Preventing Cancer: How do you
protect yourself from 200
diseases?
Kathy Redmond, Editor, Cancer
World Magazine
What are cancers?
Cancer types
• Common
– Lung, prostate, breast and colorectal

• Rare
– About a quarter of all cancers

• Solid tumours
• ...
Breast cancer subtypes based on hormone receptor and HER-2 expression levels and Ki-67
staining.Abbreviations: ER, estroge...
One third of EU citizens are
smokers
Tobacco use in the EU 2009

http://ec.europa.eu/health/tobacco/docs/ebs332_en.pdf
http://www.dietandcancerreport.org/cancer_resource_center/downloads/Second_Expert_Report_full.pdf
About one third of all cancers
can be prevented
European Code Against Cancer
1) Do not smoke; if you smoke, stop doing so. If you fail to stop, do not smoke in the
presen...
European Code Against Cancer
There are Public Health programmes which could prevent cancers
developing or increase the pro...
Food, nutrition and physical activity
and the prevention of cancer
•
•
•
•
•

Be as lean as possible - maintain body weigh...
Cancer
chemoprevention
Challenges faced in
preventing cancer
Global survey on knowledge and
beliefs about cancer
• Survey carried out by UICC in 2007
• Findings were aggregated accord...
Perceived risk of smoking
Perceived cancer risk of smoking cigarettes
100
90
80
70

94

90
69

60
50
40
30
20
10

23
8

8
...
Perceived risk of being overweight
Perceived cancer risk of being overweight
100
90
80
70

63

60
50

42

44

50
41

40

3...
Perceived risk of drinking alcohol
Perceived cancer risk of drinking alcohol
100
90
80

71

70
60

56

51

50

42

40

29
...
Perceived risk of viruses
Perceived cancer risk from infection with viruses or
bacteria
100
90
80

70

70

57

60
50
40
30...
Perceived risk of stress
Perceived cancer risk from being stressed
100
90
80
70

59

60
50

40

40

57

44
35

30

30
20

...
Beliefs: causes of cancer

Lord et al. (2012) Clinical Oncology. 24, 4-12
Beliefs: causes of cancer by ethnic
group

Column 1: British White; Column 2: British South Asian
Lord et al. (2012) Clini...
Cancer Stigma
• Lance Armstrong Foundation conducted a survey on cancer
stigma in 2008
– Japan, Mexico, Russia, Argentina,...
Perceptions about cancer

http://www.livestrong.org/pdfs/3-0/LSGlobalResearchReport
Journalists have a role to play in
raising awareness about
modifiable cancer risks and
counteracting fatalistic cancer
att...
Effects of newspaper coverage on public
knowledge about modifiable cancer risks

Health Communication (2008) 23:4, 380-390
Effects of newspaper coverage on public
knowledge about modifiable cancer risks

Health Communication (2008) 23:4, 380-390
DISCUSSION
• Why is cancer prevention not covered well
by the media?
• What can be done to address this?
• How can the mas...
Otr prevention 17jun12
Otr prevention 17jun12
Otr prevention 17jun12
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  • {"4":"Breast cancer subtypes based on hormone receptor and HER-2 expression levels and Ki-67 staining.Abbreviations: ER, estrogen receptor; HER-2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; PR, progesterone receptor.\n"}
  • Otr prevention 17jun12

    1. 1. Preventing Cancer: How do you protect yourself from 200 diseases? Kathy Redmond, Editor, Cancer World Magazine
    2. 2. What are cancers?
    3. 3. Cancer types • Common – Lung, prostate, breast and colorectal • Rare – About a quarter of all cancers • Solid tumours • Blood and lymphatic system tumours
    4. 4. Breast cancer subtypes based on hormone receptor and HER-2 expression levels and Ki-67 staining.Abbreviations: ER, estrogen receptor; HER-2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; PR, progesterone receptor. Hortobagyi G N The Oncologist 2012;17:577-584 ©2012 by AlphaMed Press
    5. 5. One third of EU citizens are smokers
    6. 6. Tobacco use in the EU 2009 http://ec.europa.eu/health/tobacco/docs/ebs332_en.pdf
    7. 7. http://www.dietandcancerreport.org/cancer_resource_center/downloads/Second_Expert_Report_full.pdf
    8. 8. About one third of all cancers can be prevented
    9. 9. European Code Against Cancer 1) Do not smoke; if you smoke, stop doing so. If you fail to stop, do not smoke in the presence of non-smokers. 2) Avoid Obesity. 3) Undertake some brisk, physical activity every day. 4) Increase your daily intake and variety of vegetables and fruits: eat at least five servings daily. Limit your intake of foods containing fats from animal sources. 5) If you drink alcohol, whether beer, wine or spirits, moderate your consumption to two drinks per day if you are a man or one drink per day if you are a woman. 6) Care must be taken to avoid excessive sun exposure. It is specifically important to protect children and adolescents. For individuals who have a tendency to burn in the sun, active protective measures must be taken throughout life. 7) Apply strictly regulations aimed at preventing any exposure to known cancercausing substances. Follow all health and safety instructions on substances which may cause cancer. Follow advice of national radiation protection offices. http://www.cancercode.eu /
    10. 10. European Code Against Cancer There are Public Health programmes which could prevent cancers developing or increase the probability that a cancer may be cured: 1)Women from 25 years of age should participate in cervical screening. This should be within programmes with quality control procedures in compliance with “European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Screening”. 2)Women from 50 years of age should participate in breast screening. This should be within programmes with quality control procedures in compliance with “European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Mammography Screening”. 3)Men and women from 50 years of age should participate in colorectal screening. This should be within programmes with built-in quality assurance procedures. 4)Participate in vaccination programmes against hepatitis B virus infection. http://www.cancercode.eu/
    11. 11. Food, nutrition and physical activity and the prevention of cancer • • • • • Be as lean as possible - maintain body weight within normal range Be physically active every day Limit consumption of energy-dense foods and sugary drinks Eat mostly foods of plant origin Limit consumption of: – Red meat – Processed meats – Alcohol – salt • Avoid mouldy cereals or pulses • Avoid dietary supplements for cancer prevention • Breastfeed children for at least six months http://www.dietandcancerreport.org/cancer_resource_center/downloads/Second_Expert_Report_full.pdf
    12. 12. Cancer chemoprevention
    13. 13. Challenges faced in preventing cancer
    14. 14. Global survey on knowledge and beliefs about cancer • Survey carried out by UICC in 2007 • Findings were aggregated according to three World Bank income categories • The total sample size for the preliminary report was 29,925 – 5,521in low-income countries – 15,746 in middle-income countries – 8,658 in high-income countries http://old.uicc.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=16481&Itemid=544
    15. 15. Perceived risk of smoking Perceived cancer risk of smoking cigarettes 100 90 80 70 94 90 69 60 50 40 30 20 10 23 8 8 Low Middle 2 4 2 0 High World Bank income category Yes, increases cancer risk No risk Can't Say
    16. 16. Perceived risk of being overweight Perceived cancer risk of being overweight 100 90 80 70 63 60 50 42 44 50 41 40 31 30 20 14 9 10 6 0 Low Middle High World Bank income category Yes, increases cancer risk No risk Can't Say
    17. 17. Perceived risk of drinking alcohol Perceived cancer risk of drinking alcohol 100 90 80 71 70 60 56 51 50 42 40 29 30 20 26 15 10 8 3 0 Low Middle High World Bank income category Yes, increases cancer risk No risk Can't Say
    18. 18. Perceived risk of viruses Perceived cancer risk from infection with viruses or bacteria 100 90 80 70 70 57 60 50 40 30 40 39 32 22 23 20 11 7 10 0 Low Middle High World Bank income category Yes, increases cancer risk No risk Can't Say
    19. 19. Perceived risk of stress Perceived cancer risk from being stressed 100 90 80 70 59 60 50 40 40 57 44 35 30 30 20 16 11 7 10 0 Low Middle High World Bank income category Yes, increases cancer risk No risk Can't Say
    20. 20. Beliefs: causes of cancer Lord et al. (2012) Clinical Oncology. 24, 4-12
    21. 21. Beliefs: causes of cancer by ethnic group Column 1: British White; Column 2: British South Asian Lord et al. (2012) Clinical Oncology. 24, 4-12
    22. 22. Cancer Stigma • Lance Armstrong Foundation conducted a survey on cancer stigma in 2008 – Japan, Mexico, Russia, Argentina, Brazil, China, France, India, Italy, South Africa – About 500 people polled in each country • Survey showed that – Stigma continues to persist across countries, cultures and communities – Caused by misinformation, lack of awareness, deeply engrained cultural myths and fear – Opportunities to capitalise on shifting perceptions – Mass media are key resources for facilitating more positive attitudes http://www.livestrong.org/pdfs/3-0/LSGlobalResearchReport
    23. 23. Perceptions about cancer http://www.livestrong.org/pdfs/3-0/LSGlobalResearchReport
    24. 24. Journalists have a role to play in raising awareness about modifiable cancer risks and counteracting fatalistic cancer attitudes
    25. 25. Effects of newspaper coverage on public knowledge about modifiable cancer risks Health Communication (2008) 23:4, 380-390
    26. 26. Effects of newspaper coverage on public knowledge about modifiable cancer risks Health Communication (2008) 23:4, 380-390
    27. 27. DISCUSSION • Why is cancer prevention not covered well by the media? • What can be done to address this? • How can the mass media help counteract myths and misconceptions about cancer?
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