Thisgraphelaboratedby Nova Spivacksfrom Radar Networksispopular at the moment. The Y-Axisisfor the increaseof information connections. The X-Axisisfor the increaseof social connections. Whereas the Web Operating System in 2030 isstill a brilliantguess in the future, the developmentof the Semantic Web, or Web 3.0 hasnowgotconsiderablemomentum
Oneof the key development in the semantic web are “Linked Open Data”. The Linked Open Data paradigmclaimsthatexistingstructured data needtobereleasedfrom the proprietary silos in whichthey are at the moment. With the existenceof RDF (ResourceDescriptionFramework) there are the semantictoolsto do so. Thereisalsotechnologytouse RDF. More tothislater.
Thisis a snapshotoneyearlater. The growthisenormous. A centralpointisDBPedia, “triplified” information fromWikipedia. The differentcoloursrepresent the different information types, being “life sciences” and “publications” the mostpopulatedareas, butwith the area “government” stronglygrowingInterestingnewcomers in the last months are the two VIVO datasetsfrom the UnitedStatesdescriping expertise in Science. Vivo isactually a project thatstarted the agriculturallibraryofCornellUniversity
Whatdoesthismean in practice? I will show thiswithanexamplefrom the BBC. The biggestconsumers (and producers) of LOD are as I know the BBC and the New York times (Butnowalso the US government)
During the Web 1.0 phase, Webpageswerecomposedbyhumans. Todaymostwebpages are drivenbydatabasesthat can bedynamicallyqueried. Theycontainthrough RSS feedsalso data fromotherwebsitesThis BBC webpageis a big jumpfurther. I hasnotbeencomposedbyhumans and itisnotfromone database generated. Itisgeneratedfromdifferentdatasourcesthatwerepresentaslinked open data, linkedonlythrough common URIs
The “technology” thatmakeslinked open data possibleis RDF. Everything in RDF ismadeof “triples”, A triple means a statement with “Subject-Predicate-Object” asshown in thisexample. Ideally, allelementsof a triple are representedbyan URI, anunambiguousdefinitionof a concept, whichismachinereadable, buttriples can bebuiltalsofromsimpleletterstrings.
Whatisnow the roleofthesauri and specifically the roleofourthesauri in this set up?
In our team wehadveryearly the idea thatthesauriwouldbecomeofimportance in the developmentof Web information management. Within the AOS (AgriculturalOntology Service) initiativewehavegone a long and winding road. The Google searchshowsour 2003 paper in JODI.Butnow AGROVOC hasbecome showcase for the useofthesauritobuildconceptschemes
Some auto appreciation
Thisis the AGROVOC SKOS modelthathasbeendeveloped and decided in April 2010 under activecollaborationfrom Tom Baker, whowasmemberof the W3C SKOS workinggroup.
SKOS-XL hasbeenpublishedas a W3C standard oneyear ago. The initialversionsof SKOS werenotsufficientto express the complexicitiesofmultilingualthesauri. Margherita Sini from FAO wasmemberof the SKOS workinggroup and we are vere satisfiedthat at then end a standard emergedthatcatersforourneeds
You can seehere the AGROVOC encoding in SKOS
During the discussions on the AGROVOC model, wealsodid some software engineering. The resultis the conceptschemeworkbench.Is a web-based working environment for managing the AGROVOC Concept Server Facilitate the collaborative editing of multilingual terminology and semantic concept information It includes administration and group management features It includes workflows for maintenance, validation and quality assurance of the data pool The CS is accessible freely to everybody to facilitates collaborative editing Alreadynownotonly AGROVOC is on the workbench, butalso the FAO OpenArchive authority data. We can hostanyconceptscheme
The tableshows 3 descriptorsthat are in AGROVOC, EUROVOC and UNBIS. In AGROVOC and EUROVOC they are alreadyencodedasURIs. Easilywecouldestablishrelationshipslikeowl.sameAsbetween the concepts or skos:exactMatchbetweenlabels.
In a bibliographical record thereismuch more hidden information thandisplayedwith the metadata. Manyof the highlystructured data are linkingtoother information on the web. In AGRIS wehavenowintroducedsomethingwhatwecall “naivelinking”. An AGRIS record linksautomaticallyto Google Mapsfor the location of the center and to Google toretrieve the full text of the resource, citationlists or otherpublicationsfrom the authors. Thisoftenworks, butclearlynotalway, s asitisnotcontrolledbysemantics, butonlythroughidentyofstrings. Foranuneducatedmachineunfortunately COW and C.O.W. are the same, whereaspeanuts and groundnuts are somethingdifferent.
Ifresources are marked up withsemanticallydefined and machinereadableconcepts, they can belinked and mashed up preciselyaswehaveseen in the examplefrom the BBC.In thisexamplewe start withan AGRIS record on Hazardouswaste, whichisindexedwith AGROVOC. Alreadynowwe can easily link to material indexedwithEurovoc, hereanexamplefromEuroLex. If the UNBIS thesaurus wouldberestructuredto a conceptscheme and publishedas LOD, related UN documentscouldbeattachedautomaticallyby the machine.
How does this work: A resource is connected with each concept URI in the web. The concepts between three vocabularies are having same literal which is connected with owl:sameAS/exactMatch relationship. As we are speakingaboutthesauri and notontologieswekept the relation tobechosenpurposelyvague. The conceptscouldbematchedwithowl:sameAS or the termscouldbematcheswith SKOS:exactMatch. A lotofdiscussion on thisisongoing
Oneof the groundbreakingenterprises in this area isThomsonReuters “Open Calais”. Thisis a webservicethatprovidessemanticmark up foranyunstructured text thatyoufeedintotheir service The service is free ofCharge. Why? I will show youlater.
My team in collaborationwith the IndianInstituteofTechnology in Kanpur isdeveloping a similar service foroursubject area.
Wehavehere a text from 1964 without a bibliographic record at handabout a plantprotectionissue
Open Calais isverygood in thoseareas, in whichtheyhavetheirownelaboratedconceptschemeagainstwhich the texts are analyzed: “Places”, “Persons”, “Business Processes” , “IndustryTerms”, butitisweak in the specifictopicanalysis, whattheycall “social tags”
AgroTaggerstilllacksmanyof the sophisticated featuresof “Open Calais” ,butismuch, muchbetter in the subjectanalysisof the text
Wewillnowtry a life demo
Ksim keizer 2010-10-19
The role of Thesauriand Standard Vocabularies in linking data-AGROVOC-UNBIS-EUROVOCA proposal for collaboration between agencies<br />Dr. Johannes Keizer<br />FAO of the UnitedNations<br />Office ofKnowledge Exchange, Research and Extension<br />Knowledge and CapacityforDevelopment<br />
Giving a try to the workbench<br />A demo version of the AWB: http://22.214.171.124:55234/agrovocdevv10d/ With all functionalities, availabe to users for testing purpose.Latest stable release version 1.0 : (read/write) http://126.96.36.199:55381/agrovocv10i/Latest stable release version 1.0 (Read only): http://188.8.131.52:55481/agrovocv10i/ (Visitors only with only view privilege)<br />