AZMedia is a subject impossible to ignore, especially when discussing children and adolescents. Youth spend more time with media than they do on any other activity except for sleeping—an average of 7+ hours/dayAlso, The vastmajority of youth has access to a bedroom television, computer, theInternet, a video-game console, and a cell phone.Other important statistics reveal that old 75% of students ages 11-16 years old played games at home, 24% playedgames every day, and over 60% spent time in anticipation of playing. 97% of adolescents play video games. 93% are online and 71% have a cell phone.
AZThis graph shows media use among 8-18 years olds.As we can see, television remainsthe dominant medium, withtelevision watching at an all-time high inthe United States. However, these patterns will probably change within next few years as technology tools advance and evolve.
AZThis next graph illustrates the average amount of time youth spends with each medium, stratified by age group/11-14 year olds for the most part seem to be the heaviest users of media. This is an important pattern, since at this age youth can be especially malleable cognitively. It is also interesting to see that print is the only medium where younger people display a heavier use.
AZObservational Learning Theory is often mentioned in the context of media. Children and adolescents mimic what they see and acquire complicated scripts for behaviors, beliefs about the world, and moral precepts about how to behave from what they observe. Such learning is especially likely to happen when observed behaviors seem realistic or rewarded.Superpeer theory has been also used in the discussion about media. It states that media serves as powerful best friends which make risky behaviors seem more normative to the youth.Violence – is an important aspect of this discourse since By the age of 18, the average adolescent will have seen an estimated 200 000 acts of violence on television alone. When we add video games and internet, these numbers are hard to imagine.adolescents in many studies displayed preference for violent video games. One study reported that violence occupied 50% of video game playing time. Some researchers suggested that playing violent video games can decrease empathy for victims of violence and increase in violent behaviors through normalization of violence. New and not well research media, such as internet with its social networks creates potential for other forms of violence such as cyber bullying. Overall it is not to say that violent video games determine violent behavior, but there is strong evidence to support the claim that they do increase the risk for violence. This does not diminish the concern we should have about violent video games as a public health threat. Some researchers compare this exposure to cigarette smoke or lead-paint: not everybody exposed will develop adverse outcomes, but the risk is substantially increased.When it comes to sexual messages, It has been proven that teenager shows have more of sexual content than the adult-oriented shows. Modest but significant association has been found between exposure to sexual content in media and early sexual initiation, which brings us back to the superpeer theory. Finally, studies had shown that high alcohol and drug content of various media has significant effects on young people. Substance abuse can become normative, for instance, Recent studies of social networking sites have found that substance abuse is referenced in 40% of the profiles.
2. The role of media is also substantial in the development of eating disorders. Media popularize unrealistic body images. There has been an interesting natural field experiment in Fiji revealed that the prevalence of eating disorders increased dramatically after the introduction of American television programs which show excessively thin female characters. On the other hand, the internet contains numerous pro-anorexia sites which disseminate advice on purging methods, and so on.3. Viewing television and playing video games are both associated with increased subsequent attention problems in childhood.It seems that a similar association among television, video games, and attention problems exists in late adolescence and earlyadulthood. Some studies showed link between video game use and ADHD diagnoses. Although effect size is not very large, it is still of a public health concern, considering the ubiquity of television, video games and other media. 4.finally, School performance can be affected by heavy use of media. For instance video games addiction was strongly correlated with lower academic achievement. School performance can be affected in both ways – by taking away time that could have been spent on homework and by affecting a young person cognitively.
Aside from affecting behaviors and beliefs, media can also influence person’s physical health in a negative way.For example, One found that thegames did impact sight.Heavy TV viewing has been associated with multiple physical health problems, such as the ones listed on the slide. Obesity is an important negative health effect resulting from frequent media use. Children and adolescents see 4400 –7600 of food ads of junk food per year. It has been proven that such advertisement has an effect on eating habits and food preferences. It is suspected that with increasing access to internet, youth will be exposed to even a larger number of food advertisements. Finally, Eating while viewing is also a problem, since people consume more food while watching TV. Another issue is decreased physical activity due to more time spent on media use.
Help increase sitting tolerance for back pain sufferers Help children during cancer chemotherapy Children undergoing sickle cell disease TherapeuticPromote and increase arm reach in persons with traumatic brain injury Also been reported in wheelchair users, burn victims, and muscular dystrophy sufferers
Technology and Mass Media<br />The learning tool of the future or quintessence of evil?<br />
Background – Health News<br />Learning by Playing: Video Games in the Classroom – New York Times<br />Violent Video Games Touted as Learning Tool – FoxNews.com <br />Doctors Treat Vision Problem With Video Games – abc News<br />Med students: Give us video games – cnet News<br />
Background – Health News<br />Teen Internet addicts more likely to develop depression – msnbc.com<br />Do video games cause attention problems in kids? - Pediatrics, online<br />Too much TV, video games can threaten attention span – USA Today<br />Do Video Games Cause ADHD? 3 Ways to Keep Your Kids Safe – U.S. News<br />Violent Video Games May Increase Aggression in Some But Not Others - HealthNewsDigest.com<br />
Video: Games Theory <br />http://video.nytimes.com/video/2010/09/15/magazine/1248069030957/games-theory.html?scp=1&sq=games%20theory&st=cse<br />
In this presentation<br />Why is it important to have a good understanding of technology tools, such as videogames and internet?<br />How technology use can be beneficial when used as a learning aid?<br />What are the possible harms?<br />What are the implications for health education and program planning? <br />
Facts<br />Youth spends more than 7 hours a day using<br /> technology tools<br />Numbers on children and adolescent (2005)<br />two thirds of had a television set<br />one half had a VCR or DVD player or video-game console<br />nearly one third had Internet access or a computer<br />Patterns of use<br />97% of adolescents reporting that they play video games on the computer, Web, handheld device, or console<br />93% of youth aged 12 to 17 are on-line<br />71% have a cell phone<br />
Differences in media use according to age<br />
Challenge<br />Visual media can be used as innovative learning tools, or ways to disseminate health information<br />BUT what are the tradeoffs? What are the dangers of using technology and media?<br />President Barack Obama recently identified the creation of good educational software as one of the "grand challenges for American innovation"<br />
Potential harms of media use<br />Negative influence on beliefs and behaviors (Observational Theory and Superpeer theory)<br />Violence<br />Sex <br />Substance use <br />“True, media violence is not likely to turn an otherwise fine child into a violent criminal. But, just as every cigarette one smokes increases a little bit the likelihood of a lung tumor someday, every violent show one watches increases just a little bit the likelihood of behaving more aggressively in some situation.”<br /> Psychologists Brad Bushman and L. Rowell Huesmann<br />
Implications for Researchers<br />Current Research<br />Mainly focuses on television use<br />Mainly cross-sectional studies<br />To improve research<br />Longitudinal<br />Include other forms of media, <br /> such as cell phones, video games,<br /> internet, social networking<br />Also, studies should examine the<br /> use of multiple forms of media<br />
Implications for Parents<br />Parents often lack awareness on:<br />Child’s time of media use<br />Content of media they are using<br />“Third-person” effect<br />Not my child<br />In 1999: 57% of parents knew about<br /> the video games their kids were playing<br /> In 2006: 33%<br />
Implications for Parents<br />To prevent addiction:<br />Awareness of the content of the media<br />Interact with children while they are using said media<br />Accompany child when purchasing games or programs<br />Find alternative sources for leisure activity<br />Discuss negative and positive<br /> implications of different forms of media<br />
Implications for Schools/Teachers<br />School can promote the beneficial aspects of technology and teach children how to use in a positive manner<br />Some suggestions to improve utilization of technology<br />Talk about media addiction<br />Make gaming and technology<br /> use interactive<br />Promote social activities<br />Encourage other leisure time<br /> activities and multiple interests<br />Reward for good <br /> performance on educational<br /> games and technology uses<br />
Suggestions for Program Planning<br />When deciding to use interactive devices, consider:<br />Educational or therapeutic objective<br />Type of game<br />Required level and nature of involvement<br />Information and rules<br />The role of luck<br />Difficulty<br />Competition<br />Duration<br />Participant age and characteristics<br />Number of players<br />Facilitator's role<br />Setting<br />Hardware<br />
Current Health Promotion Programs<br />Body Awareness Resource Network (BARN): kids apply health information in a nonjudgmental hypothetical situation<br />Based catharsis theory<br />Vicksburg Mississippi <br /> Medical Center uses <br /> videogames to introduce <br /> heart problems to people<br />30% of people ask for more <br /> information from the hospital<br />
References<br />Chang, T. and Chen, W. (2009). Effect of computer-based games on children: an experimental study. Educational Technology and Society 12 (2): 1-10<br />Chiu, S., Lee, I. J., Huang, D. (2004). Video game addiction in children and teenagers in Taiwan. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 7(5), 571-<br />Dorman. (2007). Video and computer games: effect on children and implications for health education. Journal of School Health 67 (4).<br />Griffiths, M. Can Videogames be Good for Your Health?. Journal Of Health Psychology. 2004:339-344<br />Graf, D., Pratt, L., Hester, C., Short, K. Playing Active Video Games Increases Energy Expenditure in Children. Pediatrics. 2009:534-540<br />Hoffman, B., and Nadelson, L. (2010). Motivational engagement and video gaming: a mixed methods study. Education Tech Research Development 58: 245-270.<br />Kearney, P., Pivec, M. (2007). Sex, lies and video games. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38(3), 489–501.<br />Skoric, M.M., Chang, L.L, and Neo, R.L. (2009). Children and video games: addiction, engagement, and scholastic achievement. CyberPsychology and Behavior 12 (5): 567-571.<br />Strasburger, V. C., Jordan, A. B., & Donnerstein, E. (2010). Health effects of media on children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 125, 756-767.<br />
Questions<br />Do you think more funding should go to researching media and why?<br />How integrated should media be in program planning or education?<br />What do you think are possible benefits/ threats of the newly emerging technologies, not mentioned in this presentation?<br />How big of a role do you think media <br /> will play in the health education<br /> programs of the future?<br />