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Interoperability in Agricultural Information Systems: The necessity for International collaboration <ul><li>Abstract:  In ...
Outline <ul><li>FAO' mission </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Registries for Semantic Standards ...
http://www.fao.org
Number and percentage of undernourished persons 2004-2006:  873  million (13%)‏ 2000-2002:  857 million (14%)‏ 1995-1997  ...
 
Access to global knowledge and international collaboration  is one of the key factors to combat  hunger and poverty
 
The Development of the Web
 
 
 
Credits: Hynchliffe
Availability is not enough Complex information needs  for agricultural development through research and innovation cannot ...
Credits: various sources
Credits: Tim Berners Lee
http://www.linkeddata.com
The Linked Data Principles <ul><li>1. Use URIs as names for things  </li></ul><ul><li>2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can ...
The Need for Vocabulary Registries
Moving Vocabularies to the Network Level <ul><li>Requirements: </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive data structures </li></ul><ul>...
Encoding Mechanisms <ul><li>XML (Extensible Markup Language)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A data-interchange format for custom m...
Content Query Expansion Searching Heterogeneous Collections Metadata Creation Agrovoc Geopolitical Ontology AgMes Schemes ...
Agricultural Ontology Service <ul><li>Multi-partner initiative, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate the provision of service...
What is AGROVOC? <ul><li>AGROVOC is a multilingual structured thesaurus </li></ul><ul><li>Covers all the subject fields in...
Who uses AGROVOC? <ul><li>AGROVOC is used all over the world, mostly for indexing and retrieving data in agricultural info...
Why is AGROVOC multilingual? <ul><li>AGROVOC is used world-wide, so it is imperative to translate the thesaurus into as ma...
How is AGROVOC structured? <ul><li>AGROVOC is made up of terms, which consist of one or more words representing always one...
More meaning to AGROVOC relations <ul><li>A thesaurus has equivalence (USE/UF), broader term (BT), narrower term (NT), and...
Example  <ul><li>The term &quot;pollution&quot;  can have association with other terms  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: &quot;po...
What more semantics means MAIZE UF corn  NT flint maize  NT popcorn  NT sweet corn    MILK NT Milk Fat  NT Colostrum NT Co...
From a traditional thesaurus to the Agricultural Ontology Service Concept Server
Expressing  AGROVOC in OWL <ul><li>to facilitate its use for developing agricultural domain knowledge organization systems...
AGROVOC Concept Server <ul><li>It is a one-stop shop for terminological knowledge related to agriculture in general </li><...
Three levels of representation <ul><li>Concepts (the abstract meaning)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: ‘rice’ in the sense of a...
Semantic Relationships Concept to Concept isA (hierarchy), isPestOf, hasPest Concept to Term has_lexicalization  (links co...
The Workbench <ul><li>Is a web-based working environment for managing the AGROVOC Concept Server </li></ul><ul><li>Facilit...
 
In Action..........
http://www.ciard.net
The purpose of CIARD: think global, act local <ul><li>“ To facilitate an international community of practice in agricultur...
A new partnership for truly accessible information <ul><ul><li>make  agricultural research information and knowledge truly...
 
http://www.fao.org/agris
Knowledge Processes and Repositories
.... and related  Application Profiles/Ontologies <ul><li>Document like Objects (Publications)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Events <...
http://www.ciardring.net
What you can build out of it <ul><li>Services that o ffer a common browsing or searching interface to different sources </...
CIARD RING Global Directories <ul><li>Need for improved  global access  to information, but centralization of information ...
RING Exemple 1: Screenshot: RDF feed
Ring Exemple 2: Context sensitive linking
RING Exemple 2: Inclusion of Knowledge Models
CIARD RING: value added services CARIS / WISARD Users We need to know if a certain  technology  has been used in a specifi...
Conclusions <ul><li>No semantic Web without agreed vocabularies </li></ul><ul><li>Agreed vocabularies will exist only with...
Credits! <ul><li>My wonderful team in Rome </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Margherita Sini for the slides on AGROVOC </li></ul><...
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Aos ciard-china

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The presentation I gave as visiting professor at the Chinese Academy of Science

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  • The Terminology Services Prototype has three main components: Content (controlled vocabularies)‏ Web services Applications (created by software developers internal &amp; external to OCLC)
  • 12 December, 2007 SNLP 2007 Tutorial
  • 12 December, 2007 SNLP 2007 Tutorial
  • Transcript of "Aos ciard-china"

    1. 1. Interoperability in Agricultural Information Systems: The necessity for International collaboration <ul><li>Abstract:  In a networked world with distributed repositories of knowledge interoperability becomes a key issue.  Otherwise the distributed repositories will not become nodes of a global network, but will stay isolated silos.  Interoperability is often understood only in terms of technological interoperability,  protocols for data transfer, webservices and similar.  Whereas the internet has created quite a network of interoperable technology based on the IP and HTTP, there is a enormous lack of semantic interoperability. Semantic Interoperability stands not only for the mediation of meaning between different repositories but stand also for the Interoperability between cultures and languages.   FAO through Agrovoc and the Agricultural Ontology Service is working for 8 years to create a service that gives such interoperability standards to the community.  For some years the CIARD initiative  (Coherence in Information for Agricultural Research for Development) is aiming to create a community of practice that promotes common standards, tools and methodologies. The aim is to make a leap forward in the global availability of agricultural information . </li></ul>
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>FAO' mission </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Registries for Semantic Standards </li></ul><ul><li>The Agrovoc Concept Server </li></ul><ul><li>CIARD – a community of practice for global accessibility of Agricultural Research and Technology Knowledge </li></ul>
    3. 3. http://www.fao.org
    4. 4. Number and percentage of undernourished persons 2004-2006: 873 million (13%)‏ 2000-2002: 857 million (14%)‏ 1995-1997 :825million (14%)‏ 1990-1992 :845million (16%)‏ 1979-1981 853million (19%)‏ 1969-1971: 878million (24%)‏
    5. 6. Access to global knowledge and international collaboration is one of the key factors to combat hunger and poverty
    6. 8. The Development of the Web
    7. 12. Credits: Hynchliffe
    8. 13. Availability is not enough Complex information needs for agricultural development through research and innovation cannot be met by simply making information available. HTML HTML HTML Users HTML HTML HTML We need to know if a certain technology has been used in a specific country and in a dryland area for a specific crop and if there are related projects completed or ongoing, who id funding them and where we can find the project outputs TECA Best practices Country profiles CARIS WISARD AGRIS HTML Country NARS HTML ICARDA HTML AiDA HTML Crop database HTML OPACs Disconnected repositories
    9. 14. Credits: various sources
    10. 15. Credits: Tim Berners Lee
    11. 16. http://www.linkeddata.com
    12. 17. The Linked Data Principles <ul><li>1. Use URIs as names for things </li></ul><ul><li>2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names </li></ul><ul><li>3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful RDF information </li></ul><ul><li>4. Include RDF statements that link to other URIs so that they can discover related things </li></ul>
    13. 18. The Need for Vocabulary Registries
    14. 19. Moving Vocabularies to the Network Level <ul><li>Requirements: </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive data structures </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabularies encoded for the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Access mechanisms for search and retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>URI accessible content </li></ul><ul><li>Use of open protocols and standards </li></ul>
    15. 20. Encoding Mechanisms <ul><li>XML (Extensible Markup Language) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A data-interchange format for custom markup languages. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RDF (Resource Description Framework) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A data-interchange format for the representation of graph models. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>JSON (Javascript Object Notation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A data-interchange format based on a subset of the JavaScript Programming Language defined by the ECMA-262 3rd Edition standard. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 21. Content Query Expansion Searching Heterogeneous Collections Metadata Creation Agrovoc Geopolitical Ontology AgMes Schemes Domain Ontologies Vocabularies Registry Web Services Credits: Diane V. Goetz
    17. 22. Agricultural Ontology Service <ul><li>Multi-partner initiative, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate the provision of services in the agricultural domain with the use of semantic technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Resources and standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KOS and mappings, Metadata Elements and Schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Registries and Ontology Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools and Publication, …… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sharing, Interoperability </li></ul>
    18. 23. What is AGROVOC? <ul><li>AGROVOC is a multilingual structured thesaurus </li></ul><ul><li>Covers all the subject fields in agriculture, forestry, fisheries, food and related domains (e.g. environment) </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of words or expressions (terms), in different languages and organized in relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Relations (e.g. “broader”, “narrower”, and “related”) are used to identify and connect terms </li></ul>
    19. 24. Who uses AGROVOC? <ul><li>AGROVOC is used all over the world, mostly for indexing and retrieving data in agricultural information systems </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical value show an average hits of 5,400 on any weekday to AGROVOC Thesaurus </li></ul><ul><li>About 90 countries regularly access AGROVOC online </li></ul>
    20. 25. Why is AGROVOC multilingual? <ul><li>AGROVOC is used world-wide, so it is imperative to translate the thesaurus into as many languages as possible </li></ul><ul><li>This helps the users to index or search information sources in their own language </li></ul><ul><li>It is available in 6 official languages of FAO - English, French, Spanish, Chinese, Arabic and Russian </li></ul><ul><li>Also available in other languages - Portuguese, Czech, Japanese, Thai, Slovak, German, Hungarian, Polish, Persian, Italian, Malay, Telegu, Hindi, Turkish, and Lao </li></ul>
    21. 26. How is AGROVOC structured? <ul><li>AGROVOC is made up of terms, which consist of one or more words representing always one and the same concept </li></ul><ul><li>For each term, a word block is displayed, showing the hierarchical and non-hierarchical relation to other terms: BT, NT ,RT, USE/UF </li></ul><ul><li>Scope notes are used in AGROVOC to clarify the meaning and the context of terms </li></ul>
    22. 27. More meaning to AGROVOC relations <ul><li>A thesaurus has equivalence (USE/UF), broader term (BT), narrower term (NT), and related term (RT) relationships </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need of an extended set of relationships to perform more granular and more consistent indexing </li></ul><ul><li>With this extension, more effective searching and browsing for users is possible </li></ul>
    23. 28. Example <ul><li>The term &quot;pollution&quot; can have association with other terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: &quot;pollutants&quot; is formally associated with the term &quot;pollution&quot; using the Related Term (RT) relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In practice, we may be able to indicate explicitly that &quot;pollutants&quot; cause &quot;pollution“ </li></ul><ul><li>=> R elationship becomes more meaningful than simply portraying them as Related Terms (RT) </li></ul>
    24. 29. What more semantics means MAIZE UF corn NT flint maize NT popcorn NT sweet corn   MILK NT Milk Fat NT Colostrum NT Cow Milk International Fund for Agricultural Development UF IFAD MAIZE synonym corn superclass-of flint maize used-to-make popcorn hybridized-into sweet corn   MILK ingredient Milk Fat ingredient Colostrum superclass-of Cow Milk International Fund for Agricultural Development acronym IFAD
    25. 30. From a traditional thesaurus to the Agricultural Ontology Service Concept Server
    26. 31. Expressing AGROVOC in OWL <ul><li>to facilitate its use for developing agricultural domain knowledge organization systems, including ontologies, without requiring the terminologist to start from scratch </li></ul><ul><li>to enable the development of applications using semantic technologies </li></ul><ul><li>to enable interoperability between applications using these ontologies </li></ul><ul><li>to better support information management for the web environment </li></ul>
    27. 32. AGROVOC Concept Server <ul><li>It is a one-stop shop for terminological knowledge related to agriculture in general </li></ul><ul><li>A knowledge base of related concepts organized in ontological relationships (hierarchical, associative, equivalence)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Is a concept/term/string based system </li></ul><ul><li>Contains 600000 terms in around 20 languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts may be also organized in multiple categories. </li></ul>
    28. 33. Three levels of representation <ul><li>Concepts (the abstract meaning) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: ‘rice’ in the sense of a plant, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terms (language-specific lexical forms) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: ‘Rice’, ‘Riz’, ‘Arroz’, ‘ 稻米’ , or ‘Paddy’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Term variants (the range of forms that can occur for each term)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: ‘O. sativa’ or ‘Oryza Sativa’, ‘Organization’ or Organisation’ </li></ul></ul>
    29. 34. Semantic Relationships Concept to Concept isA (hierarchy), isPestOf, hasPest Concept to Term has_lexicalization (links concepts to their lexical realizations)‏ Term to Term isSynonymOf, isTranslationOf, hasAcronym, hasAbbreviation Term to String hasSpellingVariant, hasSingular
    30. 35. The Workbench <ul><li>Is a web-based working environment for managing the AGROVOC Concept Server </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate the collaborative editing of multilingual terminology and semantic concept information </li></ul><ul><li>It includes administration and group management features </li></ul><ul><li>It includes workflows for maintenance, validation and quality assurance of the data pool </li></ul><ul><li>The CS is accessible freely to everybody to facilitates collaborative editing </li></ul>
    31. 37. In Action..........
    32. 38. http://www.ciard.net
    33. 39. The purpose of CIARD: think global, act local <ul><li>“ To facilitate an international community of practice in agricultural science and technology information that collaboratively develops common standards, shares knowledge, and contributes to effective and coherent institutional approaches.” </li></ul><ul><li>CIARD partners will: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>combine/align efforts in common international approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>work with their own priorities and constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maximise the return on public investments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>enable local/national innovation systems and services </li></ul><ul><li>harness support of regional/international systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ To facilitate an international community of practice in agricultural science and technology information that collaboratively develops common standards, shares knowledge, and contributes to effective and coherent institutional approaches.” </li></ul></ul>
    34. 40. A new partnership for truly accessible information <ul><ul><li>make agricultural research information and knowledge truly accessible to all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>to enhance the use of agricultural research information by all actors </li></ul><ul><li>to make key public organizations more responsible for their information services </li></ul><ul><li>to adhere to common international standards and open applications </li></ul><ul><li>to create user centered information services </li></ul><ul><li>to develop and share good practices </li></ul><ul><li>to act local and globally </li></ul>
    35. 42. http://www.fao.org/agris
    36. 43. Knowledge Processes and Repositories
    37. 44. .... and related Application Profiles/Ontologies <ul><li>Document like Objects (Publications)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Events </li></ul><ul><li>News </li></ul><ul><li>Experts </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Research Data </li></ul><ul><li>....................... </li></ul>
    38. 45. http://www.ciardring.net
    39. 46. What you can build out of it <ul><li>Services that o ffer a common browsing or searching interface to different sources </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated services providing relations between entities (organizations, projects, experts, documents) through semantic-web technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Services that interface the different knowledge organization systems (KOS) used by different sources </li></ul><ul><li>Services providing advanced services like digests, bibliographies, best practices, surveys etc. </li></ul><ul><li>etc... </li></ul>
    40. 47. CIARD RING Global Directories <ul><li>Need for improved global access to information, but centralization of information always failed! </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed architectures minimize duplication in information storage and flow and improve the reliability of the information provided </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed storage and maintenance of data, The data describing any information object (document, organization, project, event etc.) are stored decentralized at the lowest level possible </li></ul><ul><li>They are accessible as XML/RDF records based on a specific metadata set </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized directories / registries to access the distributed sources </li></ul><ul><li>Access to these distributed files is facilitated by a community registry of participating institutions </li></ul>
    41. 48. RING Exemple 1: Screenshot: RDF feed
    42. 49. Ring Exemple 2: Context sensitive linking
    43. 50. RING Exemple 2: Inclusion of Knowledge Models
    44. 51. CIARD RING: value added services CARIS / WISARD Users We need to know if a certain technology has been used in a specific country and in a dryland area for a specific crop and if there are related projects currently ongoing and where we can find the project outputs? TECA Best practices Country profiles AGRIS Country NARS ICARDA AiDA Crop database Geo-ontology Crop ontology Organizations Directory Agrovoc OA gateway OPAC gateway gateway gateway
    45. 52. Conclusions <ul><li>No semantic Web without agreed vocabularies </li></ul><ul><li>Agreed vocabularies will exist only within communities of practice – we need to build these communities – CIARD is the practical proposal </li></ul><ul><li>We need Registries of those agreed vocabularies </li></ul><ul><li>FAO offers AIMS/AOS as the global gateway to agreed vocabularies in Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>FAO offers the AGROVOC CS Workbench as an open Source Tool </li></ul><ul><li>We want your collaboration </li></ul>
    46. 53. Credits! <ul><li>My wonderful team in Rome </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Margherita Sini for the slides on AGROVOC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valeria Pesce and Antonella Picarella for the slides on the CIARD RING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All others for many contributions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Our network all over the world </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asanee Kawtrakul, Bangkok </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dagobert Soergel, Buffalo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dan Brickley, Amsterdam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valentina Presutti, Rome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An many, many others </li></ul></ul></ul>
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