By: Kelsey Y

                                   Type to enter ...
Reproduction                                 Adaptation                              homeostasis is the liver. The liver
Background                                 The “Oddball”                          arrival of humans. An endangered
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Aves Project


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Aves Project

  1. 1. Aves By: Kelsey Y Type to enter text by flickr user: By flickr user :people.uleth.ca/ www.bluekiwigroup.com/img/ ~holzmann/nz/7262_Takahe,_a_v.. By flickr user: dodo.blog.br By flickr user: images.stanzapub.com/readers/ What is Aves? 2009/04/12/25950 Most people know about penguins and ostriches. Did you know that these birds are put into the classification Aves? These birds come in variety of sizes and colors. From two inches to ten feet, from black to white, there is many different kinds. Transport Internal External A bird has a lack of sweat; therefore, they don’t as When we think of birds, we think of flying. much water as other animals. Birds receive their However, not all birds can fly. The flightless birds water by the foods they eat. They also swallow their either depend on walking or swimming to get food whole. So, they have a gizzard. A gizzard is a around. Take the penguin for example, it’s mostly tough muscle that grinds up a bird’s food so that it used form for transportation is swimming. can be digested. After the food passes through the gizzard it goes into the intestines. The intestines Nutrition absorb the nutrients from the food. Then the digested food is passed to the rectum where it is excreted. The A bird’s diet consists of seeds, fruit, nectar, plants, liquid consumption of the bird is passed to the carcasses, and small animals. For breeding, they kidneys, they filter out the waste and are expelled at need calcium and phosphorus for strong shell growth a later point. The ureter is attached to the kidneys for the eggs. They also need the right balance of where the liquid waste is passed out of the body. A amino acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates to remain a bird’s heart is similar to a humans. It has four high fertility rate. chambers and it pumps oxygen-rich blood throughout the bird’s body. However, their hearts beat faster than a human’s because they need the energy. For some birds, their resting heart rate is about 500 beats per minute. By flickr user: avianlove.com 1
  2. 2. Reproduction Adaptation homeostasis is the liver. The liver All birds reproduce sexually. The takes the toxins out of the body male birds do not have external Many species of flightless birds and keeps it at peace. sex organs, but they get larger as had to adapt. At one time, all birds breeding season comes closer. The could fly. However, conditions General Structure females ovaries also get larger changed, like their enemies, and they no longer needed to fly. So, The flightless birds have a during breeding season; however, for protection they grew long different structure compared to only the left one is functional. The toenails and some grew flippers flying birds. Swimming birds have male sperm will stay inside the for a quick escape. Another a wide sternum and walking birds cloaca until the egg reaches it. The adaptation is that all birds use to have a long sternum. Flightless fertilized egg will stay inside the have teeth, but their diets changed birds don’t have a strong pectoral cloaca for about one week, then it and they didn’t need teeth to muscle for they do not need this to will be dropped into a nest. The digest their food because they fly. They also have more feathers female will keep the egg warm formed a gizzard. Their beaks also that are symmetrical and they do until it hatches. changed by what food they eat and not have a keel. A keel is located how they get it. on the breastbone of the bird and provides a place for muscle to Response to Stimuli Respiration attach. The muscles that attach to A bird nervous system has a spinal it are used for flying, but since column, neurons, and a brain. Like most animals, birds have these kind of birds don’t fly, they They have a autonomic nervous lungs, alveoli, and air sacs to don’t need it. Flightless birds have system that controls the breath. Birds have six to nine air smaller wing bones or hardly any fundamentals of living, like sacs, which is more than most wings at all. Most non-flying birds heartbeat, breathing, and animals. They have a muscle in are larger altogether compared to digestion. Their sympathetic their chest that pushes outward flying ones. These birds also do system controls the amount of and puts a negative pressure on the not have hallow bones like the adrenaline pumped through their air sacs and that causes air to go flying birds for they don’t need bodies. The parasympathetic into the respiratory system. Then this aerodynamical ability for they system controls the amount of the muscle pushes the air out. The can’t fly. adrenaline released into the body lungs for the bird do not move so to help the bird in a dangerous they exchange oxygen and carbon Place in Food Chain situation, known as the “fight or dioxide through the alveoli. All birds are known as secondary flight” reflex. Regulation consumers. So they eat primary consumers. birds are also known Birds are known as endothermic, as omnivores, which means they which means they keep their body eat both plants and meat. temperature in control to maintain homeostasis. They get this heat by their metabolism. Birds have a high metabolic rate so that they can keep their body temperature above their surroundings. Another form that they use to keep By flickr user:image.tutorvista.com/content/ 2 locomotion-anima By flickr user: www.arcytech.org/.../images/ food_web.jpg
  3. 3. Background The “Oddball” arrival of humans. An endangered There are two flightless birds that bird would be the Takahe bird. It Scientists believe that birds came are considered as oddballs. One was thought to be extinct until from dinosaurs. More specifically bird would the famous species, the some scientists discovered them they came from the theropod penguin. They are different from along a lake. Ostriches and dinosaurs. There latest ancestor the rest because the male sits on penguins are also known to be would be the crocodile. Many the egg and keeps it warm while endangered. species started to form during the the female hunts for food. They Cretaceous period. Scientists also don’t use nests to hold the By flickr user: www.insidesocal.com/ discovered a fossilized tomhoffarth/dodo-bird-pla their eggs. The other bird would Archaeopteryx, it had a long tail, the kiwi. It hardly has wings and teeth, feathers, and claws. the feathers are fur-like. It is one Although this dinosaur wasn’t of the smallest flightless birds and completely bird-like it gave it’s eggs are large compared to the evidence of the ancestry of birds. size of the bird. by flickr user: notesfromatransitional.. Their Importance Birds are important to us because they can be used as food by hunting and trapping. Some birds Organisms found in By flickr user: Group sleepynz.files.wordpress.com/.../kiwi-large.jpg can be kept as pets Their excretions are collected and used There are 40 species of flightless Type of Symmetry as fertilizer. Also they are used in birds in existence today. Some All birds have a bilateral arts, such as sculpture, paintings, organisms found in the flightless symmetry. This type of symmetry and poetry/songs. Aves classification are the kiwi means that both sides are in ostrich, emu, and the famous proportion to each other. Bilateral penguins. There are 14 categories symmetry is common in most that these birds are placed into. mammals. They are
 Extinct of Endangered Pelicaniformes,

 There are extinct and endangered Anseriformes,

 flightless birds. A famous extinct Gruiformes,

 bird was the dodo. Phorusrhacids Psittaciformes,

 are also on the extinct list. They Caprimulgiformes,
 were prehistoric flightless birds Passeriformes,
 that look similar to emus and By flickr user:paleocraft.com ostriches. Both of these birds were believed to become extinct at the 3
  4. 4. Resources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kiwi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flightless_bird http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bird http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bird_anatomy http://www.teara.govt.nz/en.land‐birds‐overview/1 http://enchantedlearning.com/subjects/foodchain/ http://scienceray.com/biology/zoology/nine‐spectacular‐and‐unique‐Klightless‐birds‐in‐the‐world/ http://wiki.anwers.com/Q/What_type_of_symmetry_do_birds_have http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symmetry_in_biology http://birds.about.com/od/birdhealth/a/birdanatomy
2.htm http://www.duncraft.com/Wild‐Bird‐Nutrition‐W32C156.aspx http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Bird‐Reproduction/id/613123 http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=151829&aid=2721 http://sfetcu.com/book.Flightless‐birds http://www.enchantedlearning.com/painting.Flightless.shtml http://www.3interscience.wily.com/journal/118709862/abstract?CRETY=1&SRETRY=0 http://www.earthlife.net/birds/nerves.html http://au.answers.yahoo.com/question.index?qid=20080422120050AA5fyFm http://science.jrank.org/pages/2484/Endothermic.html http://www.biokids.umich.edu/critters/Aves 4