AGROVOC -FAO’s multilingual thesaurusas a building block for linked open data<br />Gudrun JOHANNSEN1,Ahsan MORSHED1, Sachi...
Do we need Thesauri?<br />Yes!And Why:<br />
<ul><li>Born as tools to assure consistency in the indexing of library collections
Thesauri were based on “terms”,  but terms   represented already concepts in a non explicit way
Hierarchical and associative relationships represented generic ontological domain knowledge
Candidate building blocks for the semantic web</li></ul>Thesauri in the past and now<br />
The Linked Data Universe: http://www.linkeddata.org<br />4<br />
<ul><li>The Semantic Web isn't just about putting data on the web. It is about making links, so that a person or machine c...
Like the web of hypertext, the web of data is constructed with documents on the web. However,  unlike the web of hypertext...
Use URIs as names for things
Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names.
When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL)
Include links to other URIs. so that they can discover more things.
Simple.  In fact, though, a surprising amount of data isn't linked in 2006, because of problems with one or more of the st...
<ul><li>http://www.w3.org/2007/Talks/0221-Bangalore-IH/</li></ul>RDF as a common format for merging data<br />
Finding things related to “genes” across databases<br />Source: Joanne Luciano, Mitre, and the W3C HCLS IG<br />
Linking DataSets<br /><ul><li>Have you seen Thomson Reuters Open Calais Service? ()
Standard Vocabularies can become the glue between different data sets
(everything linked through http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc?c_2367#concept)
Our goal: OpenAgro!</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Name/Identy determination in unstructured texts
Using Agrovoc as a controlled vocabulary
Structured RDF files that can be used to link data
Developed by IIT Kanpur for AgroPediaIndica
Prototype under testing with excellent results</li></ul>AgroTagger<br />
http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in/auto_tagger/callable_auto_tagger.php<br />
AGROVOC:  From a traditional thesaurus to an Agricultural Concept Scheme<br />A  long and Winding Road<br />
..from thesaurus to Ontologies….<br />
<ul><li>We wanted to make a semantic web tool from AGROVOC
There was no standard model outside, we were on our own
We discussed three years the model to which we wanted to convert AGROVOC</li></ul>……but in the meantime AGROVOC was used a...
Semantic Relationships<br />
The AGROVOC OWL model<br />
More Semantics<br />MAIZE<br />	UF corn <br />	NT flint maize NT popcorn NT sweet corn  <br />MILK<br />	NT Milk Fat <br /...
<ul><li>around  30,000 concepts
600000 labels in around 20 languages.
one-stop shop for terminological knowledge related to agriculture in general
a knowledge base of related concepts organized in ontological relationships (hierarchical, associative, equivalence)‏
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Un unbis-agrovoc 2010-09-03

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Presentation given by Johannes Keizer at the UNBIS team of UN Secretariat in New York

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Un unbis-agrovoc 2010-09-03

  1. 1. AGROVOC -FAO’s multilingual thesaurusas a building block for linked open data<br />Gudrun JOHANNSEN1,Ahsan MORSHED1, SachitRAJBHANDARI1, Armando Stellato 3 ,Thomas Baker2 ,MargheritaSINI1 and Johannes KEIZER1<br />1FAO of the UN, Italy; 2WC3-SKOS working group, 3Universitá di Roma “Tor Vergata”<br />
  2. 2. Do we need Thesauri?<br />Yes!And Why:<br />
  3. 3. <ul><li>Born as tools to assure consistency in the indexing of library collections
  4. 4. Thesauri were based on “terms”, but terms represented already concepts in a non explicit way
  5. 5. Hierarchical and associative relationships represented generic ontological domain knowledge
  6. 6. Candidate building blocks for the semantic web</li></ul>Thesauri in the past and now<br />
  7. 7. The Linked Data Universe: http://www.linkeddata.org<br />4<br />
  8. 8. <ul><li>The Semantic Web isn't just about putting data on the web. It is about making links, so that a person or machine can explore the web of data.  With linked data, when you have some of it, you can find other, related, data.
  9. 9. Like the web of hypertext, the web of data is constructed with documents on the web. However,  unlike the web of hypertext,  where links are relationships anchors in hypertext documents written in HTML, for data they links  between arbitrary things described by RDF,.  The URIs identify any kind of object or  concept.   But for HTML or RDF, the same expectations apply to make the web grow:
  10. 10. Use URIs as names for things
  11. 11. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names.
  12. 12. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL)
  13. 13. Include links to other URIs. so that they can discover more things.
  14. 14. Simple.  In fact, though, a surprising amount of data isn't linked in 2006, because of problems with one or more of the steps.  This article discusses solutions to these problems, details of implementation, and factors affecting choices about how you publish your data. </li></ul>http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html<br />
  15. 15. <ul><li>http://www.w3.org/2007/Talks/0221-Bangalore-IH/</li></ul>RDF as a common format for merging data<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Finding things related to “genes” across databases<br />Source: Joanne Luciano, Mitre, and the W3C HCLS IG<br />
  18. 18. Linking DataSets<br /><ul><li>Have you seen Thomson Reuters Open Calais Service? ()
  19. 19. Standard Vocabularies can become the glue between different data sets
  20. 20. (everything linked through http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc?c_2367#concept)
  21. 21. Our goal: OpenAgro!</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Name/Identy determination in unstructured texts
  22. 22. Using Agrovoc as a controlled vocabulary
  23. 23. Structured RDF files that can be used to link data
  24. 24. Developed by IIT Kanpur for AgroPediaIndica
  25. 25. Prototype under testing with excellent results</li></ul>AgroTagger<br />
  26. 26. http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in/auto_tagger/callable_auto_tagger.php<br />
  27. 27. AGROVOC: From a traditional thesaurus to an Agricultural Concept Scheme<br />A long and Winding Road<br />
  28. 28. ..from thesaurus to Ontologies….<br />
  29. 29. <ul><li>We wanted to make a semantic web tool from AGROVOC
  30. 30. There was no standard model outside, we were on our own
  31. 31. We discussed three years the model to which we wanted to convert AGROVOC</li></ul>……but in the meantime AGROVOC was used and translated into 20 languages<br />AGROVOC since 2004<br />
  32. 32. Semantic Relationships<br />
  33. 33. The AGROVOC OWL model<br />
  34. 34. More Semantics<br />MAIZE<br /> UF corn <br /> NT flint maize NT popcorn NT sweet corn  <br />MILK<br /> NT Milk Fat <br /> NT Colostrum<br /> NT Cow Milk<br />International Fund for Agricultural Development<br /> UF IFAD<br />MAIZE<br /> synonym corn<br />superclass-of flint maize used-to-make popcorn hybridized-into sweet corn  <br />MILK<br />ingredient Milk Fat <br />ingredientColostrum<br />superclass-of Cow Milk<br />International Fund for Agricultural<br /> Development<br /> acronym IFAD <br />
  35. 35. <ul><li>around 30,000 concepts
  36. 36. 600000 labels in around 20 languages.
  37. 37. one-stop shop for terminological knowledge related to agriculture in general
  38. 38. a knowledge base of related concepts organized in ontological relationships (hierarchical, associative, equivalence)‏
  39. 39. Is a concept/term/string based system
  40. 40. Concepts may be organized in multiple categories.</li></ul>AGROVOC today<br />
  41. 41. <ul><li>The AGROVOC OWL model needs a revision
  42. 42. Ontological over commitment in many class/subclass hierarchies
  43. 43. Unnecessary complications through concept /term/string hierarchy
  44. 44. Our push of AGROVOC to the Semantic Web had enormous positive effects, among others
  45. 45. From 4 to 20 language versions
  46. 46. Defacto standard for indexing in many areas
  47. 47. More than 2000 downloads only in 2009
  48. 48. SKOS incorporated all our requirements</li></ul>Evaluation of the Process<br />
  49. 49. http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/<br />
  50. 50. The AGROVOC SKOS Model<br />AgrovocConceptScheme<br />SKOSConcept<br />Scheme<br />rdf:type<br />skos:topConceptOf<br />skos:inScheme<br />6211<br />rdf:type<br />skos:broader<br />SKOSConcept<br />rdf:type<br />8171<br />skos:broader<br />rdf:type<br />rdf:type<br />1474<br />skos:broader<br />“corn”<br />12332<br />skosxl:literalForm<br />skosxl:prefLabel<br />rdf:type<br />:foo<br />SKOS Label<br />rdf:type<br />skosxl:altLabel<br />:bar<br />“maize”<br />skosxl:literalForm<br />
  51. 51. Ex:FAO<br />Ex:FAO<br />Skosxl:altLabel<br />skosxl:prefLabel<br />skos:prefLabel<br />skos:altLabel<br />Ex: full form<br />Skos: Label FAO Full <br />FAO@en<br />Food and Agricultural Organization@en <br />Skosxl: Label FAO abrev<br />Ex: acronym form<br />skosxl: literalForm<br />skosxl: literalForm<br />FAO@en<br />Food and Agricultural Organization@en<br />Ex: SKOS presentation <br />Ex: SKOS-XL presentation <br />SKOS and SKOS-XL presentation <br />
  52. 52. SKOS-XL output<br /><rdf:Descriptionrdf:about="http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/agrovocScheme"> <rdf:typerdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#ConceptScheme"/></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_330829"> <rdf:typerdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept"/> <skos:inSchemerdf:resource="http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/agrovocScheme"/> <skos:topConceptOfrdf:resource="http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/agrovocScheme"/></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/xl_en_1278479064610"> <literalForm xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#" xml:lang="en">subjects</literalForm> <rdf:typerdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#Label"/></rdf:Description><br />
  53. 53. SKOS and SKOS-XL presentation <br /><ul><li>SKOS presentation where there is no need to apply any type of relationship between lexical units.
  54. 54. SKOS-XL presentation needs to apply the relationship between lexical units so that it can be understood clearly. This property is compared with OWL inverse property.
  55. 55. SKOS-XL , with the need to define labels as resources, as with concepts, schemes and collections. This defines a special type of lexical entity which is assigned a literal chain which can be repeated for various units. So, the prefLabel and altLabel can be distinguished easily in the multi-lingual thesauri .
  56. 56. SKOS-XL gives more flexible semantic than SKOS for modeling the vocabularies, specially multi-lingual thesaurus like AGROVOC </li></li></ul><li>The Conceptserver Workbench<br />
  57. 57. <ul><li>Is a web-based working environment for managing the AGROVOC Concept Server
  58. 58. Facilitate the collaborative editing of multilingual terminology and semantic concept information
  59. 59. It includes administration and group management features
  60. 60. It includes workflows for maintenance, validation and quality assurance of the data pool
  61. 61. The CS is accessible freely to everybody to facilitates collaborative editing </li></ul>The workbench<br />
  62. 62. Architecture of the System<br />
  63. 63. Concept/Term Management<br />
  64. 64. Concept Relationship<br />Can create the concept-concept relationship<br />Inverse relationship is also created automatically<br /><ul><li>Ex: If we create A affect B, then B is affected by A relationship is also created</li></li></ul><li>Concept Image<br /><ul><li>Name of the image with description
  65. 65. URL will point to the image which will open in an external
  66. 66. Provide the source of the image
  67. 67. Can add more translation in different language</li></li></ul><li>Concept Definition<br /><ul><li>Add definition to the selected concept
  68. 68. Add translation in different languages
  69. 69. Provide the source of the definition
  70. 70. Creation and modified date are set automatically</li></li></ul><li>Visualization of concepts and Relationships in the Workbench<br />
  71. 71. AGROVOC Web Services<br />
  72. 72. The road map<br /><ul><li>The AGROVOC concept scheme in it’s proprietary OWL has been published on June 5, 2010 on version 1.0 of the concept server workbench
  73. 73. At the moment a patch to version 1.0 of the workbench is developed to make it possible to export AGROVOC SKOS
  74. 74. AGROVOC SKOS will be published as linked data.
  75. 75. With version 2.0 of the workbench SKOS will become the native format for AGROVOC</li></li></ul><li>Giving it a try…….<br />A demo version of the AWB: http://202.73.13.50:55234/agrovocdevv10d/ With all functionalities, availabe to users for testing purpose.Latest stable release version 1.0 : (read/write) http://202.73.13.50:55381/agrovocv10i/Latest stable release version 1.0 (Read only): http://202.73.13.50:55481/agrovocv10i/ (Visitors only with only view privilege)<br />
  76. 76. <ul><li>Getting UN vocabularies as building blocks for the Linked Data Universe
  77. 77. UNBIS thesaurus covers a broad range of international policy and development issues
  78. 78. AGROVOC very specialized, but they do overlap partly
  79. 79. Steps:
  80. 80. Promoting together UNBIS Thesaurus and AGROVOC
  81. 81. Mapping Project?</li></ul>Possible collaboration<br />
  82. 82. …and more: http://aims.fao.org<br />
  83. 83. Thank You!<br />
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