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Module 15 pictorial study guide


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  • 1. Module 15 NCVPS Earth and Environmental Science Planetary Motion
  • 2. The definition of the universe is all matter and energy.  imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov1306 × 822Search by image  Image credit: NASA/Swift Science Team/Stefan Immler
  • 3. The galaxies are made up of groups of hundreds of billions of stars. There are hundreds of billions of galaxies.  www.jpl.nasa.gov2228 × 3462Search by image  Space Images Search: galaxy evolution explorer (galex),spitzer space telescope - NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
  • 4. A light year is the time it takes light to travel in one year at 186,000 miles per second. maggieameanderings.com270 × 180Search by image light year illustration. Light-year depiction. From StarChild site at NASA/ GSFC which should make this image Public Domain
  • 5. The speed of light is 186,000 miles per second. (Droit d'auteur : les textes sont disponibles sous licence Creative Commons paternité partage à l’identique ; d’autres conditions peuvent s’appliquer. Voyez les conditions d’utilisation pour plus de détails, ainsi que les crédits graphiques. En cas de réutilisation des textes de cette page, voyez comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. Wikipedia® est une marque déposée de la Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., organisation de bienfaisance régie par le paragraphe 501(c)(3) du code fiscal des États-Unis.)
  • 6. Hydrogen and helium are the two main components of stars.  www.infoescola.com4096 × 4096Search by image  Foto: NASA / Solar Dynamics Observatory
  • 7. There are hundreds of billions of stars in a galaxy. Kepler Mission Manager Update – 503 New Planet Candidateskepler.nasa.gov1600 × 12 06Search by image Kepler is studying over 150,000 stars in our neighborhood of our galaxy in the Cygnus and Lyra constellations.
  • 8. Stars create their energy through the process of nuclear fusion. Fusion is the process in which light atoms combine to form heavier atoms, giving off excess energy in the process. scienceblogs.com447 × 430Search by image Image credit: NASA.
  • 9. One star and all of the objects that orbit it make up a solar system.  GSI Web - Planet Earth  www.gsi.ie450 × 244Search by image  The Solar System photo modified from
  • 10. Our Earth is part of the galaxy we know as the Milky Way.  www.unc.edu277 × 239Search by imageProfessor, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering Director, Environmental Microbiology Laboratory
  • 11. A 'planet' is defined as a round celestial body that is in orbit around the sun.  www.nasa.gov3300 × 2476Search by image  Image credit: NASA/Tim Pyle Click image for full-resolution. Kepler-11 is a sun-like star around which six planets orbit
  • 12. Planets became round because of the force of gravity.  www.nasa.gov800 × 640Search by image  montage of planets Image right: Montage of planets. Image credit: NASA/JPL + Browse version of image
  • 13. Planets orbiting the sun, moons orbiting planets, comets orbiting the sun are all examples of satellites.  spaceplace.nasa.gov900 × 469Search by image  Drawing of solar system, showing all planets, the asteroid belt, and the Kuiper. Ceres orbits in the Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter.
  • 14. Planets and comets orbiting the sun  chandra.harvard.edu510 × 317Search by image  Schematic showing comet LINEAR orbit
  • 15. moons orbiting planets  nasa-satellites.blogspot.com1500 × 1317Search by image  Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope discovered a fourth moon orbiting the icy dwarf planet Pluto
  • 16. Comets orbiting the sun  www.nasa.gov2400 × 1800Search by imageIllustration of Comet Harley 2 path through the inner solar system with photo of the comet.
  • 17. Man-made satellites  Space Based Wireless Communication | Science Of Smart Citiessosc.poly.edu560 × 420Search by image Designing a Satellite. A satellite in space generally has a dish to receive transmitted data  nasa-spacestation-info.blogspot.com708 × 256Search by image  NASA's Stardust-NExT spacecraft is nearing a celestial date with comet Tempel 1 at approximately 8:37 p.m. PST (11:37 p.m. EST), on Feb. 14
  • 18. Because Copernicus discovered that planets orbit the sun, he developed the Heliocentric Model. Helio=sun, Centric= center earthobservatory.nasa.gov678 × 483Search by image  Copernicus' heliocentric view of the universe.  Nicolaus Copernicus  starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov225 × 258Search by image
  • 19. Tyco Brahe was Johannes Kepler’s teacher and his boss.  history.nasa.gov238 × 344 www.usu.edu230 × 185Search by image
  • 20. Kepler’s 1st Law  ml  Angular Parameters of Elliptical OrbitCC BY-SA 3.0 Orbits are elliptical.
  • 21. Kepler’s 2nd Law The line connecting the Sun to a planet sweeps equal areas in equal time.   Animations for Physics and Astronomy Catalog for: Astronomy Animations These animations are available for use under a Creative Commons License.
  • 22. Kepler’s 3rd Law  Kepler's third law, the law of periods, relates the time required for a planet to make one complete trip around the Sun to its mean distance from the Sun. "For any planet, the square of its period of revolution is directly proportional to the cube of its mean distance from the Sun." Applied to Earth satellites, Kepler's third law explains that the farther a satellite is from the Earth, the longer it will take to complete an orbit, the greater the distance it will travel to complete an orbit, and the slower its average speed will be  ures/movies/kepler.html The main point of Kepler’s third law is to measure distances between planets
  • 23. Earth’s gravity pulls on the moon and keeps it in orbit around the Earth.  science1.nasa.gov1144 × 1236Search by image  The Moon's orbit crosses Earth's magnetotail. Gravity
  • 24. What is the difference between rotation and revolution? Rotation = earth’s spin Revolution = Orbit around the sun  Geography: Earth in Space & Place  clasfaculty.ucdenver.edu1601 × 1198Search by image  Summary: Earth = the “Goldilocks” planet (it's “just right” for life).  www.ncdc.noaa.gov431 × 356Search by image  Diagram of Earth's rotation around the sun and how it causes seasonal. Credit: NASA. Today, June 21, 2013, is officially the first day of summer
  • 25. Phases of the moon
  • 26. Because it takes the Earth 365.25 days to orbit the sun, we end up with one extra day every 4 years. So the year with the extra day is called leap year.  APOD: 2000 February 29 - Julius Caesar and Leap Days  apod.nasa.gov417 × 415Search by image
  • 27. The sun warms the earth differently according to Tilt of the Earth. This change in the tilt of the earth is what causes the seasons.  The precession causes the vernal equinox point g to migrate clockwise along the Earth's orbit, shifting the Earth�s seasons relative to the orbit's eccentric shape; this motion constitutes the "precession of the equinoxes." The angle v between g and P is the moving longitude of perihelion and is used in the precession index esinv to track Earth-Sun distance.   /data/paleo/softlib/analyseries/
  • 28. Precession is the change in direction of the axis, but without any change in the tilt. This changes the relative positions of the stars but does not affect the seasons.  frontierscientists.com525 × 176Search by image  A representation of the solar system. / Courtesy NASA
  • 29. Nutation is a wobbling around the precessional axis. Does is affect the seasons?  U.S. Naval Observatory » Media Gallery  www.meted.ucar.edu300 × 400Search by image  Schematic diagram showing precession and nutation description:
  • 30. Barycenter is the point between two objects where they balance each other.  doppspec-above.en.gif  spaceplace.nasa.gov300 × 243Search by image  As seen from above, a large planet orbits a star–or rather the star and planet orbit their shared center of mass, or barycenter.
  • 31. The gravity of the moon pulls on the ocean’s water. This causes tides.  Scijinks :: Tidal weirdness  scijinks.nasa.gov500 × 284Search by image  Drawing shows Moon's gravity pulling about 45 degrees from pull of sun's gravity. Their combined pull is greatest at a point between, thus creating the highest tide there, rather than when the Moon is directly overhead.
  • 32. Both the pull of gravity from the sun and the moon cause tides.  web.ics.purdue.edu586 × 264Search by image  The Moon in turn induces tides on Earth - both ocean and solid Earth tides. These tides vary on a 12-hour interval basis.
  • 33. There is a bulge at the equator of the Earth because the circumference around the equator is slightly bigger than the circumference around the poles.  This is a "full-disk" image of the Earth taken from the GOES-11 satellite at 8 a.m. EDT on Aug. 12. Credit: NASA/GOES Project
  • 34. Earth’s bulge at the middle  earth.usc.edu1006 × 732Search by image
  • 35. Pictorial Study Guide for Module 15  Orbital Motions  By Kella Randolph  NCVPS  Earth and Environmental Science