Nursing 5263 Hypoglycemia And Hyperglyemia[1]


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Hypoglycemia in the adolescent and young adult

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Nursing 5263 Hypoglycemia And Hyperglyemia[1]

  1. 1. Nursing 5263: Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia Presented by: Excalibur Group Daphney Jacques, Bridgette Jenkins, Opal Jobson-Cudjoe , Kelly miller
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Distinguish between normal and abnormal blood glucose levels based on patient population </li></ul><ul><li>Classify the different diagnosis associated with hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia based on patient age </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the common causes of hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia based on patient population </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Formulate the appropriate interventions for hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia management based on patient population </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between the different medications used to manage the hypoglycemic/hyperglycemic patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Predict immediate complications of hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>State potential long term complications of uncontrolled blood sugar levels </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the appropriate educational strategies to prevent hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia </li></ul>
  5. 5. Overview of Adolescence and Young Adults
  6. 6. Adolescents and young adults <ul><li>Diabetes is one of the most chronic conditions affecting young people ages 13- 20 years old. Adolescence is a period of rapid biological change accompanied by increasing physical, cognitive, and emotional maturity. There is a struggle for independence from parents as they try to find their own identity </li></ul><ul><li>Type 1 diabetes is predominantly an autoimmune disease, in which the immune system forms antibodies that destroy the beta cells in the pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in adolescents is usually straight-forward and requires little or no specialized testing </li></ul>
  7. 7. Adolescents and young adults <ul><li>A dolescents and young adults with type 1 diabete s present with a several-week history of polyuria polydipsia, polyphagia, and weight loss, with hyperglycemia, glycosuria, ketonemia, and ketonuria (Silverstein et al., 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>The American Diabetes Association suggests that the A1C should be less than 7% </li></ul><ul><li>Normal blood is between 70 and 120 mg/ dL </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hypoglycemia <ul><li>Hypoglycemia refers to abnormally low blood glucose levels (typically less than 70 mg/dl) </li></ul><ul><li>Early symptoms include shakiness, dizziness, hunger, headache, lightheadedness, moodiness, pallor, and confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents with type 1 diabetes have poorer glycemic control which results in more hypoglycemic episodes </li></ul><ul><li>The most common causes of hypoglycemia is insulin omission, failure to monitor blood sugar, increased physical activity and inappropriate meal plan </li></ul>
  9. 9. Management of Hypoglycemia <ul><li>Hypoglycemia can be treated by giving absorbable sugar orally in the form of fruit juice, milk, regular (not diet) soda, glucose tablets, or glucose gel(15 grams of carbohydrate) and glucagon for severe hypoglycemia if the individual passes out </li></ul>
  10. 10. Prevention of Hypoglycemia <ul><li>The prevention of diabetes can be accomplished through self monitoring of blood glucose, individualized meal planning, flexible insulin regimens, checking blood glucose before and after sports, exercise, or other physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Parents guidance and supervision in helping to achieve autonomy and self confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended blood sugar checks four times a day </li></ul><ul><li>Refrain from drinking alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Test blood sugar before driving and every two hours while driving </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hyperglycemia <ul><li>Hyperglycemia   refers to the condition of having a high level of glucose in the bloodstream( greater than 250mg/dl). This occurs when the body does not have enough insulin </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include blurry vision, dry mouth, thirst, increased urination, tiredness, coma and death may occur for blood sugar is over 600 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Management of Hyperglycemia <ul><li>Hyperglycemia is treated by giving insulin as prescribed by the doctor </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking lots of water </li></ul><ul><li>Severe hyperglycemia is a medical emergency and it must be treated immediately with IV (intravenous) fluids and insulin </li></ul>
  13. 13. Prevention of Hyperglycemia <ul><li>Eat a healthy diet as recommended by healthcare provider </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise according to provider's recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>Take medicine exactly as directed by healthcare provider </li></ul><ul><li>Check blood sugar per provider’s recommendation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Complications of hyperglycemia <ul><li>Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) : Blood glucose is more than 300 mg/dl resulting in an accumulation of ketones in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Psychiatric Disorders : Adolescents with frequent recurrent of DKA should be screened for psychiatric disorders (Silverstein et al.,2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Eating Disorders: High risk for bulimia and anorexia </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Anyone experiencing any of the complications should contact their primary care physician </li></ul>
  15. 15. References <ul><li>Janet Silverstein, Georgeanna Klingensmith, Kenneth Copeland, Leslie Plotnick, & et al. (2005). Care of Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes: A statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 28(1), 186-212.  Retrieved July 23, 2009, from ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source. </li></ul><ul><li>Anonymous, . Diabetes Care in the School and Day Care Setting. (2009). Diabetes Care: American Diabetes Association Clinical Practice..., 32(1), S68-72.  Retrieved July 22, 2009, from ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source </li></ul>