Gr of india intro 22072010


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Gr of india intro 22072010

  1. 1. Technology Transfer in Agriculture
  2. 2. Introduction  
  3. 3. Green Revolution in India Thematic Session ~Agriculture~
  4. 4. What is Green Revolution?  
  5. 5. The Beginning of Green Revolution Officially initiated in 1943 by Norman Borlaug, who was supported by Rockefeller Foundation and sent to Mexico. He established the antecedent of CIMMYT (International maize and wheat improvement center) .
 The Rockefeller Foundation cooperated with The Ford Foundation in 1962 to start the similar project in Asia. IRRI (International Rice Research Institute, Philippines.) These institutes developed HYV.
  6. 6. High Yielding Varieties : Pros and Cons • HYV is genetically enhanced cultivars of grain. Compared to traditional varieties;  grow faster, crop increased, higher resistivity to diseases. need more fertilizer and pesticides, and controlled water supply.
  7. 7. The beginning of Green Revolution in India •  Since the independence in 1947, India was unable to feed its citizen. •  Indian government invited Dr. Norman Borlaug as an advisor, aiming to introduce GR for solving food shortage and improving economic status.
  8. 8. The first site for Green Revolution, Punjab •  The Ford Foundation and Punjab Indian government collaborated to import HYV wheat seed from CIMMYT. •  Punjab was selected by the Indian government to be the first site because of its reliable water supply and a history of agricultural success.
  9. 9. HYV (high-yielding varieties) introduction We can finally feed ourselves!! •  As a result of introducing HYV since 1965, the crop production increased so that India became self- sufficient in grains.
  10. 10. Transition of Green Revolution in India 1950-1960 rapid increase in crop production, due to the expansion of land cultivated.
  11. 11. OK, GR surely increased the crop production in India. Nice. …What else did this technology transfer bring to India?
  12. 12. Economic growth •  It is said that India’s economy has grown tremendously after 1990s due to successful GR with stable food supply for people
  13. 13. Business chances profit •  any companies had supported GR since its beginning in order to make profit from business chances accompanied with it. invest
  14. 14. Environmental problems As aforementioned, farmers can benefit from HYV ONLY IF good amount of fertilizer, pesticide, and water are given. Soil and ecosystem have been damaged. Wells are dried quickly. more to name…
  15. 15. Changes in local communities Local communities got free economy, and traditional community spirit was marginalized. The richer, the more benefit a farmer can get from new technologies: The gap among Indian farmers became bigger.
  16. 16. •  When applying t/t , not only the technology has a key role, but its process has significant effect on the consequence. •  Throughout the t/t process, the social structures are often the biggest obstacles to succeed: t/t is often distorted by factors that are NOT related to technology. •  Let’s understand the social structure around GR: relationships between the stakeholders involved in this huge t/t process.
  17. 17. •  The materials describe the facts in more detail. Based on this slide and the materials, please find “stakeholders” involved in GR in India. •  When you discuss within group, you can use the cards and labels distributed. •  Please discuss how the stakeholders were involved in GR and related to each other, and put all of them into a “correlation map” (till 10:50)
  18. 18.      
  19. 19. What is “Green Revolution”? Advanced Country Developing Country Expansion of market economy Traditional farming system Inhabitation of microorganisms in soil Organic fertilizer Least amount of Organic crops agricultural chemicals Implant awareness of their “poverty” into developing used countries Collect seeds X No return Large amount of HYV Weed increase fertilizer Aid given by ODA Fund / loan intervene and World bank Large amount of agricultual Treditional breed cannot be chemicals needed Soil pollution cultivated again Larger scale Bumper crop Fall of subsistence farming Multi- → Single-crop farming Fall in prices Need for continuous fund fling/injection Need to buy food / crops Fall of the nation Fund / loan IMF Intervention in the affairs of another country Dependency of developing countries on advanced Structural Adjustment Policies countries