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A difficult past
 

A difficult past

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    A difficult past A difficult past Presentation Transcript

    • Ning Site Posting 1
      • Kelsey Taylor
      • History 141
    • The Americas in the 19th Century
      • Into:
        • late 18th and early 19th centuries, almost all the lands of the Western Hemisphere won their independence from European colonial powers
        • the age of independence for the U.S., Canada, and Latin America was a contentious era characterized by continuous mass migration and explosive economic growth
        • American peoples struggled to build effective states, enjoy economic prosperity and attain cultural cohesion
      • The U.S.:
        • Americans entrusted themselves to a federal government
        • expansion westward was very rapid
        • ran into problems with the indigenous people, Mexico, and the republic
        • the end of the Civil War ensured the United States of America would remain politically united
    • The Americas in the 19th Century
      • Canada:
        • Canadian independence came gradually, not through war
        • originally colonized by trappers and settlers from both Britain and France
        • war of 1812 stimulated a sense of unity against an external threat instead of splintering Canada due to ethnic divisions and political differences
        • Canada developed as a culturally diverse yet politically unified society
      • Latin America:
        • solidarity was impossible to sustain
        • Creole elites pushed aside indigenous peoples and established Euro-American hegemony
        • terror was a common tool of the government
        • after the Mexican Revolution, the constitution addressed the concerns of the revolutionaries
        • instability and conflict plagued Latin America throughout the nineteenth century
    • The Little Ice Age
      • 14th-19th centuries were known as “the little ice age”
      • millions die from coldness
      • history’s most recent big hard chill
      • 1653- in the French Alps, priest set off to try to confront a titanic river of ice-glaciers thought to have been possessed by the devil
      • devastated impact on much of the world
      • seasons so cold the year was known as the year without a summer
      • mystery as to what had caused it
      • many scientists believe that this can and will happen again
      • climatologists have noted that humans are vulnerable to even the smallest changes
      • rioting mobs in all areas of Europe demanded more food form the government because so many crops had been destroyed by the weather
      • weather pushed Americans towards the west
      • around 1850, the little ice age came to an abrupt end
      • global warming might cause another ice age
    • Frontiers of the Americas
      • The Louisiana Purchase
      • greatest real estate deal in American history- opened the west to expansion
      • April 30, 1803- nation doubled in size
      • bought for $15 million or 4 cents an acre
      • factors that helped the U.S. get the land: court intrigues of the Spanish court, the boundless ego of Napoleon, unexpected ice storms, and the uncertain fate of a small Caribbean island
      • economic importance of the Mississippi River drew Americans closer and closer so the planters could ship their goods
      • Spanish closed off the lower Mississippi which made the settlers almost revolt against national government and threatened to cede from the Union
      • Jefferson becomes president and Napoleon Bonaparte becomes leader of France
    • Frontiers of the Americas
      • Spain throne is weak and Napoleon looks to trade Louisiana area for a principality in Italy
      • French only wanted the area because Haiti was very important (economic reasons)
      • Jefferson thinks there is a way to negotiate with France and looks for a treaty, not war
      • Jefferson then communicates to Napoleon that if he takes Louisiana, it will be war
      • Haitian slave rebellion marked the beginning of the end for Napoleon
      • Congress wants to assemble the militia and take back Louisiana but Jefferson tries one last time for diplomacy
      • Since Napoleon needs funds for his war against Britain, he sells
      • made the U.S. a transcontinental nation and a world power
    • Crossroads of Freedom
      • Chapter 1- The Pendulum of War
        • McClellan took command of the Army of the Potomac after the Union defeat at Bull Run
        • McClellan was called the “little Napoleon”
        • he graduated second in the West Point class of 1846
        • He led the army to union victories that secured control of in between land
        • He privately expressed contempt for Lincoln and all abolitionists
        • stepped down after he got sick with typhoid fever, taken over by General Henry W. Halleck
    • Crossroads of Freedom
      • Chapter 2- Taking off the Kid Gloves
        • At the beginning of the war, Lincoln was only a restorationist, not an abolitionist because he didn’t want to loose support from border states and Democrats
        • Frederick Douglass called him out saying fighting against slaveholders without fighting against slavery is a half-hearted business
        • Lincoln came to acknowledge this point as the war rolled on and it eventually turned into a war for freedom
    • Crossroads of Freedom
      • Chapter 3- “The Federals Got a Very Complete Smashing”
        • Confederate Army won at Second Manassas
        • Lee chose to press his luck while he had it and go try another battle
        • Lee used his new stronghold in Maryland to propose the south’s independence and separate elections
        • Many thought that after this, the Union was hopelessly gone