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Ch. 8 Supplement
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Ch. 8 Supplement

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  • Lect/Disc 1
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    • 1. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 8 | 1 Ch. 8 Supplemental Information • The information in these slides is meant to supplement what is in our Snowman, McCown, & Biehler text. • Additional diagrams and definitions are included. This information comes from: – Cicarrelli – Omrod • Please let me know if you have any questions about how they relate to Ch. 8. It is sometimes tricky to convey the message of PowerPoints without an instructor’s verbal explanations.
    • 2. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 8 | 2 Memory and Its Processes • Memory - an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage. • Processes of Memory: – Encoding – Storage – Retrieval
    • 3. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 8 | 3 Models of Memory • Information-processing model – Discussed in Snowman (our) text • Levels-of-processing model • Parallel distributed processing (PDP) model
    • 4. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 8 | 4
    • 5. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 8 | 5 Role of Prior Knowledge in LTM Storage • It helps students determine what is most important to learn and directs their attention appropriately • It enables them to understand something instead lf learning it by rote (meaningful learning) • It provides a framework for organizing new information • It helps students elaborate on information, by filling in missing details, clarifying ambiguities, or drawing inferences. A note: Prior knowledge increases with age; therefore adults and older children learn new things more easily than younger children. They have more prior knowledge to help them understand and elaborate on new ideas.
    • 6. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 8 | 6 Types of LTM • Procedural (nondeclarative) memory - type of long-term memory including memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses (implicit) – Also include emotional associations, habits, and simple conditioned reflexes that may or may not be in conscious awareness. • Declarative memory (explicit) – type of long- term memory containing information that is conscious and known (memory for facts).
    • 7. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 8 | 7 Declarative LTM • Semantic memory - type of declarative memory containing general knowledge, such as knowledge of language and information learned in formal education. – This is the type of memory you are concerned with as teachers. • Episodic memory - type of declarative memory containing personal information not readily available to others, such as daily activities and events.
    • 8. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 8 | 8
    • 9. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 8 | 9 Retrieval & Forgetting Retrieving information from LTM: More likely when there are multiple connections to existing knowledge Teachers can help by showing how new material relates to numerous other things the students already know Retrieval cues: Hints about where to look in LTM Such as mnemonic devices It is easier to remember something in a recognition tasks than a recall task.
    • 10. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 8 | 10 Retrieval & Forgetting (cont.) Forgetting: Assuming the information was learned (encoded) in the first place, “forgetting” is typically a problem with retrieval, not the fact that information isn’t in the brain anymore Retrieval problems: • Inability to retrieve – perhaps because initial learning was by rote or there aren’t sufficient retrieval cues • Reconstruction error – retrieve part of the information; fill in the gaps with general knowledge and assumptions • Interference – various information in memory gets mixed up. Likely when items are similar and are learned in rote. • Decay – gradual fading process involving the loss of memory due to disuse over time

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