The Beginning of Green
Officially initiated in 1943 by Norman Borlaug, who was
supported by Rockefeller Foundation and sent to Mexico.
He established the antecedent of CIMMYT (International
maize and wheat improvement center) .
The Rockefeller Foundation cooperated
with The Ford Foundation in 1962 to
start the similar project in Asia.
IRRI (International Rice Research
These institutes developed HYV.
High Yielding Varieties :
Pros and Cons
• HYV is genetically enhanced cultivars of grain.
Compared to traditional varieties;
grow faster, crop increased,
higher resistivity to diseases.
need more fertilizer and
pesticides, and controlled water
The beginning of Green
Revolution in India
• Since the independence in
1947, India was unable to feed
• Indian government invited Dr.
Norman Borlaug as an advisor,
aiming to introduce GR for
solving food shortage and
improving economic status.
The first site for Green
• The Ford Foundation and Punjab
collaborated to import HYV
wheat seed from CIMMYT.
• Punjab was selected by the
Indian government to be the
first site because of its
reliable water supply and a
history of agricultural
HYV (high-yielding varieties)
We can finally feed
• As a result of introducing
HYV since 1965, the crop
production increased so
that India became self-
sufficient in grains.
Transition of Green Revolution
rapid increase in crop production, due to the expansion of
OK, GR surely increased the crop
production in India. Nice.
…What else did this technology
transfer bring to India?
• It is said that India’s
economy has grown
1990s due to
successful GR with
stable food supply
• any companies had
supported GR since its
beginning in order to make
profit from business chances
accompanied with it.
As aforementioned, farmers can benefit
from HYV ONLY IF good amount of
fertilizer, pesticide, and water are given.
Soil and ecosystem have been damaged.
Wells are dried quickly.
more to name…
Changes in local communities
Local communities got free economy, and
traditional community spirit was marginalized.
The richer, the more benefit a
farmer can get from new
technologies: The gap among
Indian farmers became bigger.
• When applying t/t , not only the technology has a key
role, but its process has significant effect on the
• Throughout the t/t process, the social structures are
often the biggest obstacles to succeed: t/t is often
distorted by factors that are NOT related to
• Let’s understand the social structure around GR:
relationships between the stakeholders involved in
this huge t/t process.
• The materials describe the facts in more detail.
Based on this slide and the materials, please find
“stakeholders” involved in GR in India.
• When you discuss within group, you can use the
cards and labels distributed.
• Please discuss how the stakeholders were involved
in GR and related to each other, and put all of them
into a “correlation map” (till 10:50)
What is “Green Revolution”?
Advanced Country Developing Country
Expansion of market economy
Traditional farming system
Inhabitation of microorganisms in soil
Least amount of
Organic crops agricultural chemicals
Implant awareness of their “poverty” into developing used
countries Collect seeds
X No return
Large amount of
HYV Weed increase
Aid given by ODA Fund / loan
and World bank Large amount of agricultual
Treditional breed cannot be chemicals needed
Larger scale Bumper crop Fall of subsistence farming
Multi- → Single-crop farming Fall in prices
Need for continuous fund fling/injection Need to buy food / crops
Fall of the nation
Fund / loan
Intervention in the affairs of another country Dependency of developing countries on advanced
Structural Adjustment Policies countries