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Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
Video Editing Basics
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Video Editing Basics

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Basics of Video Editing, Film making,

Basics of Video Editing, Film making,

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  • 1. Video EditingBasics
  • 2. “Editing is the creative forceof filmic reality...and thefoundation of film art.”• V.I. Pudovkin, 1915
  • 3. • Continuity Editing refers to arranging the sequence of shotsto suggest a progression of events. Given the same shots, aneditor can suggest many different scenarios. Consider justthese two shots:• A man glances up in surprise• Another man pulls a gun andfires toward the camera• In this order it appears thatthe first man was shot.• However, if you reverse theorder of these two scenes,the first man is watching ashooting.Video Editing
  • 4. Video EditingLook at what can be done with just three shots:1. people jumping from a car2. the car on fire3. an explosion1-2-3 - In the 1-2-3 sequence,the shots suggest thatpeople are jumping from acar seconds before itcatches fire and explodes
  • 5. Look at what can be done with just three shots:1. people jumping from a car2. the car on fire3. an explosion3-2-1 - This order suggests thatthere is an explosion andthen the car bursts intoflames; and, as a result, thepeople have to jump out.Video Editing
  • 6. Look at what can be done with just three shots:1. people jumping from a car2. the car on fire3. an explosion2-1-3 - If the sequence ischanged to 2-1-3, it appearsthat as a result of a firepassengers jump out of thecar just in time to escape adevastating explosion.Video Editing
  • 7. Look at what can be done with just three shots:1. people jumping from a car2. the car on fire3. an explosion2-3-1 - And finally, in thisscenario, people jump fromthe car after a fire causes adevastating explosion!Video Editing
  • 8. Three shots;Four very different meanings!• When hundreds of scenes and takes of scenes are available toan editor, which is normally the case in dramatic productions,the editor has tremendouscontrol over the basiccontinuity and message ofthe production. The projectis literally created in theediting roomVideo Editing
  • 9. • Continuity Editing primarilysuggests guiding an audiencethrough a sequence of events,and, in the process, showingthem what they want to seewhen they want to see it.In dramatic storytelling, good editors sometimes breakfrom the expected to achieve a dramatic effect.Unfulfilled expectations can be used to create tension.Video Editing
  • 10. • Heres an example of the latter. In a story about the changes inthe U.S. $100 bill a treasury spokesperson spends considerabletime giving specific details on the changes that were necessaryto foil counterfeiting.• Lets assume that the wholetime all we see is a two-shot ofthe men carefully examiningone of the new $100 bills.• Obviously, we would want tosee a close-up of the bill so wecan see the changes theyretalking about. If there is nosuch shot, we feel frustrated.Video Editing
  • 11. • So, unless you want to leave your audience hangingfor momentary dramatic effect, always keep in mindwhat you think the audience expects to see atany given moment. If you do, your edit decision list(EDL) will largely write itself.• In news and documentary workthe more logically you canpresent events the less chancethere is for misunderstanding orfrustration.• However, in dramatic work, youmight want to leave somethings open to interpretation.
  • 12. ACCELERATING TIME• In film and video production time is routinelycondensed and expanded. For example, lets sayyou want to tell the story of a young woman goingout on an important date.• The process of justwatching her pick outclothes from her closet,taking a shower, drying herhair, putting on her clothes,doing her make-up, anddriving to the restaurantcould take 90 minutes.Thats the total time devotedto most feature films!
  • 13. ACCELERATING TIME• Audiences are taught to assume things not shown.For example, the 90 minutes or so it took thewoman to meet her date can be shown in under 20seconds like this:• Selecting her clothes (2 sec)• A view of her through a steamyshower door (3 sec)• Blow-drying her hair (3 sec)• Leaving the house (2 sec)• Shots of her driving (3 sec)• Arriving at the restaurant andmeeting her date (3 sec)
  • 14. • In a real-time version of the scene,the people sit down at the table andthe bomb goes off. End of people;end of scene. But Hitchcock wasfamous for suspense, and very littlesuspense would be generated in thisway.EXPANDING TIME• In Hitchcock’s version the people gather, talk, andcasually sit down at the dinner table. A shot of the bombticking away under shows what is about to happen.
  • 15. EXPANDING TIME• In Hitchcock’s version the people gather, talk, andcasually sit down at the dinner table. A shot of the bombticking away under shows what is about to happen.• Unaware of the bomb, the peoplediscuss their dull lives.• Shots of the bomb are intercut withguests laughing as they eat dinner.The intercutting speeds up until thebomb blows the dinner party to bits.• In this edit, the scene creates fargreater emotional impact.
  • 16. • Unaware of the bomb, the peoplediscuss their dull lives.• Shots of the bomb are intercut withguests laughing as they eat dinner.The intercutting speeds up until thebomb blows the dinner party to bits.• In this edit, the scene creates fargreater emotional impact.EXPANDING TIME• In Hitchcock’s version the people gather, talk, andcasually sit down at the dinner table. A shot of the bombticking away under shows what is about to happen.
  • 17. SHOWING CAUSALITY• Often, a part of continuity editing is to suggest or explaincause. A good script (enhanced by good editing)suggests or explains why things happen.• For example, in a dramaticproduction it would seem strange tocut to a shot of someone answeringthe phone unless we had heard thephone ring. A ringing phone bringsabout a response; the phone isanswered.
  • 18. SHOWING CAUSALITY• We may see a female corpse on the living room sofa during thefirst five minutes of a dramatic film, but not know who killedher or why until 90 minutes later.• Even though strict continuityediting dictates that we presentevents in a logical sequence, itmakes a more interesting story ifwe present the result first andreveal the cause gradually overtime. This is the approach ofalmost every crime story.
  • 19. SHOWING CAUSALITY• Sometimes we assume the cause. If we see a shot of someonewith all the symptoms of being drunk, we can safely assumethey have been drinking (cause).• If we see a shot ofsomeone attempting adifficult feat on skis for thefirst time, followed by ashot of them arriving backhome with one leg in acast, we assume thatthings didnt quite workout.
  • 20. SHOWING CAUSALITY• Sometimes we assume the cause. If we see a shot ofsomeone with all the symptoms of being drunk, we cansafely assume they have been drinking (cause).• Lets go back to thecorpse on the livingroom floor. Knowing thatthe husband did it maynot be enough (maybefor the police, but not formost viewers). Incausality there is alsothe question of why.This brings upmotivation.
  • 21. SHOWING MOTIVATION• Motivation includes any one of the age-old motives, includingmoney, jealousy and revenge. Even if the motivation isrevenge, revenge must have a cause.• To provide the answer we canshow incidents from the past.• We see the woman’s lover.• We then see suspicion,jealousy, resentment, andanger building in her husband.• We see that these negativeemotions can’t be restrained.
  • 22. Video Editing BasicsCAUSE, EFFECT and MOTIVATION• Editors must perceive the dynamics of these cause-and-effect relationships to skillfully handle them. They mustalso have an understanding of human psychology so thatthey can portray feelings and events realistically.• How many serious dramatic productions have you seenwhere actions and reactions just dont seem to berealistic? Doesn’t it take away from the believability ofthe production?• Writers and directors also know they shouldnt revealanswers (motivations) too quickly.• In a good mystery we will probably try to hold ouraudience by leading them through critical developmentsin a step-by-step fashion
  • 23. PAPER EDITING EXERCISE• Given the following four shots, explain four possible scenariosby composing them in a different order:1) A man enters a house2) There is the sound of a gunshot3) An ambulance arrives4) A body is rolled out on a gurney• Provide a possible scenario for:1-2-3-4 3-1-2-4 3-4-1-2 3-4-2-1
  • 24. CONTINUITY TECHNIQUES• While holding to the basic continuity of a story, an editorcan enhance the look of a production by adding insertshots and cutaways.• An insert shot is a close-up of something thatexists within the basicscene. The latter istypically visible within theestablishing or wide shot.Master ShotInsertShot
  • 25. CONTINUITY TECHNIQUES• Insert shots add needed information, information thatwouldnt otherwise be immediately visible or clear. Let’sreturn to the example of the new $100. bills:• The ECU (extreme close-up) of the bills showing thedifferences between thesebills and the old $100. bills isalso considered an insertshot.
  • 26. CONTINUITY TECHNIQUES• Unlike insert shots that show significantaspects of the overall scene in close-up,cutaways cut away from the main sceneor action to add additional information.• Here, we cut away from ashot of a man glancingdown a mine shaft (on theleft) to man already at alower level (right)Master ShotCutawayShot
  • 27. CONTINUITY TECHNIQUES• During a parade, we might cut away from the parade to ashot of people watching from a nearby rooftop or a childin a stroller sleeping through the commotion.• In the editing process we relyon insert shots and cutawaysto effectively present theelements of a story.• As editors, you will be thankfulif whoever shot the originalfootage was professionalenough to provide insert shotsand cutaways.
  • 28. RELATIONAL EDITING• Relational editing refers to the human tendency to try toestablish a relationship between scenes. A series ofshots can take on a cause and effect significance whenedited together in a sequence.• The scene on the right begsfor a cut to a scene to explainwho the woman is waving at.
  • 29. RELATIONAL EDITING• Relational editing refers to the human tendency to try toestablish a relationship between scenes. A series ofshots can take on a cause and effect significance whenedited together in a sequence.• The scene on the right begsfor a cut to a scene toexplain who the woman iswaving at.• If this scene is followed by ashot of a car pulling up tothe curb, we will assumethat the woman will go overto the car.
  • 30. RELATIONAL EDITING• Relational editing refers to the human tendency to try toestablish a relationship between scenes. A series ofshots can take on a cause and effect significance whenedited together in a sequence.• The scene on the rightbegs for a cut to ascene to explain whothe woman is waving at.• If its followed by a shotof a woman pushing astroller along asidewalk, we wouldassume somethingdifferent.
  • 31. RELATIONAL EDITING• Relational editing refers to the human tendency to try toestablish a relationship between scenes. A series ofshots can take on a cause and effect significance whenedited together in a sequence.• To follow this shot witha shot of a cowboywould probably notmake much sense tothe viewer. In relationalediting, we expect tosee scenes that cometogether in a logicalsequence to tell astory.
  • 32. THEMATIC EDITING• In thematic editing, images are edited together based only on acentral theme. Unlike other types of editing, thematic editing doesnot develop an idea in a logical sequence. Thematic editing,(often referred to as montageediting) is a rapid sequence of shotsdesigned to elicit feelings or callupon common experiences. Thistype of editing is often used in musicvideos, commercials, and movietrailers.
  • 33. PARALLEL CUTTING• Early films used to follow just one story line -- generally,with the hero in almost every scene. Today, we wouldfind this simplistic story structure rather boring.• Soap operas, sitcoms, anddramatic productions typicallyhave two or more story linestaking place at the same time.• The multiple story lines can beas simple as cross-cutting fromthe husband who murdered hiswife to the police as they try tocatch and prosecute him.
  • 34. PARALLEL CUTTING• When the segments are cut together to follow multiple (different)story lines, its referred to as parallel cutting. By cutting back andforth between two or more mini-stories within the overall story, paceis varied and the viewer interest isheightened.• Todays dramas typically have eightor ten major characters, andalthough intertwined with the maindrama, each has their owncontinuing story.

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