Smooth Muscle: Found in the linings of blood vessels and tubular organs; provide the body with weak contractions that can last for long periods of time Cardiac Muscle: The muscle of the heart Skeletal Muscle: Muscle attached to bone; produces body movement Smooth and Cardiac muscle are involuntary – they work without conscious effort Skeletal muscle is voluntary – under conscious control
Parallel – Muscle cells that run in the same direction Pinnate – Muscle cells that run in various directions Gross Muscle Shapes: Deltoid – muscles that have a broad origin and focus to a narrow insertion point (triangular) Trapezius – muscles that have a broad origin and focus to a narrow insertion point (trapezoidal) Rhomboideus – diamond-shaped Serratus – saw-tooth-shaped Biceps – having two origins Triceps – having three origins Quadriceps – having four origins Maximus – largest of a group Minimus – smallest of a group Longis – longest of a group Brevis – shortest of a group
Review the human musculature chart - anterior
Review the human musculature chart - posterior
Applied Learning OutcomesUse the terminology associated with the musculature systemLearn about the following:• Different types of muscle cells• Muscle tissue development• Gross and fine muscle structure• Gross muscle function• Muscle cell physiology• Muscle types and actions• Muscle development and growthUnderstand the aging and pathology of the musculature Chapter 6 – The Muscular System
OverviewMuscle cells change their shapeby shortening along one or moreplanes; this is also calledcontraction.Over half the body’s mass iscomposed of muscle tissue, andover 90% of this muscle tissue isinvolved in skeletal movement. Chapter 6 – The Muscular System
MuscleThree types of muscle are found in the human body:• Smooth muscle• Cardiac muscle• Skeletal muscle Chapter 6 – The Muscular System
MusculatureMost muscles areformed of musclecells laid out in oneof two patterns:parallel or pinnateThese two patternscan be woven intoa variety of grossmuscle shapes Chapter 6 – The Muscular System
Musculature ChartsReview humanmusculature,anterior view Chapter 6 – The Muscular System
Musculature Charts Review human musculature, posterior view Chapter 6 – The Muscular System
Wellness and Illness over the Life Span• Some aging of the musculature is due to wear and tear• Overuse of muscles can cause damage, which can, in turn, produce muscle pathology• Some muscle diseases are genetic or developmental• Most disorders of the muscular system are due to interactions with the skeletal and nervous systems Chapter 6 – The Muscular System
SummaryMuscles cells are contractile and excitable.Contractile nature allows for movement; excitablenature permits voluntary or involuntary control.Skeletal muscle is the most common type of muscle.They work by shortening, lengthening, or remainingstationary.Muscle needs regular activity and proper nutrition toretain its size and function.Some aging of the musculature is due to wear andtear; diet and changes in hormone production canaffect muscle aging. A variety of genetic diseases canalso cause loss of muscle function. Chapter 6 – The Muscular System
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