CHAPTER 2:
Infants, Toddlers, and Their
Families
Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive
Program Planning: A Relatio...
Our biology affects parenting



Long gestation



Difficult birth process



Dependency of the infant



Predictable ...
Our culture affects parenting
Individualist

Collectivist

Individuals

Group



Independence

Cooperation



Competit...
Cultural questions in programs


Differences between parents and teachers
may be grounded in each person’s own
invisible ...
Variations in parenting
Early experiences
Daughters

of single mothers more likely to
become mothers outside of marriage
...
Variations in parenting
Single parents’ other adult relationships
Emotional

and family

support for mother through frien...
Variations in parenting
Economics
Higher

income fathers are more involved
unless work pressures interfere
Flexible

wor...
Becoming a mother


“Natural progression and monumental
transition”



Universal and personal



Struggles:






...
Becoming a father


1 in 3 American children live without their
father



Father engagement: quantity and quality
of tim...
The imagined baby and the real
baby


Imagining ideal baby during pregnancy



Learning to know and accept the real baby...
Parenting styles


Indulgent or permissive



Authoritarian



Authoritative



Uninvolved
(Baumrind, 1991)

Implicati...
Family structure
“Children’s optimal development seems to be
influenced more by the nature of the
relationships and family...
Divorce
Unique issues for infants and toddlers


Sensitivity to tension, sadness, anger



Adjustment to day and night c...
Same sex parents
“More than two decades of research has failed to
reveal important differences in the adjustment or
develo...
Grandparents


May offer stable home



Parents may be present



Often no legal authority

Implications for care teach...
Adoptive parents


Age at adoption



Circumstances leading up to adoption



Difficulty of repeatedly establishing new...
Foster parents


Infants are 20% of children in foster care



May have experienced abuse, neglect, in
utero exposure to...
Care and education programs
that support families


Parent education



Family support



Home-visiting



Parent Trai...
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Ozark Technical Community College Early Childhood Education Ecd 210 chp 2 pp

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Ozark Technical Community College Early Childhood Education Ecd 210 chp 2 pp

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2: Infants, Toddlers, and Their Families Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning: A Relationship-Based Approach Third Edition Donna S. Wittmer Sandy Petersen © 2014, 2010, 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  2. 2. Our biology affects parenting  Long gestation  Difficult birth process  Dependency of the infant  Predictable responses of parents to newborns Wittmer/Petersen. Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning, 3e. 2-2
  3. 3. Our culture affects parenting Individualist Collectivist Individuals Group  Independence Cooperation  Competition Interdependent  Production  Personal responsibility  interests Process (rather than production) Wittmer/Petersen. Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning, 3e. 2-3
  4. 4. Cultural questions in programs  Differences between parents and teachers may be grounded in each person’s own invisible cultural beliefs about babies.  Some cultural differences may not be negotiated – spanking is never allowed in child care. Wittmer/Petersen. Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning, 3e. 2-4
  5. 5. Variations in parenting Early experiences Daughters of single mothers more likely to become mothers outside of marriage Sons of unstable households w/ many transitions are likely to become young fathers not living with the mother Early attachment relationships Wittmer/Petersen. Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning, 3e. 2-5
  6. 6. Variations in parenting Single parents’ other adult relationships Emotional and family support for mother through friends Wittmer/Petersen. Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning, 3e. 2-6
  7. 7. Variations in parenting Economics Higher income fathers are more involved unless work pressures interfere Flexible work schedules Wittmer/Petersen. Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning, 3e. 2-7
  8. 8. Becoming a mother  “Natural progression and monumental transition”  Universal and personal  Struggles:      Fatigue Loss of identity Marital dissatisfaction Overly high standards for doing everything right Depression Implications for care teachers? Wittmer/Petersen. Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning, 3e. 2-8
  9. 9. Becoming a father  1 in 3 American children live without their father  Father engagement: quantity and quality of time, attachment, sensitivity  Mother’s positive attitude toward father  Parents’ positive relationship Implications for care teachers? Wittmer/Petersen. Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning, 3e. 2-9
  10. 10. The imagined baby and the real baby  Imagining ideal baby during pregnancy  Learning to know and accept the real baby Implications for care teachers? Wittmer/Petersen. Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning, 3e. 2-10
  11. 11. Parenting styles  Indulgent or permissive  Authoritarian  Authoritative  Uninvolved (Baumrind, 1991) Implications for care teachers? Wittmer/Petersen. Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning, 3e. 2-11
  12. 12. Family structure “Children’s optimal development seems to be influenced more by the nature of the relationships and family interactions within the family unit than by the particular structural form it takes”. (Perrin, 2002, p. 341) Wittmer/Petersen. Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning, 3e. 2-12
  13. 13. Divorce Unique issues for infants and toddlers  Sensitivity to tension, sadness, anger  Adjustment to day and night cycles  Need for predictability and regularity  Breastfeeding Implications for care teachers? Wittmer/Petersen. Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning, 3e. 2-13
  14. 14. Same sex parents “More than two decades of research has failed to reveal important differences in the adjustment or development of children or adolescents reared by same-sex couples compared to those reared by other-sex couples. Results of the research suggest that qualities of family relationships are more tightly linked with child outcomes than is parental sexual orientation” Patterson (2006) p.241 Implications for care teachers? Wittmer/Petersen. Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning, 3e. 2-14
  15. 15. Grandparents  May offer stable home  Parents may be present  Often no legal authority Implications for care teachers? Wittmer/Petersen. Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning, 3e. 2-15
  16. 16. Adoptive parents  Age at adoption  Circumstances leading up to adoption  Difficulty of repeatedly establishing new relationships for infants and toddlers Implications for care teachers? Wittmer/Petersen. Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning, 3e. 2-16
  17. 17. Foster parents  Infants are 20% of children in foster care  May have experienced abuse, neglect, in utero exposure to drugs or alcohol, violence, sexual abuse  Premature, low birth weight  Serious health and developmental problems Implications for care teachers? Wittmer/Petersen. Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning, 3e. 2-17
  18. 18. Care and education programs that support families  Parent education  Family support  Home-visiting  Parent Training and Information Centers  Parent to Parent Wittmer/Petersen. Infant and Toddler Development and Responsive Program Planning, 3e. 2-18

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