A DISCUSSION ONA DISCUSSION ON
ENCODING OFENCODING OF
AUDITORY INFORMATIONAUDITORY INFORMATION
KEMU ‘12-’17KEMU ‘12-’17
► ATIA HAROON(21):RELEASE OF SYNAPTICATIA HAROON(21):RELEASE OF SYNAPTIC
TRANSMITTERTRANSMITTER
► AYESHA ABBASI(22):PLACE ...
A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF INNERA BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF INNER
EAREAR
►CochleaCochlea
►UtricleUtricle
►SacculeSaccule
►Semicircu...
STRUCTURE OF COCHLEASTRUCTURE OF COCHLEA
THEORIES EXPLAINING THETHEORIES EXPLAINING THE
APPRECIATION OF DIFFERENTAPPRECIATION OF DIFFERENT
FREQUENCIES OF SOUNDSFRE...
► RESONANCE THEORY OF HELMHOLTZRESONANCE THEORY OF HELMHOLTZ
► PLACE THEORYPLACE THEORY
PLACE PRINCIPLE OFPLACE PRINCIPLE OF
FREQUENCY DISCRIMINATIONFREQUENCY DISCRIMINATION
It states that the perception 0f sou...
ll
► high frequency sounds cause maximalhigh frequency sounds cause maximal
activation of basilar membrane near theactivat...
BASIS OF PLACE PRINCIPLEBASIS OF PLACE PRINCIPLE
STRUCTURE OF BASILAR MEMBRANE:STRUCTURE OF BASILAR MEMBRANE:
20000_30000 ...
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCEEXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE
SUPPORTING PLACE THEORYSUPPORTING PLACE THEORY
► Long exposure to loud noise of...
A Discussion on Encoding of Auditory Information
A Discussion on Encoding of Auditory Information
A Discussion on Encoding of Auditory Information
A Discussion on Encoding of Auditory Information
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A Discussion on Encoding of Auditory Information

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A Discussion on Encoding of Auditory Information

  1. 1. A DISCUSSION ONA DISCUSSION ON ENCODING OFENCODING OF AUDITORY INFORMATIONAUDITORY INFORMATION KEMU ‘12-’17KEMU ‘12-’17
  2. 2. ► ATIA HAROON(21):RELEASE OF SYNAPTICATIA HAROON(21):RELEASE OF SYNAPTIC TRANSMITTERTRANSMITTER ► AYESHA ABBASI(22):PLACE PRINCIPLE OFAYESHA ABBASI(22):PLACE PRINCIPLE OF FREQUENCY DISCRIMINATIONFREQUENCY DISCRIMINATION ► AYESHA AKHTAR(23):ENCODING OFAYESHA AKHTAR(23):ENCODING OF FREQUENCY AND VOLLEY PRINCIPLEFREQUENCY AND VOLLEY PRINCIPLE ► AYESHA AMTUL HASEEB(24):ENCODING OFAYESHA AMTUL HASEEB(24):ENCODING OF INTENSITYINTENSITY ► AYESHA HASSAN(25):INHIBITORYAYESHA HASSAN(25):INHIBITORY INNERVATIONSINNERVATIONS
  3. 3. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF INNERA BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF INNER EAREAR ►CochleaCochlea ►UtricleUtricle ►SacculeSaccule ►Semicircular canalsSemicircular canals
  4. 4. STRUCTURE OF COCHLEASTRUCTURE OF COCHLEA
  5. 5. THEORIES EXPLAINING THETHEORIES EXPLAINING THE APPRECIATION OF DIFFERENTAPPRECIATION OF DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES OF SOUNDSFREQUENCIES OF SOUNDS ► FIRST GROUP:FIRST GROUP: Analysis of sound frequency is a function of cerebralAnalysis of sound frequency is a function of cerebral cortex and cochlea merely transmits the sound.cortex and cochlea merely transmits the sound. TELEPHONE THEORY OF RUTHERFORDTELEPHONE THEORY OF RUTHERFORD VOLLEY THEORYVOLLEY THEORY SECONDSECOND GROUP:GROUP: Frequency analysis is done by cochlea,which sendsFrequency analysis is done by cochlea,which sends the information to the cerebral cortex.the information to the cerebral cortex.
  6. 6. ► RESONANCE THEORY OF HELMHOLTZRESONANCE THEORY OF HELMHOLTZ ► PLACE THEORYPLACE THEORY
  7. 7. PLACE PRINCIPLE OFPLACE PRINCIPLE OF FREQUENCY DISCRIMINATIONFREQUENCY DISCRIMINATION It states that the perception 0f sound depends onIt states that the perception 0f sound depends on where each component frequency produceswhere each component frequency produces vibrations along the basilar membrane.vibrations along the basilar membrane. CONCEPT OF RESONANACE POINT:CONCEPT OF RESONANACE POINT: That point on the basilar membrane which is mostThat point on the basilar membrane which is most strongly activated/stimulated by a travelling wave.strongly activated/stimulated by a travelling wave. Distance between stapes and resonanceDistance between stapes and resonance point is inversel proportional to thepoint is inversel proportional to the frequency of sound waves .frequency of sound waves .
  8. 8. ll ► high frequency sounds cause maximalhigh frequency sounds cause maximal activation of basilar membrane near theactivation of basilar membrane near the base of cochlea.(close to oval window andbase of cochlea.(close to oval window and stapes)stapes) ► Low frequency:Low frequency: at apex of cochlea(helicotrema)at apex of cochlea(helicotrema) ► Intermediate frequency sounds:Intermediate frequency sounds: in betweenin between two extremestwo extremes
  9. 9. BASIS OF PLACE PRINCIPLEBASIS OF PLACE PRINCIPLE STRUCTURE OF BASILAR MEMBRANE:STRUCTURE OF BASILAR MEMBRANE: 20000_30000 basilar fibres projecting from modiolus20000_30000 basilar fibres projecting from modiolus toward outer wall.toward outer wall. Basal end_fixed at modiolusBasal end_fixed at modiolus Distal end_embedded in basilar membrane.Distal end_embedded in basilar membrane. AT BASEAT BASE: basilar membrane: basilar membrane stiffstiff due todue to thick,thick, short reed like fibresshort reed like fibres AT APEX:AT APEX:basilar membranebasilar membrane compliantcompliant due todue to thin,long fibresthin,long fibres
  10. 10. EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCEEXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE SUPPORTING PLACE THEORYSUPPORTING PLACE THEORY ► Long exposure to loud noise of a particularLong exposure to loud noise of a particular frequency destroys a specific portion of organ offrequency destroys a specific portion of organ of corti.corti. ► InIn high tone deafness,high tone deafness, organ of corti near base oforgan of corti near base of cochlea or nerve supplying cochlea near basecochlea or nerve supplying cochlea near base degenerates.degenerates. ► During exposure to high frequency sound,cochlearDuring exposure to high frequency sound,cochlear microphone potentials show greater voltage in hairmicrophone potentials show greater voltage in hair cells near base of cochlea.cells near base of cochlea. ► There is point to point representation of basilarThere is point to point representation of basilar membrane in auditory cortex.membrane in auditory cortex.
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