10-1
Human Anatomy
Chapter 10 Lecture Outline:
Muscle Tissue and
Organization
10-2
Tissue and Organization
 Over 700 skeletal muscles have been named.
 Form the muscular system.
 Muscle tissue is d...
10-3
4 Unique Characteristics of
Muscle Tissue
 Excitability is equated with responsiveness.
 Contractility causes the f...
CLASSIFICATION OF
MUSCLES
DEVELOPMENTAL
CLASSIFICATION
DEVELOPMENTAL
CLASSIFICATION
 Ectodermal in origin, dilator pupillae
an
 Sphinctor pupillae
 Myoepithelial cells of mam...
STRUCTURAL
CLASSIFICATION
 SKELETAL MUSCLES.
 LONG, CYLINDRICAL,MULTINUCLIATED
CELLS
 RAPID ,UNSUSTAINED CONTRACTION.
...
10-7
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
 Skeletal muscles are organs
 Vary in shape and size
 A skeletal muscle is composed of cell...
10-8
Sarcomere
 The functional contractile unit of a
skeletal muscle fiber.
 Defined as the distance from one Z disc
to ...
10-9
Functions of Skeletal Muscle
 Body Movement
 Maintenance of posture
 Temperature regulation
 Storage and movement...
10-10
Composition of Skeletal Muscle
 Each skeletal muscle is composed of
fascicles.
 bundles of muscle fibers
 Muscle ...
11
10-12
Endomysium
 Innermost connective tissue layer
 Surrounds each muscle fiber
 Help bind together neighboring muscle...
13
10-14
Connective Tissue Components
 Three layers of CT
 Collagen fibers
 Elastic fibers
 Endomyseium: surrounds each m...
10-15
Perimysium
 Surrounds the bundles of muscle fibers called
fascicles.
 Has a dense irregular connective tissue shea...
16
10-17
Epimysium
 A layer of dense irregular connective tissue that
surrounds the whole skeletal muscle.
10-18
Deep Fascia
 An expansive sheet of dense irregular
connective tissue
 separates individual muscles
 binds togethe...
10-19
Superficial Fascia
 An extensive sheet of areolar connective
tissue and adipose
 Also called subcutaneous tissue o...
SMOOTH MUSCLES
 Long ,spindle shaped contractile cells.
 Show slow , weak and sustained contraction.
 Innervated by Aut...
10-21
Smooth Muscle
 Composed of short muscle fibers that have a
fusiform shape and single centrally located
nucleus.
 T...
10-22
Smooth Muscle
 Sarcoplasmic reticulum is sparse.
 Transverse tubules are absent.
 Contraction is slow, resistant ...
23
10-24
Cardiac Muscle
 Fibers are individual muscle fibers arranged in thick
bundles within the heart wall.
 Fibers are s...
25
26
CARDIAC MUSCLES
 Short,broad,cylindrical, and anastomosing
cells.
 Show myogenic contraction and releaxation.
 Contract...
CLASSIFICATION OF
SKELETAL MUSCLES
 ARCHITECTURAL
CLASSIFICATION
BASED UPON THE GROSS APPEARANCE
OF MUSCLE FIBERS IN BELL...
cont
 QUADRILATERAL MUSCLE. Flat muscle having
equal four sides .gluteus maximus,thyrohyoid
 STRAP MUSCLE . Elongated mu...
10-30
OBLIQUE MUSCLES
 PENNATE MUSCLEE .FEATHER LIKE,
 Contain many fibers,more powerful,less range of
contraction. A central ...
MULTIPENNATE MUSCLES
 Rosponsible for powerful actions.
 Appearance of many feathers
converging towards a single point.
...
CIRCUMPENNATE
MUSCLES
 Also called as radial or cylindrical
muscles.
 Have a central tendon to which many
muscular fascu...
10-34
10-35
10-36
10-37
Four Organizational Patterns
in Fascicles
 Circular - muscle is also called a sphincter because
contraction of the ...
10-38
Three Types of Skeletal
Muscle Fibers
 Fast
 are large in diameter
 contain large glycogen reserves
 densely pac...
10-39
10-40
PHYSIOLOGICAL
CLASSIFICATION
 Grouped according to their primary actions into three types:
 Agonists - also called...
10-41
Blood Vessels and Nerves
 Extends through both the epimysium and
perimysium.
 Blood vessels deliver to the muscle ...
10-42
Skeletal Muscle Contraction
 Classified as voluntary: controlled by the
somatic (voluntary) nervous system.
 The n...
10-43
Motor Neuron
 Initiates muscle contraction in a single muscle fiber.
 A single motor neuron typically controls num...
10-44
Motor Unit
 Composed of a single motor neuron, the muscle
fibers it controls, and the neuromuscular junctions
betwe...
10-45
All-Or-None Principle
 All-or-none principle: A muscle fiber
either contracts completely or does not
contract at al...
10-46
Muscle Tone
 Some motor units are always active,
even when a muscle is at rest.
 The motor units cause the muscle ...
47
48
Neuromuscular Junction
 Where motor neuron meets muscle
fiber
 Components
 Synaptic knob
 Synaptic vesicles

Acety...
49
50
10-51
Muscle Atrophy
 Reduction in muscle size, tone, and
power.
 Due to reduced stimulation, it loses
both mass and ton...
10-52
Muscle Hypertrophy
 An increase in muscle fiber size.
 Muscle size may be improved by exercising.
 Repetitive, ex...
10-53
Development of Skeletal Muscle
 Initiated during the fourth week of embryonic
development when mesodermal cells for...
54
10-55
Effects of Aging on Skeletal
Muscle
 Slow, progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass begins as a
direct result of in...
10-56
Muscle Attachments
 Tendon attaches the muscle to bone, skin, or
another muscle.
 Tendons usually have a thick, co...
10-57
Contraction
 Isometric
 length of the muscle does not change because the tension
produced never exceeds the resist...
58
10-59
Muscle Origin and Insertion
 Most skeletal muscles extend between bones
and cross at least one movable joint.
 Upo...
10-60
Muscle Origin and Insertion
 More movable attachment of the muscle
is its insertion.
 Insertion is pulled toward t...
10-61
Origin and Insertion
10-62
Skeletal Muscle Has Striations
 Appearance is due to size and density differences between
thick filaments and thin ...
10-63
Microscopic Anatomy
 Specialized terms/structures
 Sarcolemma
 Sarcoplasm
 About 300 mitochondria
 Unique struc...
10-65
Microscopic Anatomy
 Multinucleated cells
 Occurs during development
 Myoblasts: embryonic cells
 Most fuse into...
10-66
10-67
Myofibrils and Myofilaments
 Myofibrils:
 Long cylindrical organelles
 About 1-2 micrometers in diameter
 Extend...
10-68
10-69
Thin and Thick Myofilaments
 Thin filaments
 Actin
 Two entwined strands of globular protein
 Active site for my...
10-70
Thin and Thick Myofilaments
 Thick filaments
 Myosin
 Myosin molecule: globular head, tail

Tails point to the m...
10-71
10-72
Thin and Thick Myofilaments
 Banding
 I-band: light band

Actin filaments

Bisected by z-line
 A-band: dark ban...
10-73
Thin and Thick Myofilaments
 Banding
 M-line:

Middle of H-band (zone) in relaxed fiber

Thin protein meshwork
...
10-74
The Sliding Filament Theory
 The thin and thick filaments slide past
each other
 This change in relative position ...
75
76
77
78
79
10-80
Mechanism of contraction
 Neuromuscular Junction:
 Impulse causes release of Ach into synaptic cleft
 Ach plugs i...
10-81
Mechanism of contraction
 Myosin head bonds to actin, pushes actin to middle
of sarcomere
 Myosin released from ac...
10-82
3 Types of Pennate Muscles
 Unipennate muscle - all of the muscle fibers
are on the same side of the tendon.
 Bipe...
10-83
3 Classes of Levers in the
Body
 In the body, a long bone acts as a lever, a joint serves as the
fulcrum, and the e...
84
10-85
Criteria for Naming of Muscles
 Names incorporate appearance, location, function,
orientation, and unusual features...
86
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Ch10 muscle tissue

  1. 1. 10-1 Human Anatomy Chapter 10 Lecture Outline: Muscle Tissue and Organization
  2. 2. 10-2 Tissue and Organization  Over 700 skeletal muscles have been named.  Form the muscular system.  Muscle tissue is distributed almost everywhere in the body.  Responsible for the movement of materials within and throughout the body.
  3. 3. 10-3 4 Unique Characteristics of Muscle Tissue  Excitability is equated with responsiveness.  Contractility causes the fiber to shorten resulting in either a pull on bones or the movement of specific body parts.  Elasticity is the muscle’s ability to return to its original length when tension is released.  Extensibility is capability of extending in length in response to the contraction of opposing muscle fibers.
  4. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF MUSCLES DEVELOPMENTAL CLASSIFICATION
  5. 5. DEVELOPMENTAL CLASSIFICATION  Ectodermal in origin, dilator pupillae an  Sphinctor pupillae  Myoepithelial cells of mammary alveoli and sweat glands  ENDODERMAL  Myoepithelial cells of salivary glands.  MESODERMAL  All the muscles of body.
  6. 6. STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION  SKELETAL MUSCLES.  LONG, CYLINDRICAL,MULTINUCLIATED CELLS  RAPID ,UNSUSTAINED CONTRACTION.  VOLUNTARY IN NATURE  SUPPLIED BY SOMATIC NERVES  LOCATION,muscles attached to bones  Diaphragm ,tongue, muscle of eyeball.  Muscles of facial expression.muscles of pharynx.upper one third of esophagus.
  7. 7. 10-7 Skeletal Muscle Tissue  Skeletal muscles are organs  Vary in shape and size  A skeletal muscle is composed of cells  Each cell is as long as the muscle  Small muscle: 100 micrometers long; 10 micrometers in diameter  Large muscle: 35 centimeters long; 100 micrometers in diameter  Skeletal Muscle cells are called MUSCLE FIBERS
  8. 8. 10-8 Sarcomere  The functional contractile unit of a skeletal muscle fiber.  Defined as the distance from one Z disc to the next adjacent Z disc.  Myofibrils contain multiple Z discs  Numerous sarcomeres in each myofibril.  Each shortens as the muscle fiber contracts.
  9. 9. 10-9 Functions of Skeletal Muscle  Body Movement  Maintenance of posture  Temperature regulation  Storage and movement of materials  Support
  10. 10. 10-10 Composition of Skeletal Muscle  Each skeletal muscle is composed of fascicles.  bundles of muscle fibers  Muscle fibers contain myofibrils.  composed of myofilaments
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. 10-12 Endomysium  Innermost connective tissue layer  Surrounds each muscle fiber  Help bind together neighboring muscle fibers and  Support capillaries near fibers
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. 10-14 Connective Tissue Components  Three layers of CT  Collagen fibers  Elastic fibers  Endomyseium: surrounds each muscle fiber  Perimysium: surrounds each fascicle  Epimysium: surrounds entire muscle  Provide protection, location for blood vessels, nerves
  15. 15. 10-15 Perimysium  Surrounds the bundles of muscle fibers called fascicles.  Has a dense irregular connective tissue sheath which contains extensive arrays of blood vessels and nerves that branch to supply each individual fascicle.
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. 10-17 Epimysium  A layer of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the whole skeletal muscle.
  18. 18. 10-18 Deep Fascia  An expansive sheet of dense irregular connective tissue  separates individual muscles  binds together muscles with similar functions  forms sheaths to help distribute nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels  fill spaces between muscles
  19. 19. 10-19 Superficial Fascia  An extensive sheet of areolar connective tissue and adipose  Also called subcutaneous tissue or hypodermis  Separates muscle from skin  Supeerficial to the deep fascia
  20. 20. SMOOTH MUSCLES  Long ,spindle shaped contractile cells.  Show slow , weak and sustained contraction.  Innervated by Autonomic nervous system.  Involuntary in nature. Non striated.  Location, walls of visceras and blood vessels.  Sphinctor and dilator pupillae.  Cillaris, Arrector pilli muscles of hair.
  21. 21. 10-21 Smooth Muscle  Composed of short muscle fibers that have a fusiform shape and single centrally located nucleus.  Thick and thin filaments are not precisely aligned so no visible striations or sarcomeres are present.  Z discs are absent - thin filaments are attached to dense bodies by elements of the cytoskeleton.
  22. 22. 10-22 Smooth Muscle  Sarcoplasmic reticulum is sparse.  Transverse tubules are absent.  Contraction is slow, resistant to fatigue, and usually sustained for an extended period of time.  Takes longer than skeletal muscle to contract and relax.  Contraction is under involuntary control.
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. 10-24 Cardiac Muscle  Fibers are individual muscle fibers arranged in thick bundles within the heart wall.  Fibers are striated like skeletal muscle fibers, but shorter and thicker, and they have only one or two nuclei.  Fibers form Y-shaped branches and join to adjacent muscle fibers at junctions termed intercalated discs.  Fibers are autorhythmic (can generate a muscle impulse without being stimulated).
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. CARDIAC MUSCLES  Short,broad,cylindrical, and anastomosing cells.  Show myogenic contraction and releaxation.  Contraction is less powerfull than skeletal muscles ,more resistant to fatigue.  Intercalated discs, junctions increases area for impulse conduction. Striated in appearance.  Arranged in whorles and spirals.
  28. 28. CLASSIFICATION OF SKELETAL MUSCLES  ARCHITECTURAL CLASSIFICATION BASED UPON THE GROSS APPEARANCE OF MUSCLE FIBERS IN BELLY. PARALLEL MUSCLES. Arranged parallel to each other aswell as to line of pull of muscle. Contain few fibers,are less powerfull, but more range of contraction. Help in lifting heavy weight for longer distance.
  29. 29. cont  QUADRILATERAL MUSCLE. Flat muscle having equal four sides .gluteus maximus,thyrohyoid  STRAP MUSCLE . Elongated muscle with parallel fibers ,e,g sartorius,sternohyoid.  STRAR MUSCLES WITH TENDINOUS INTERSECTIONS.elongated muscle,divided into many segments,e.g rectus abdominus,  FUSIFORM MUSCLES. spindle shape belly, tendon at both ends . Short range of contaction but force of contraction is concentrated on to restricted area of bone .e.g biceps brachi, palmaris longus, belly of digastric , flexor carpi radialis longus.
  30. 30. 10-30
  31. 31. OBLIQUE MUSCLES  PENNATE MUSCLEE .FEATHER LIKE,  Contain many fibers,more powerful,less range of contraction. A central tendon is present on which muscle fasciculi converge.  UNIPENNATE MUSCLESl. Only one sided muscular fasculi resemble half feather. e.g soleus, tibalis posterior, flexor pollicis longus.  BIPENNATE MUSCLE.  Two sided muscular fasciculi converg toward central tendon.e.g rectus femoris, dorsal interossi,peroneus longus, flexor hallucis longus.
  32. 32. MULTIPENNATE MUSCLES  Rosponsible for powerful actions.  Appearance of many feathers converging towards a single point.  Deltoid ,subscapularis. 10-32
  33. 33. CIRCUMPENNATE MUSCLES  Also called as radial or cylindrical muscles.  Have a central tendon to which many muscular fasculi converge from all sides radially and obliquely e.g tibalis anterior. 10-33
  34. 34. 10-34
  35. 35. 10-35
  36. 36. 10-36
  37. 37. 10-37 Four Organizational Patterns in Fascicles  Circular - muscle is also called a sphincter because contraction of the muscle closes off the opening.  Convergent - muscle has widespread muscle fibers that converge on a common attachment site and are often triangular in shape.  Parallel - fascicles run parallel to its long axis.  have a central body, called the belly, or gaster  Pennate - have one or more tendons extending through their body, and the fascicles are arranged at an oblique angle to the tendon.
  38. 38. 10-38 Three Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers  Fast  are large in diameter  contain large glycogen reserves  densely packed myofibrils  relatively few mitochondria  called white fibers due to lack of myoglobin  majority of skeletal muscle fibers in the body  Intermediate  resemble fast fibers; however  have a greater resistance to fatigue  Slow  smaller in diameter.  contract more slowly  called red fibers because due to myoglobin
  39. 39. 10-39
  40. 40. 10-40 PHYSIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION  Grouped according to their primary actions into three types:  Agonists - also called a prime mover contracts to produce a particular movement  Antagonists - actions oppose those of the agonist  Synergists  assist the prime mover in performing its action.  the contraction contributes to tension exerted close to the insertion of the muscle or stabilizes the point of origin  may also assist an agonist by preventing movement at a joint and thereby stabilizing the origin of the agonist  called fixators
  41. 41. 10-41 Blood Vessels and Nerves  Extends through both the epimysium and perimysium.  Blood vessels deliver to the muscle fibers both nutrients and oxygen needed for the production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).  Also remove waste products produced by the muscle fibers.
  42. 42. 10-42 Skeletal Muscle Contraction  Classified as voluntary: controlled by the somatic (voluntary) nervous system.  The neurons that stimulate muscle contraction: motor neurons.  Axon (or nerve fiber): transmits a nerve impulse to a muscle fiber.  Axon travels through the epimysium and perimysium, and enters the endomysium, where it sends a nerve impulse to an individual muscle fiber.
  43. 43. 10-43 Motor Neuron  Initiates muscle contraction in a single muscle fiber.  A single motor neuron typically controls numerous muscle fibers in a muscle.  Has a neuromuscular junction with each muscle fiber it controls.
  44. 44. 10-44 Motor Unit  Composed of a single motor neuron, the muscle fibers it controls, and the neuromuscular junctions between the motor neuron and the muscle fibers.  Typically controls only some of the muscle fibers in an entire muscle.  Most muscles have many motor units.  many motor neurons are needed to innervate an entire muscle
  45. 45. 10-45 All-Or-None Principle  All-or-none principle: A muscle fiber either contracts completely or does not contract at all.  When a motor unit is stimulated, all its fibers contract at the same time.  The total force exerted by the muscle depends on the number of activated motor units.
  46. 46. 10-46 Muscle Tone  Some motor units are always active, even when a muscle is at rest.  The motor units cause the muscle to become tense, but do not produce enough tension to cause movement.  Muscle tone is the resting tension in a skeletal muscle.
  47. 47. 47
  48. 48. 48 Neuromuscular Junction  Where motor neuron meets muscle fiber  Components  Synaptic knob  Synaptic vesicles  Acetylcholine (ACh)  Motor end plate  ACh receptors  Synaptic cleft  acetylcholinesterase
  49. 49. 49
  50. 50. 50
  51. 51. 10-51 Muscle Atrophy  Reduction in muscle size, tone, and power.  Due to reduced stimulation, it loses both mass and tone.  Muscle becomes flaccid, and its fibers decrease in size and become weaker.  Even a temporary reduction in muscle use can lead to muscular atrophy.
  52. 52. 10-52 Muscle Hypertrophy  An increase in muscle fiber size.  Muscle size may be improved by exercising.  Repetitive, exhaustive stimulation of muscle fibers results in more mitochondria, larger glycogen reserves, and an increased ability to produce ATP.  Ultimately, each muscle fiber develops more myofibrils, and each myofibril contains a larger number of myofilaments.
  53. 53. 10-53 Development of Skeletal Muscle  Initiated during the fourth week of embryonic development when mesodermal cells form thick blocks along each side of the developing neural tube.  Blocks, called paraxial mesoderm, form structures called somites.  sclerotome separates from the rest of the somite and gives rise to the vertebral skeleton  dermatome forms the connective tissue of the skin  myotome gives rise to the skeletal muscles
  54. 54. 54
  55. 55. 10-55 Effects of Aging on Skeletal Muscle  Slow, progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass begins as a direct result of increasing inactivity.  Size and power of all muscle tissues also decrease  Lost muscle mass is replaced by either adipose or fibrous connective tissue.  Muscle strength and endurance are impaired.  Decreased cardiovascular performance thus.  Increased circulatory supply to active muscles occurs much more slowly  Tolerance for exercise decreases.  Tendency toward rapid fatigue.  Muscle tissue has a reduced capacity to recover from disease or injury.  Elasticity of skeletal muscle also decreases.
  56. 56. 10-56 Muscle Attachments  Tendon attaches the muscle to bone, skin, or another muscle.  Tendons usually have a thick, cordlike structure.  Sometimes forms a thin, flattened sheet, termed an aponeurosis.
  57. 57. 10-57 Contraction  Isometric  length of the muscle does not change because the tension produced never exceeds the resistance (load)  tension is generated, but not enough to move the load  Isotonic  tension produced exceeds the resistance (load), and the muscle fibers shorten, resulting in movement
  58. 58. 58
  59. 59. 10-59 Muscle Origin and Insertion  Most skeletal muscles extend between bones and cross at least one movable joint.  Upon contraction, one of the bones moves while the other bone usually remains fixed.  Less movable attachment of a muscle is called its origin.  Origin typically lies proximal to the insertion.
  60. 60. 10-60 Muscle Origin and Insertion  More movable attachment of the muscle is its insertion.  Insertion is pulled toward the origin.
  61. 61. 10-61 Origin and Insertion
  62. 62. 10-62 Skeletal Muscle Has Striations  Appearance is due to size and density differences between thick filaments and thin filaments.  Under the light microscope, two differently shaded bands are present.  The dark bands, called A bands, contain the entire thick filament.  At either end of a thick filament is a region where thin filaments extend into the A band between the stacked thick filaments.  Light bands, called I bands, contain thin filaments only.  I band is lighter shaded than an A band because only the thin filaments occupy this region.
  63. 63. 10-63 Microscopic Anatomy  Specialized terms/structures  Sarcolemma  Sarcoplasm  About 300 mitochondria  Unique structures:  Transverse tubules: deep invaginations of the sarcolemma  Sarcoplasmic Reticulum  Terminal cisternae (lateral sacs)  Triad: T-tubule, 2 lateral sacs
  64. 64. 10-65 Microscopic Anatomy  Multinucleated cells  Occurs during development  Myoblasts: embryonic cells  Most fuse into one cell  Satellite cells  Myoblasts that do nor fuse  can aid in repair and regeneration in adults
  65. 65. 10-66
  66. 66. 10-67 Myofibrils and Myofilaments  Myofibrils:  Long cylindrical organelles  About 1-2 micrometers in diameter  Extend length of muscle fiber  Shorten during contraction  Contain myofilaments
  67. 67. 10-68
  68. 68. 10-69 Thin and Thick Myofilaments  Thin filaments  Actin  Two entwined strands of globular protein  Active site for myosin  Regulatory proteins  Troponin  Tropomyosin
  69. 69. 10-70 Thin and Thick Myofilaments  Thick filaments  Myosin  Myosin molecule: globular head, tail  Tails point to the middle of the filament  Heads called crossbridges
  70. 70. 10-71
  71. 71. 10-72 Thin and Thick Myofilaments  Banding  I-band: light band  Actin filaments  Bisected by z-line  A-band: dark band  Overlap of actin and myosin myofilaments  Bisected by H-band  H-band (zone)  no actin here in relaxed fiber
  72. 72. 10-73 Thin and Thick Myofilaments  Banding  M-line:  Middle of H-band (zone) in relaxed fiber  Thin protein meshwork  Attachment for thick filaments  Z-line (Z-disc)  Thin protein structure  Connectins: anchor thin filaments  Titin: attach thin, thick filaments to z-disc  Attachment for thin filaments
  73. 73. 10-74 The Sliding Filament Theory  The thin and thick filaments slide past each other  This change in relative position results in the shortening of the sarcomere  I-band narrows  H-band disappears
  74. 74. 75
  75. 75. 76
  76. 76. 77
  77. 77. 78
  78. 78. 79
  79. 79. 10-80 Mechanism of contraction  Neuromuscular Junction:  Impulse causes release of Ach into synaptic cleft  Ach plugs into receptors  Initiates impulse in motor end plate  Acetylcholinesterase breaks down ACh  Impulse travels on sarcolemma, then down T- tubule.  Impulse reaches lateral sacs  Causes release of calcium ion  Calcium ion bonds to troponin  Causes tropomyosin to move off of the myosin bonding site
  80. 80. 10-81 Mechanism of contraction  Myosin head bonds to actin, pushes actin to middle of sarcomere  Myosin released from actin  Need ATP to release  As long as calcium is in cytoplasm, will continue to contract  Return to relaxed condition
  81. 81. 10-82 3 Types of Pennate Muscles  Unipennate muscle - all of the muscle fibers are on the same side of the tendon.  Bipennate muscle - the most common type, has muscle fibers on both sides of the tendon.  Multipennate muscle - has branches of the tendon within the muscle.
  82. 82. 10-83 3 Classes of Levers in the Body  In the body, a long bone acts as a lever, a joint serves as the fulcrum, and the effort is generated by a muscle attached to the bone.  First-class  has a fulcrum in the middle, between the force and the resistance  Second-class  resistance is between the fulcrum and the applied force  Third-class  force is applied between the resistance and the fulcrum  the most common levers in the body
  83. 83. 84
  84. 84. 10-85 Criteria for Naming of Muscles  Names incorporate appearance, location, function, orientation, and unusual features  Names provide clues to their identification  orientation of muscle fibers  muscle attachments  specific body regions  muscle shape  muscle size  muscle heads/tendons of origin  muscle function or movement  muscle position at body surface
  85. 85. 86
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