Ap ch09
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  • Central Nervous System (CNS): Major division of the nervous system composed of the brain and spinal cord; works as a controlling network for the entire body Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): The part of the nervous system made up of neurons and neuroglia outside of the brain and spinal cord; provides motor and sensory communication between the CNS and the body
  • Neurofascicles: T ight bundles of axons that work as independently functioning groups of neurons
  • Somatic: The part of the PNS associated with the voluntary control of body movements Autonomic: The part of the PNS responsible for such involuntary functions as heartbeat, blood pressure, and digestion Ganglia: A collection of nerve cell bodies Sympathatheic Nerves: The thoracic and lumbar divisions of the autonomic nervous system Parasympathetic Nerves: The cranial and sacral divisions of the autonomic nervous system
  • The special senses are concentrated in the head. The sense of touch is the primary exception to this. Chemoreceptor: A sensory receptor that detects chemical stimuli
  • Plasticity: The ability of neurons to alter their function as a result of experience and usage Redundancy: Two neural pathways that carry out equivalent functions

Ap ch09 Ap ch09 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 9
  • Applied Learning OutcomesUse the terminology associated with the nervous systemLearn about the following:• Nerve structure• Types of nerve pathways• Nervous system components• Central nervous system structure and function• Peripheral nervous system structure and functionUnderstand the aging and pathology of the nervous system Chapter 9 – Structure of the Nervous System
  • Overview Chapter 9 – Structure of the Nervous System
  • Nerve StructureA typical nerve iscovered by acontinuous protectivesheet of connectivetissue called theepineurium. Withinthat areneurofasciclessurrounded by acovering called theperineurium. Chapter 9 – Structure of the Nervous System
  • The Central Nervous SystemThe central nervous system is composed of the brain andthe spinal cord. Afferent peripheral nerves act as trunks thatfeed sensory information to the brain through their entry intothe spinal cord. Chapter 9 – Structure of the Nervous System
  • The Peripheral Nervous System The peripheral nervous system is composed of somatic nerves, autonomic nerves, and ganglia. It is divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Chapter 9 – Structure of the Nervous System
  • Human Senses• Gustation—Chemoreceptors on the tongue sense taste• Olfaction—Chemoreceptors in the nose sense smell• Vision—Photoreceptors in the retina of the eye sense light• Hearing—Neurons in the cochlea sense sound vibrations• Equilibrium—Neurons in the semicircular canals and vestibule of the ear sense position• Taction or Tactility—Sensory receptors in the skin perceive touch Chapter 9 – Structure of the Nervous System
  • Wellness and Illness over the Life Span• Most brain aging is due to loss of myelinization and decreased blood flow.• Most people show a decrease in complex brain functions as they age.• Aging is accompanied by some neuron loss in the brain. Plasticity and redundancy compensate for neuron loss in the CNS. Chapter 9 – Structure of the Nervous System
  • Summary• The human nervous system is formed of two components that work together to coordinate body functions: the central and peripheral nervous systems.• Information from the environment is transmitted to the CNS by nerves of the PNS.• Sensory information is used by the brain to formulate a response. Responses of the brain are channeled to the body via the somatic or autonomic nervous system.• Nervous system structure is subject to damage resulting from a variety of diseases. Chapter 9 – Structure of the Nervous System