifths) of selection rate for the majority group in decisions pertaining to: – Hiring – Promotions – Transfers – Demotions – Any selection decision 7-90
  91. 91. Adverse (or Disparate) Impact– Employment policies and practices having an adverse impact on employment opportunities are illegal unless justified by a demonstration of job relatedness: • Validation that demonstrates relationship between selection procedure and performance on the job.– Applies to any race, sex, religion or national origin group. 7-91
  92. 92. Adverse Impact : Basic Options• Steps to take under Uniform Guidelines, if existence of adverse impact is established: – Modify or eliminate procedure that produces adverse impact. – Justify use of the procedure on grounds of job relatedness: • Show clear relation between performance on selection procedure and performance on the job. • This is “validating” the selection procedure. 7-92
  93. 93. Thanks youQuestions