Ap ch13

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Ap ch13

  1. 1. Chapter 13
  2. 2. Applied Learning OutcomesUse the terminology associated with the digestive systemLearn about the following:• Organization of the digestive system• Structure of the digestive system organs• Function of the digestive system organs• The digestive process• Waste productionUnderstand the aging and pathology of the digestive system Chapter 13 – The Digestive System
  3. 3. OverviewThe digestive system is composed of the digestive tractand accessory digestive organs.The digestive tract iscomposed of themouth, pharynx,esophagus, stomach,salivary glands, smalland large intestines,and rectum.The digestive systemcarries out chemicaland mechanicaldigestion. Chapter 13 – The Digestive System
  4. 4. Components of the Digestive Tract Mouth: Contains the salivary glands, teeth, tonsils, and tongue Pharynx: Connects mouth to the esophagus Esophagus: A muscular tube that leads to the stomach Stomach: A muscular sac that stores and digests food Small Intestine: Long, narrow tube that digests and absorbs food Large Intestine: Short, wide tube that absorbs water and electrolytes Rectum: End of the digestive tract; removes undigested materials Chapter 13 – The Digestive System
  5. 5. Glandular StructuresThe pancreas and liver are glandular organs.The pancreas produces digestive enzymes and hormones that regulate blood glucose levels. Bile production is the main function of the liver. Bile assists with fat digestion. Chapter 13 – The Digestive System
  6. 6. The Digestive Process• Chemical and mechanical digestion begins in the mouth• Peristalsis moves food through the digestive tract• The stomach uses enzymes and acids to digest proteins• Digestion of most food takes place in the proximal portions of the small intestine• The large intestine absorbs water and electrolytes in its proximal components; feces are formed in the distal portions of the large intestine• The rectum forces feces out of the body through the anal sphincter Chapter 13 – The Digestive System
  7. 7. Wellness and Illness over the Life SpanGeneral abdominal pain is a common symptom ofdigestive tract disorders.Diseases of the digestive system have variousorigins, including psychological disorders, allergies,infections, genetic syndromes, and degenerativechanges.Digestive system gland disorders include cirrhosis,hepatitis, and pancreatitis.Aging of the digestive system affects the nutrientsupply to other organ systems.Most digestive tract aging affects peristalsis. Chapter 13 – The Digestive System
  8. 8. SummaryThe digestive system makes it possible forthe body to break down the complexmolecules of food into simple moleculesneeded for energy and raw materials to buildcellular components.The blood then transports these nutrientsthroughout the body by absorbing thedigested foods and passing them into theblood stream.Diseases and aging of the immune systemdecrease the digestive or absorptivecapabilities of the digestive system. Chapter 13 – The Digestive System

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