NCVPS Earth and Environmental
Science
Lecture and Study Guide 3
Rocks, Soils, Erosion,
Weathering and Deposition
Pictures added to Study Guide
By Kella Randolph...
3 types of rocks
Igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
Igneous
Metamorphic rocks
Sedimentary rocks
There are hundreds of different sedimentary
rock types.
intrusive igneous
Intrusive- hardens underground
extrusive igneous
Extrusive- hardens above ground
How are
sedimentary rocks
formed?
Compaction and cementation of sediments.
What are the forces
that form
metamorphic rocks?
Heat and pressure
What is humus
made of?
Decaying organic matter.
How long does it take
soil to form from
parent rock?
Hundreds of years
Why is soil important
to living things?
Because plant roots need soil to grow.
3 basic soil particles
Sand, silt and clay
sand
silt
clay
What is loamy soil?
A mixture of sand, clay and humus
Name the layers of a
soil profile.
Organic layer
Topsoil
Weathered parent material
Unweathered Parent material
Define weathering.
The breaking down and building up of the
Earth’s surface.
What are the 2 types
of weathering?
Physical/Mechanical and Chemical
Mechanical or
Physical weathering
Name six main processes of physical
weathering.
Gravity
Exfoliation
Impact and abrasion
...
Gravity
Impact and
abrasion
Exfoliation
Frost action
Temperature
Alternating freeze and thaw creates cracks in
stone, breaking it into smaller pieces.
Organic activity
Tiny roots excrete acids that eat into stone,
providing a hold for the tree and nutrients as
well.
Chemical
weathering
Name five main processes of chemical
weathering.
Water
Oxidation
Carbonation
Sulfuric acid (acid rain)...
Water weathering
As glaciers move, they gouge out large
amounts of rocks and soil, carrying these
many miles.
Oxidation
As the oxygen in the air interacts with the
iron in the soil, the iron oxidizes, or rusts,
turning red.
Carbonation
Water dissolves minerals and redeposits
them as water drips from the ceiling of a
cave.
Sulfuric acid (acid
rain)
Acid rain is formed when acidic air pollutants
mix with rain.
Plant acids
Acids from tiny roots dissolve rock allowing
the root to grow into a stone.
What are the five
causes of soil
mismanagement?
Clearing vegetation
Plants planted in the wrong location
Overuse of pestic...
Clearing
vegetation
Plants planted in
the wrong location
It is a mistake to plant a tree where soil or
environmental conditions will not favor...
Overuse of
pesticides and
fertilizers
Overuse of DDT resulted in thin eggshells for
eagles. A food chain: worms on plants ...
Pollution of cars
and factories
Compaction from
animals roads and
construction
Define erosion.
The process by which weathered material is
moved from one place to another.
Define deposition.
The process by which sediments are laid
down.
Name five agents of
erosion.
Wind
Gravity
Running water
Waves
Glaciers
Wind
Gravity
Rain soaked ground becomes mud. Mud
slides downhill, carrying trees and rocks with
it.
Running water
Cliffs eroded by running water from rain and
waves
Waves
Coastal erosion wearing away beach
Glaciers
Ice in glaciers grabs onto soil and rocks,
dragging them along as the glacier melts
back or slides forward.
Why does running
water account for the
greatest changes on
the landscape?
Because over time, it can erode rocks and
cause ...
How does urban
storm water affect
the water quality?
After a storm, all the city’s pollution gets
washed into the creeks a...
down cutting
Downcutting is the downward erosion of a
stream channel
stream energy
Stream energy is the velocity of a stream.
stream load
The stuff that gets carried in a stream.
Stream load is the amount of stuff the water
is carrying.
How does stream
deposition occur?
Results from decreasing water velocity.
Where do river
systems come from?
All the water ways that drain into a river
from tributaries
Describe an oxbow
lake.
When a meander gets cut off from the main
river, an oxbow lake forms.
Describe a delta.
This is where a river empties into a larger
body of water, causes a back up usually
creating a wetland.
What are levees?
Natural ridges that hold back water.
What are the four
factors that wind
erosion is dependent
upon?
(1)Size of particles being carried
(2) Speed of the wind
(3...
Describe how waves
constantly change
shorelines.
Waves receive their energy from winds that
blow across the water surface....
What are seven
ways to control
erosion?
Construction sites can use sediment fencing.
Contour farming
Collect and direct ur...
Construction sites
can use sediment
fencing.
Contour farming
Collect and direct
urban run-off
Terracing
Strip cropping
Plant vegetation
Anchor the soil
There are many things that we
can do to help conserve and
protect our precious natural
resources.
The earth is our home. K...
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Lecture and study guide rocks, soils, erosion, weathering and deposition

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Earth and Environmental Science
NCVPS Lecture and Study Guide to Rocks, soils, erosion, weathering, and deposition. Pictures added to illustrate Earth processes.

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Lecture and study guide rocks, soils, erosion, weathering and deposition

  1. 1. NCVPS Earth and Environmental Science
  2. 2. Lecture and Study Guide 3 Rocks, Soils, Erosion, Weathering and Deposition Pictures added to Study Guide By Kella Randolph All art fro Creative Commons via Bing Online Images Music from Kalinda
  3. 3. 3 types of rocks Igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
  4. 4. Igneous
  5. 5. Metamorphic rocks
  6. 6. Sedimentary rocks There are hundreds of different sedimentary rock types.
  7. 7. intrusive igneous Intrusive- hardens underground
  8. 8. extrusive igneous Extrusive- hardens above ground
  9. 9. How are sedimentary rocks formed? Compaction and cementation of sediments.
  10. 10. What are the forces that form metamorphic rocks? Heat and pressure
  11. 11. What is humus made of? Decaying organic matter.
  12. 12. How long does it take soil to form from parent rock? Hundreds of years
  13. 13. Why is soil important to living things? Because plant roots need soil to grow.
  14. 14. 3 basic soil particles Sand, silt and clay
  15. 15. sand
  16. 16. silt
  17. 17. clay
  18. 18. What is loamy soil? A mixture of sand, clay and humus
  19. 19. Name the layers of a soil profile. Organic layer Topsoil Weathered parent material Unweathered Parent material
  20. 20. Define weathering. The breaking down and building up of the Earth’s surface.
  21. 21. What are the 2 types of weathering? Physical/Mechanical and Chemical
  22. 22. Mechanical or Physical weathering Name six main processes of physical weathering. Gravity Exfoliation Impact and abrasion Frost action Temperature Organic activity
  23. 23. Gravity
  24. 24. Impact and abrasion
  25. 25. Exfoliation
  26. 26. Frost action
  27. 27. Temperature Alternating freeze and thaw creates cracks in stone, breaking it into smaller pieces.
  28. 28. Organic activity Tiny roots excrete acids that eat into stone, providing a hold for the tree and nutrients as well.
  29. 29. Chemical weathering Name five main processes of chemical weathering. Water Oxidation Carbonation Sulfuric acid (acid rain) Plant acids
  30. 30. Water weathering As glaciers move, they gouge out large amounts of rocks and soil, carrying these many miles.
  31. 31. Oxidation As the oxygen in the air interacts with the iron in the soil, the iron oxidizes, or rusts, turning red.
  32. 32. Carbonation Water dissolves minerals and redeposits them as water drips from the ceiling of a cave.
  33. 33. Sulfuric acid (acid rain) Acid rain is formed when acidic air pollutants mix with rain.
  34. 34. Plant acids Acids from tiny roots dissolve rock allowing the root to grow into a stone.
  35. 35. What are the five causes of soil mismanagement? Clearing vegetation Plants planted in the wrong location Overuse of pesticides and fertilizers Pollution of cars and factories Compaction from animals roads and construction
  36. 36. Clearing vegetation
  37. 37. Plants planted in the wrong location It is a mistake to plant a tree where soil or environmental conditions will not favor good growth, where it will eventually need regular and heavy corrective pruning or where it may need to be completely removed within a few years.
  38. 38. Overuse of pesticides and fertilizers Overuse of DDT resulted in thin eggshells for eagles. A food chain: worms on plants ate poison. Birds and other small animals and fish, ate the worms. Eagles ate the animals that had eaten the worms. The pesticide was carried in the bodies of every creature that ate. When female eagles laid eggs with thin shells, due to the DDT, the eggs broke when the mother sat on them to keep them warm. Baby eagles died before they could hatch, because the shells broke. The American Eagle was almost made extinct. DDT is banned in the USA and some other countries now.
  39. 39. Pollution of cars and factories
  40. 40. Compaction from animals roads and construction
  41. 41. Define erosion. The process by which weathered material is moved from one place to another.
  42. 42. Define deposition. The process by which sediments are laid down.
  43. 43. Name five agents of erosion. Wind Gravity Running water Waves Glaciers
  44. 44. Wind
  45. 45. Gravity Rain soaked ground becomes mud. Mud slides downhill, carrying trees and rocks with it.
  46. 46. Running water Cliffs eroded by running water from rain and waves
  47. 47. Waves Coastal erosion wearing away beach
  48. 48. Glaciers Ice in glaciers grabs onto soil and rocks, dragging them along as the glacier melts back or slides forward.
  49. 49. Why does running water account for the greatest changes on the landscape? Because over time, it can erode rocks and cause canyons.
  50. 50. How does urban storm water affect the water quality? After a storm, all the city’s pollution gets washed into the creeks and streams.
  51. 51. down cutting Downcutting is the downward erosion of a stream channel
  52. 52. stream energy Stream energy is the velocity of a stream.
  53. 53. stream load The stuff that gets carried in a stream. Stream load is the amount of stuff the water is carrying.
  54. 54. How does stream deposition occur? Results from decreasing water velocity.
  55. 55. Where do river systems come from? All the water ways that drain into a river from tributaries
  56. 56. Describe an oxbow lake. When a meander gets cut off from the main river, an oxbow lake forms.
  57. 57. Describe a delta. This is where a river empties into a larger body of water, causes a back up usually creating a wetland.
  58. 58. What are levees? Natural ridges that hold back water.
  59. 59. What are the four factors that wind erosion is dependent upon? (1)Size of particles being carried (2) Speed of the wind (3) Length of time the wind blows (4) Resistance of rocks exposed to wind
  60. 60. Describe how waves constantly change shorelines. Waves receive their energy from winds that blow across the water surface. The size of a wave depends on how fast, how far, and how long the wind blows.
  61. 61. What are seven ways to control erosion? Construction sites can use sediment fencing. Contour farming Collect and direct urban run-off Terracing Strip cropping Plant vegetation Anchor the soil
  62. 62. Construction sites can use sediment fencing.
  63. 63. Contour farming
  64. 64. Collect and direct urban run-off
  65. 65. Terracing
  66. 66. Strip cropping
  67. 67. Plant vegetation
  68. 68. Anchor the soil
  69. 69. There are many things that we can do to help conserve and protect our precious natural resources. The earth is our home. Keep it healthy!
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