NCVPS Earth and
The definition of the universe is all
matter and energy.
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Image credit: NASA/Swift Science Team/Stefan Immler
The galaxies are made up of groups of hundreds of
billions of stars. There are hundreds of billions of galaxies.
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Space Images Search: galaxy evolution explorer (galex),spitzer space
telescope - NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
A light year is the
time it takes light to
travel in one year at
186,000 miles per
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light year illustration. Light-year
depiction. From StarChild site at
NASA/ GSFC which should make this
image Public Domain
The speed of light
is 186,000 miles
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Hydrogen and helium are the two
main components of stars.
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Foto: NASA / Solar Dynamics Observatory
There are hundreds
of billions of stars in a
Kepler Mission Manager Update –
503 New Planet
Candidateskepler.nasa.gov1600 × 12
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Kepler is studying over 150,000 stars in
our neighborhood of our galaxy in
the Cygnus and Lyra constellations.
Stars create their energy
through the process of nuclear
fusion. Fusion is the process in
which light atoms combine to
form heavier atoms, giving off
excess energy in the process.
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Image credit: NASA.
One star and all of the objects that
orbit it make up a solar system.
GSI Web - Planet Earth
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The Solar System photo modified from http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/
Our Earth is part of the galaxy we
know as the Milky Way.
www.unc.edu277 × 239Search by imageProfessor, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering Director, Environmental
A 'planet' is defined as a round celestial body that is in orbit
around the sun.
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Image credit: NASA/Tim Pyle Click image for full-resolution. Kepler-11 is a sun-like star around which six planets orbit
Planets became round because of
the force of gravity.
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montage of planets Image right: Montage of planets. Image credit: NASA/JPL + Browse version of image
Planets orbiting the sun, moons orbiting planets, comets
orbiting the sun are all examples of satellites.
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Drawing of solar system, showing all planets, the asteroid belt, and the Kuiper. Ceres orbits in the Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter.
Planets and comets orbiting the sun
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Schematic showing comet LINEAR orbit
moons orbiting planets
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Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope discovered a fourth moon orbiting the icy dwarf planet Pluto
Comets orbiting the sun
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Harley 2 path through the inner solar system with photo of the
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imagehttp://climate.nasa.gov/images/normPage-10.jpg. Designing a Satellite. A satellite in space generally has a dish to receive
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NASA's Stardust-NExT spacecraft is nearing a celestial date with comet Tempel 1 at approximately 8:37 p.m. PST (11:37 p.m. EST), on Feb. 14
Because Copernicus discovered that planets orbit the sun, he
developed the Heliocentric Model.
Helio=sun, Centric= center
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Copernicus' heliocentric view of the
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Tyco Brahe was Johannes Kepler’s
teacher and his boss.
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Kepler’s 1st Law
Angular Parameters of Elliptical OrbitCC BY-SA 3.0
Orbits are elliptical.
Kepler’s 2nd Law
The line connecting the Sun to a
planet sweeps equal areas in equal
Animations for Physics and Astronomy
Catalog for: Astronomy Animations
These animations are available for use under a Creative Commons License.
Kepler’s 3rd Law
Kepler's third law, the law of periods,
relates the time required for a planet to
make one complete trip around the
Sun to its mean distance from the Sun.
"For any planet, the square of its period
of revolution is directly proportional to
the cube of its mean distance from the
Sun." Applied to Earth satellites, Kepler's
third law explains that the farther a
satellite is from the Earth, the longer it
will take to complete an orbit, the
greater the distance it will travel to
complete an orbit, and the slower its
average speed will be
The main point of
Kepler’s third law is to
Earth’s gravity pulls
on the moon and
keeps it in orbit
around the Earth.
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The Moon's orbit crosses Earth's magnetotail.
What is the difference between
rotation and revolution?
Rotation = earth’s spin
Revolution = Orbit around
Geography: Earth in Space & Place
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Summary: Earth = the “Goldilocks” planet (it's “just right” for life).
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Diagram of Earth's rotation around the sun and how it causes
seasonal. Credit: NASA. Today, June 21, 2013, is officially the first day
Because it takes the Earth 365.25 days to orbit the sun, we end up with one
extra day every 4 years. So the year with the extra day is called
APOD: 2000 February 29 - Julius Caesar and Leap Days
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The sun warms the earth differently according to Tilt of the Earth.
This change in the tilt of the earth is what causes the seasons.
The precession causes the vernal
equinox point g to migrate
clockwise along the Earth's orbit,
shifting the Earth�s seasons
relative to the orbit's eccentric
shape; this motion constitutes the
"precession of the equinoxes." The
angle v between g and P is the
moving longitude of perihelion
and is used in the precession index
esinv to track Earth-Sun distance.
Precession is the change in direction of the axis, but without
any change in the tilt. This changes the relative positions of the
stars but does not affect the seasons.
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A representation of the solar system. / Courtesy NASA
Nutation is a wobbling around the
precessional axis. Does is affect
U.S. Naval Observatory » Media Gallery
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Schematic diagram showing precession and nutation description:
Barycenter is the point between two objects
where they balance each other.
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As seen from above, a large planet orbits a star–or rather the star and planet orbit their shared center of mass, or barycenter.
The gravity of the moon pulls on the
ocean’s water. This causes tides.
Scijinks :: Tidal weirdness
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Drawing shows Moon's gravity pulling about 45 degrees from pull of sun's gravity. Their
combined pull is greatest at a point between, thus creating the highest tide there, rather than when the
Moon is directly overhead.
Both the pull of gravity from the sun
and the moon cause tides.
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The Moon in turn induces tides on Earth - both ocean and solid Earth tides. These tides vary on a 12-hour interval basis.
There is a bulge at the equator of the Earth because the circumference around
the equator is slightly bigger than the circumference around the poles.
This is a "full-disk" image of the Earth taken from the GOES-11 satellite at 8 a.m. EDT on Aug. 12.
Credit: NASA/GOES Project
Earth’s bulge at the middle
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Pictorial Study Guide for Module 15
By Kella Randolph
Earth and Environmental Science