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A difficult past



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  • 1. Ning Site Posting 1
    • Kelsey Taylor
    • History 141
  • 2. The Americas in the 19th Century
    • Into:
      • late 18th and early 19th centuries, almost all the lands of the Western Hemisphere won their independence from European colonial powers
      • the age of independence for the U.S., Canada, and Latin America was a contentious era characterized by continuous mass migration and explosive economic growth
      • American peoples struggled to build effective states, enjoy economic prosperity and attain cultural cohesion
    • The U.S.:
      • Americans entrusted themselves to a federal government
      • expansion westward was very rapid
      • ran into problems with the indigenous people, Mexico, and the republic
      • the end of the Civil War ensured the United States of America would remain politically united
  • 3. The Americas in the 19th Century
    • Canada:
      • Canadian independence came gradually, not through war
      • originally colonized by trappers and settlers from both Britain and France
      • war of 1812 stimulated a sense of unity against an external threat instead of splintering Canada due to ethnic divisions and political differences
      • Canada developed as a culturally diverse yet politically unified society
    • Latin America:
      • solidarity was impossible to sustain
      • Creole elites pushed aside indigenous peoples and established Euro-American hegemony
      • terror was a common tool of the government
      • after the Mexican Revolution, the constitution addressed the concerns of the revolutionaries
      • instability and conflict plagued Latin America throughout the nineteenth century
  • 4. The Little Ice Age
    • 14th-19th centuries were known as “the little ice age”
    • millions die from coldness
    • history’s most recent big hard chill
    • 1653- in the French Alps, priest set off to try to confront a titanic river of ice-glaciers thought to have been possessed by the devil
    • devastated impact on much of the world
    • seasons so cold the year was known as the year without a summer
    • mystery as to what had caused it
    • many scientists believe that this can and will happen again
    • climatologists have noted that humans are vulnerable to even the smallest changes
    • rioting mobs in all areas of Europe demanded more food form the government because so many crops had been destroyed by the weather
    • weather pushed Americans towards the west
    • around 1850, the little ice age came to an abrupt end
    • global warming might cause another ice age
  • 5. Frontiers of the Americas
    • The Louisiana Purchase
    • greatest real estate deal in American history- opened the west to expansion
    • April 30, 1803- nation doubled in size
    • bought for $15 million or 4 cents an acre
    • factors that helped the U.S. get the land: court intrigues of the Spanish court, the boundless ego of Napoleon, unexpected ice storms, and the uncertain fate of a small Caribbean island
    • economic importance of the Mississippi River drew Americans closer and closer so the planters could ship their goods
    • Spanish closed off the lower Mississippi which made the settlers almost revolt against national government and threatened to cede from the Union
    • Jefferson becomes president and Napoleon Bonaparte becomes leader of France
  • 6. Frontiers of the Americas
    • Spain throne is weak and Napoleon looks to trade Louisiana area for a principality in Italy
    • French only wanted the area because Haiti was very important (economic reasons)
    • Jefferson thinks there is a way to negotiate with France and looks for a treaty, not war
    • Jefferson then communicates to Napoleon that if he takes Louisiana, it will be war
    • Haitian slave rebellion marked the beginning of the end for Napoleon
    • Congress wants to assemble the militia and take back Louisiana but Jefferson tries one last time for diplomacy
    • Since Napoleon needs funds for his war against Britain, he sells
    • made the U.S. a transcontinental nation and a world power
  • 7. Crossroads of Freedom
    • Chapter 1- The Pendulum of War
      • McClellan took command of the Army of the Potomac after the Union defeat at Bull Run
      • McClellan was called the “little Napoleon”
      • he graduated second in the West Point class of 1846
      • He led the army to union victories that secured control of in between land
      • He privately expressed contempt for Lincoln and all abolitionists
      • stepped down after he got sick with typhoid fever, taken over by General Henry W. Halleck
  • 8. Crossroads of Freedom
    • Chapter 2- Taking off the Kid Gloves
      • At the beginning of the war, Lincoln was only a restorationist, not an abolitionist because he didn’t want to loose support from border states and Democrats
      • Frederick Douglass called him out saying fighting against slaveholders without fighting against slavery is a half-hearted business
      • Lincoln came to acknowledge this point as the war rolled on and it eventually turned into a war for freedom
  • 9. Crossroads of Freedom
    • Chapter 3- “The Federals Got a Very Complete Smashing”
      • Confederate Army won at Second Manassas
      • Lee chose to press his luck while he had it and go try another battle
      • Lee used his new stronghold in Maryland to propose the south’s independence and separate elections
      • Many thought that after this, the Union was hopelessly gone