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# L5 Hydropower

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Introduction to Hydropower

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• Transfer losses will arises within a hydroelectric power plant and as a consequence only a portion of the theoretical power will be utilised for the generation of electricity. Bernoulli&amp;#x2019;s equation can be applied to illustrate this.\n
• Transfer losses will arises within a hydroelectric power plant and as a consequence only a portion of the theoretical power will be utilised for the generation of electricity. Bernoulli&amp;#x2019;s equation can be applied to illustrate this.\n
• Transfer losses will arises within a hydroelectric power plant and as a consequence only a portion of the theoretical power will be utilised for the generation of electricity. Bernoulli&amp;#x2019;s equation can be applied to illustrate this.\n
• Transfer losses will arises within a hydroelectric power plant and as a consequence only a portion of the theoretical power will be utilised for the generation of electricity. Bernoulli&amp;#x2019;s equation can be applied to illustrate this.\n
• &amp;#x3B1; is the loss coefficient. The lost energy cannot be utilised and arises as a result of friction, i.e. friction converts it into heat. \n\nRecall the final example in the previous set of slides.\n
• &amp;#x3B1; is the loss coefficient. The lost energy cannot be utilised and arises as a result of friction, i.e. friction converts it into heat. \n\nRecall the final example in the previous set of slides.\n
• &amp;#x3B1; is the loss coefficient. The lost energy cannot be utilised and arises as a result of friction, i.e. friction converts it into heat. \n\nRecall the final example in the previous set of slides.\n
• &amp;#x3B1; is the loss coefficient. The lost energy cannot be utilised and arises as a result of friction, i.e. friction converts it into heat. \n\nRecall the final example in the previous set of slides.\n
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• \n
• A typical hydroelectric power station can be divided into three main sections, the intake works, the penstock and the powerhouse/tailrace. The body of fluid is channeled through the intake works down the penstock into the turbine causing it to rotate. The rotating turbine in turn causes the generator to which it is coupled to rotate and thereby electricity is generated. The fluid flows out of the turbine along the draft tube and into the tail race. \n
• A typical hydroelectric power station can be divided into three main sections, the intake works, the penstock and the powerhouse/tailrace. The body of fluid is channeled through the intake works down the penstock into the turbine causing it to rotate. The rotating turbine in turn causes the generator to which it is coupled to rotate and thereby electricity is generated. The fluid flows out of the turbine along the draft tube and into the tail race. \n
• A typical hydroelectric power station can be divided into three main sections, the intake works, the penstock and the powerhouse/tailrace. The body of fluid is channeled through the intake works down the penstock into the turbine causing it to rotate. The rotating turbine in turn causes the generator to which it is coupled to rotate and thereby electricity is generated. The fluid flows out of the turbine along the draft tube and into the tail race. \n
• A typical hydroelectric power station can be divided into three main sections, the intake works, the penstock and the powerhouse/tailrace. The body of fluid is channeled through the intake works down the penstock into the turbine causing it to rotate. The rotating turbine in turn causes the generator to which it is coupled to rotate and thereby electricity is generated. The fluid flows out of the turbine along the draft tube and into the tail race. \n
• A typical hydroelectric power station can be divided into three main sections, the intake works, the penstock and the powerhouse/tailrace. The body of fluid is channeled through the intake works down the penstock into the turbine causing it to rotate. The rotating turbine in turn causes the generator to which it is coupled to rotate and thereby electricity is generated. The fluid flows out of the turbine along the draft tube and into the tail race. \n
• A typical hydroelectric power station can be divided into three main sections, the intake works, the penstock and the powerhouse/tailrace. The body of fluid is channeled through the intake works down the penstock into the turbine causing it to rotate. The rotating turbine in turn causes the generator to which it is coupled to rotate and thereby electricity is generated. The fluid flows out of the turbine along the draft tube and into the tail race. \n
• A typical hydroelectric power station can be divided into three main sections, the intake works, the penstock and the powerhouse/tailrace. The body of fluid is channeled through the intake works down the penstock into the turbine causing it to rotate. The rotating turbine in turn causes the generator to which it is coupled to rotate and thereby electricity is generated. The fluid flows out of the turbine along the draft tube and into the tail race. \n
• A typical hydroelectric power station can be divided into three main sections, the intake works, the penstock and the powerhouse/tailrace. The body of fluid is channeled through the intake works down the penstock into the turbine causing it to rotate. The rotating turbine in turn causes the generator to which it is coupled to rotate and thereby electricity is generated. The fluid flows out of the turbine along the draft tube and into the tail race. \n
• A typical hydroelectric power station can be divided into three main sections, the intake works, the penstock and the powerhouse/tailrace. The body of fluid is channeled through the intake works down the penstock into the turbine causing it to rotate. The rotating turbine in turn causes the generator to which it is coupled to rotate and thereby electricity is generated. The fluid flows out of the turbine along the draft tube and into the tail race. \n
• A typical hydroelectric power station can be divided into three main sections, the intake works, the penstock and the powerhouse/tailrace. The body of fluid is channeled through the intake works down the penstock into the turbine causing it to rotate. The rotating turbine in turn causes the generator to which it is coupled to rotate and thereby electricity is generated. The fluid flows out of the turbine along the draft tube and into the tail race. \n
• A typical hydroelectric power station can be divided into three main sections, the intake works, the penstock and the powerhouse/tailrace. The body of fluid is channeled through the intake works down the penstock into the turbine causing it to rotate. The rotating turbine in turn causes the generator to which it is coupled to rotate and thereby electricity is generated. The fluid flows out of the turbine along the draft tube and into the tail race. \n
• A typical hydroelectric power station can be divided into three main sections, the intake works, the penstock and the powerhouse/tailrace. The body of fluid is channeled through the intake works down the penstock into the turbine causing it to rotate. The rotating turbine in turn causes the generator to which it is coupled to rotate and thereby electricity is generated. The fluid flows out of the turbine along the draft tube and into the tail race. \n
• Hydroelectric power plants can be categorised as low, medium or high head power stations. Additionally, these power plants can be categorised as run-of-river or hydroelectric power stations with reservoirs. The definition between small and large power plants is somewhat blurred with different geographical region, e.g. in Germany anything greater than 1MW is categorised as large whereas in Russia anything greater that 10MW gets classification. \n
• Hydroelectric power plants can be categorised as low, medium or high head power stations. Additionally, these power plants can be categorised as run-of-river or hydroelectric power stations with reservoirs. The definition between small and large power plants is somewhat blurred with different geographical region, e.g. in Germany anything greater than 1MW is categorised as large whereas in Russia anything greater that 10MW gets classification. \n
• Hydroelectric power plants can be categorised as low, medium or high head power stations. Additionally, these power plants can be categorised as run-of-river or hydroelectric power stations with reservoirs. The definition between small and large power plants is somewhat blurred with different geographical region, e.g. in Germany anything greater than 1MW is categorised as large whereas in Russia anything greater that 10MW gets classification. \n
• Hydroelectric power plants can be categorised as low, medium or high head power stations. Additionally, these power plants can be categorised as run-of-river or hydroelectric power stations with reservoirs. The definition between small and large power plants is somewhat blurred with different geographical region, e.g. in Germany anything greater than 1MW is categorised as large whereas in Russia anything greater that 10MW gets classification. \n
• Low-head hydroelectric power plants can be further divided into two distinct configurations. \nDiversion type - The power &amp;#x201C;station&amp;#x201D; (as distinct from power house) is located outside the riverbed, typically along the course of a man made canal into which the water flow is diverted. The flow is diverted at the a dam into a head race or pipeline, channeled to the power &amp;#x201C;station&amp;#x201D; where power is extracted by turbines, and the transferred back into the river at the tailrace. \n\nIt can be argued that the configuration of the Bonneville Dam is either a run of river or diversion type. \n
• Low-head hydroelectric power plants can be further divided into two distinct configurations. \nDiversion type - The power &amp;#x201C;station&amp;#x201D; (as distinct from power house) is located outside the riverbed, typically along the course of a man made canal into which the water flow is diverted. The flow is diverted at the a dam into a head race or pipeline, channeled to the power &amp;#x201C;station&amp;#x201D; where power is extracted by turbines, and the transferred back into the river at the tailrace. \n\nIt can be argued that the configuration of the Bonneville Dam is either a run of river or diversion type. \n
• Run-of-River - The power station is built directly into the riverbed. This configuration services multiple purposes, electrical generation, flood management, navigation and groundwater stabilisation. Run-of-River configurations can have alternative arrangements:\n\nConventional block design - The powerhouse and the dam are perpendicular to the flow of the river. This design is only suitable if there is no risk of upstream flooding.\nIndented power station - In this case the powerhouse is positioned in an artificial bay outside the riverbed and is preferred arrangement for narrow rivers, i.e. the dam can use the entire width of the river.\nTwin block power station - This configuration utilises two power houses, one on either side of the dam. This is attractive arrangement for rivers which form a border between two countries, i.e. both can have an independent powerhouse. \nPower station in pier - As the name suggests, the mechanical systems and powerhouse are build into the piers. This saves space, however it&amp;#x2019;s selection is dependent on favourable flow conveyance characteristics.\nSubmersible - Power station and dam are built in one block.\n
• Run-of-River - The power station is built directly into the riverbed. This configuration services multiple purposes, electrical generation, flood management, navigation and groundwater stabilisation. Run-of-River configurations can have alternative arrangements:\n\nConventional block design - The powerhouse and the dam are perpendicular to the flow of the river. This design is only suitable if there is no risk of upstream flooding.\nIndented power station - In this case the powerhouse is positioned in an artificial bay outside the riverbed and is preferred arrangement for narrow rivers, i.e. the dam can use the entire width of the river.\nTwin block power station - This configuration utilises two power houses, one on either side of the dam. This is attractive arrangement for rivers which form a border between two countries, i.e. both can have an independent powerhouse. \nPower station in pier - As the name suggests, the mechanical systems and powerhouse are build into the piers. This saves space, however it&amp;#x2019;s selection is dependent on favourable flow conveyance characteristics.\nSubmersible - Power station and dam are built in one block.\n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• Auxiliary plants have recently gained popularity. These can be found in drinking water supply systems. The water is transported from a high level reservoir to the consumer via high pressure piping networks. Turbines or pumps operating in reverse are installed into such piping networks and therefore, surplus energy can be extract. These plants are attractive given that the turbine or reversible pump is the only additional costs incurred. The economic and environmental benefits out weight the initial cost. \n
• The Dam is the interface between the reservoir and the penstock. In essence these structures allow a large volume of water to build up. This water can then be released in a controlled manner. It is essential the dam and associated spillway are also capable of handling seasonal variations, maintaining an adequate reservoir level at all times and conveying floods if and when such arise. \n\nDams can be constructed in the form of fixed (and in some cases movable) weirs, barrages, embankments of rock and/or earth, or mass concrete. \n\nIf the head water needs to be kept at a constant in small hydroelectric power plants (typically run of river configurations), weirs or barrages with movable gates are selected. If the flow exceeds the design specification of the turbines then the excess water can be released by opening the gates. \n\nWhere the headwater does not need to be maintained (typically diversion configurations) dams without moveable gates are appropriate. \n\nReservoirs can occur naturally (lakes) or can be man made. They help create a balance between the fluctuating water supply and electrical demand. Pumped storage stations can store surplus supply for peak load power requirements. \n
• The Dam is the interface between the reservoir and the penstock. In essence these structures allow a large volume of water to build up. This water can then be released in a controlled manner. It is essential the dam and associated spillway are also capable of handling seasonal variations, maintaining an adequate reservoir level at all times and conveying floods if and when such arise. \n\nDams can be constructed in the form of fixed (and in some cases movable) weirs, barrages, embankments of rock and/or earth, or mass concrete. \n\nIf the head water needs to be kept at a constant in small hydroelectric power plants (typically run of river configurations), weirs or barrages with movable gates are selected. If the flow exceeds the design specification of the turbines then the excess water can be released by opening the gates. \n\nWhere the headwater does not need to be maintained (typically diversion configurations) dams without moveable gates are appropriate. \n\nReservoirs can occur naturally (lakes) or can be man made. They help create a balance between the fluctuating water supply and electrical demand. Pumped storage stations can store surplus supply for peak load power requirements. \n
• The Dam is the interface between the reservoir and the penstock. In essence these structures allow a large volume of water to build up. This water can then be released in a controlled manner. It is essential the dam and associated spillway are also capable of handling seasonal variations, maintaining an adequate reservoir level at all times and conveying floods if and when such arise. \n\nDams can be constructed in the form of fixed (and in some cases movable) weirs, barrages, embankments of rock and/or earth, or mass concrete. \n\nIf the head water needs to be kept at a constant in small hydroelectric power plants (typically run of river configurations), weirs or barrages with movable gates are selected. If the flow exceeds the design specification of the turbines then the excess water can be released by opening the gates. \n\nWhere the headwater does not need to be maintained (typically diversion configurations) dams without moveable gates are appropriate. \n\nReservoirs can occur naturally (lakes) or can be man made. They help create a balance between the fluctuating water supply and electrical demand. Pumped storage stations can store surplus supply for peak load power requirements. \n
• The Dam is the interface between the reservoir and the penstock. In essence these structures allow a large volume of water to build up. This water can then be released in a controlled manner. It is essential the dam and associated spillway are also capable of handling seasonal variations, maintaining an adequate reservoir level at all times and conveying floods if and when such arise. \n\nDams can be constructed in the form of fixed (and in some cases movable) weirs, barrages, embankments of rock and/or earth, or mass concrete. \n\nIf the head water needs to be kept at a constant in small hydroelectric power plants (typically run of river configurations), weirs or barrages with movable gates are selected. If the flow exceeds the design specification of the turbines then the excess water can be released by opening the gates. \n\nWhere the headwater does not need to be maintained (typically diversion configurations) dams without moveable gates are appropriate. \n\nReservoirs can occur naturally (lakes) or can be man made. They help create a balance between the fluctuating water supply and electrical demand. Pumped storage stations can store surplus supply for peak load power requirements. \n
• The Dam is the interface between the reservoir and the penstock. In essence these structures allow a large volume of water to build up. This water can then be released in a controlled manner. It is essential the dam and associated spillway are also capable of handling seasonal variations, maintaining an adequate reservoir level at all times and conveying floods if and when such arise. \n\nDams can be constructed in the form of fixed (and in some cases movable) weirs, barrages, embankments of rock and/or earth, or mass concrete. \n\nIf the head water needs to be kept at a constant in small hydroelectric power plants (typically run of river configurations), weirs or barrages with movable gates are selected. If the flow exceeds the design specification of the turbines then the excess water can be released by opening the gates. \n\nWhere the headwater does not need to be maintained (typically diversion configurations) dams without moveable gates are appropriate. \n\nReservoirs can occur naturally (lakes) or can be man made. They help create a balance between the fluctuating water supply and electrical demand. Pumped storage stations can store surplus supply for peak load power requirements. \n
• The Dam is the interface between the reservoir and the penstock. In essence these structures allow a large volume of water to build up. This water can then be released in a controlled manner. It is essential the dam and associated spillway are also capable of handling seasonal variations, maintaining an adequate reservoir level at all times and conveying floods if and when such arise. \n\nDams can be constructed in the form of fixed (and in some cases movable) weirs, barrages, embankments of rock and/or earth, or mass concrete. \n\nIf the head water needs to be kept at a constant in small hydroelectric power plants (typically run of river configurations), weirs or barrages with movable gates are selected. If the flow exceeds the design specification of the turbines then the excess water can be released by opening the gates. \n\nWhere the headwater does not need to be maintained (typically diversion configurations) dams without moveable gates are appropriate. \n\nReservoirs can occur naturally (lakes) or can be man made. They help create a balance between the fluctuating water supply and electrical demand. Pumped storage stations can store surplus supply for peak load power requirements. \n
• The Dam is the interface between the reservoir and the penstock. In essence these structures allow a large volume of water to build up. This water can then be released in a controlled manner. It is essential the dam and associated spillway are also capable of handling seasonal variations, maintaining an adequate reservoir level at all times and conveying floods if and when such arise. \n\nDams can be constructed in the form of fixed (and in some cases movable) weirs, barrages, embankments of rock and/or earth, or mass concrete. \n\nIf the head water needs to be kept at a constant in small hydroelectric power plants (typically run of river configurations), weirs or barrages with movable gates are selected. If the flow exceeds the design specification of the turbines then the excess water can be released by opening the gates. \n\nWhere the headwater does not need to be maintained (typically diversion configurations) dams without moveable gates are appropriate. \n\nReservoirs can occur naturally (lakes) or can be man made. They help create a balance between the fluctuating water supply and electrical demand. Pumped storage stations can store surplus supply for peak load power requirements. \n
• Power house \nThese fossil like structures are in face turbines that generate hydroelectric power at the Three Gorges Dam in Yichang, China - currently the world&amp;#x2019;s largest electricity-generating plant.\n\nThe turbines are know as Francis Inlet Scrolls. Each spiral-shaped turbine is up to 10.5 m wide and generates electricity by using the high pressure water flowing through them to turn a wheel attached to a dynamo.\n\nBuilding work for the Three Gorges Dam began in December 1994 and is not expected to be completed until next year, even though it&amp;#x2019;s already generating power. When it&amp;#x2019;s fully operational, the total electric generating capacity will be up to 22.5 GW. It was hoped the dam would provide 10 per cent of China&amp;#x2019;s power, but increased demand means that figure will probably only be three per cent. \n\nDespite being hailed by the Chinese state as a success, the dam is a controversal issue. Important archaeological and cultural sites had to be flooded, and over 1.3 million people were moved from their homes to make way for it. The dam has also been identified as a contributing factor to the extinction of the Yangtze River dolphin.\n\nSource: Focus Magazine November 2010 pages 8-9\n
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• ### L5 Hydropower

1. 1. ENGINEERING SCIENCE &ENERGY SUSTAINABILITY Lecture 5 - Hydro Power Overview Keith Vaugh BEng (AERO) MEng
2. 2. }
3. 3. HYDROELECTRICPOWER GENERATIONHydropower plants harness the potential energywithin falling water and utilise rotodynamic }machinery to convert that energy to electricity
4. 4. HYDROELECTRICPOWER GENERATIONHydropower plants harness the potential energywithin falling water and utilise rotodynamic }machinery to convert that energy to electricityThe theoretical water power Pwa,th between twopoints for a moving body of water can bedetermined by:
5. 5. HYDROELECTRICPOWER GENERATIONHydropower plants harness the potential energywithin falling water and utilise rotodynamic }machinery to convert that energy to electricityThe theoretical water power Pwa,th between twopoints for a moving body of water can bedetermined by: & Pwa,th = ρwa gVwa ( hhw − htw )
6. 6. Applying Bernoulli’s equation two reference points and , up anddownstream of the hydroelectric power plant; 2 2 2 p1 uwa,1 p2 uwa,2 uwa,2 + z1 + = + z2 + +α = const. ρwa,1g 2g ρwa,2 g 2g 2gwhere; p = pressure head ρwa g z = potential energy head 2 uwa = kinetic energy 2g 2 uwa α = lost energy 2g
7. 7. {}
8. 8. { }
9. 9. {HYDROELECTRIC POWERPLANT CONFIGURATION }
13. 13. Stop logsHeadwater Screen Dam
14. 14. Stop logs Stop valveHeadwater Screen Dam
15. 15. Stop logs Stop valveHeadwater Screen Dam Penstock
16. 16. Stop logs Stop valveHeadwater Screen Dam Penstock Turbine
17. 17. Stop logs Stop valveHeadwater Screen Dam Generator Penstock Turbine
18. 18. Stop logs Stop valveHeadwater Screen Dam Generator Penstock Turbine Draft tube
19. 19. Stop logs Stop valveHeadwater Screen Power house Dam Generator Penstock Turbine Draft tube
20. 20. Stop logs Stop valveHeadwater Screen Power house Dam Generator Tailwater Penstock Turbine Draft tube
21. 21. }
22. 22. CATEGORISATIONLow-head plants: Are categorised by large ﬂow rates andrelatively low heads (less than 20 m). Typically these are run-of-river power plants i.e. harness the ﬂow of the river }
23. 23. CATEGORISATIONLow-head plants: Are categorised by large ﬂow rates andrelatively low heads (less than 20 m). Typically these are run-of-river power plants i.e. harness the ﬂow of the river }Medium-head plants: This category of plant uses the headcreated by a dam (20 - 100 m) and the average discharges used bythe turbines result from reservoir management
24. 24. CATEGORISATIONLow-head plants: Are categorised by large ﬂow rates andrelatively low heads (less than 20 m). Typically these are run-of-river power plants i.e. harness the ﬂow of the river }Medium-head plants: This category of plant uses the headcreated by a dam (20 - 100 m) and the average discharges used bythe turbines result from reservoir managementHigh-head plants: Found in mountainous regions with typicalheads of 100 - 2,000 m. Flow rates are typically low and thereforethe power results from high heads
26. 26. DIVERSION TYPE } }Source: http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&source=s_q&hl=en&geocode=&q=45%C2%B038%E2%80%B239%E2%80%B3N+121%C2%B056%E2%80%B226%E2%80%B3W&aq=&sll=37.052985,37.890472&sspn=1.008309,1.767426&ie=UTF8&ll=45.644288,-121.940603&spn=0.027602,0.055232&t=k&z=15
27. 27. DIVERSION TYPE } } name: Bonneville Dam river: Columbia River location: Oregon, USA head: 18 m no. turbine’s: 20 capacity: 1092.9 MWSource: http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&source=s_q&hl=en&geocode=&q=45%C2%B038%E2%80%B239%E2%80%B3N+121%C2%B056%E2%80%B226%E2%80%B3W&aq=&sll=37.052985,37.890472&sspn=1.008309,1.767426&ie=UTF8&ll=45.644288,-121.940603&spn=0.027602,0.055232&t=k&z=15
30. 30. RUN-OF-RIVER } name: Little Goose Dam river: Lake Bryan location: Washington, USA head: 30 m no. turbine’s: 6 capacity: 932 MWSource: http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&source=s_q&hl=en&geocode=&q=46%C2%B035%E2%80%B215%E2%80%B3N+118%C2%B001%E2%80%B234%E2%80%B3W&aq=&sll=24.943901,105.113523&sspn=0.035799,0.059094&ie=UTF8&t=k&z=15
31. 31. Hydroelectric power stations
32. 32. Hydroelectric power stations Low-headpower stations
33. 33. Hydroelectric power stations Low-headpower stations Run-of-riverpower stations
34. 34. Hydroelectric power stations Low-head power stations Run-of-river power stations Detached Joined Submergedpower stations power stations power stations
35. 35. Hydroelectric power stations Low-head power stations Run-of-river power stations Detached Joined Submergedpower stations power stations power stations Run-of-river power stations
36. 36. Hydroelectric power stations Low-head Medium-head High-head power stations power stations power stations Run-of-river power stations Detached Joined Submergedpower stations power stations power stations Run-of-river power stations
37. 37. Hydroelectric power stations Low-head Medium-head High-head power stations power stations power stations Run-of-river Storage power stations power stations Detached Joined Submergedpower stations power stations power stations Run-of-river power stations
38. 38. Hydroelectric power stations Low-head Medium-head High-head power stations power stations power stations Run-of-river Storage power stations power stations Detached Joined Submergedpower stations power stations power stations Run-of-river power stations Storage power stations
39. 39. Hydroelectric power stations Low-head Medium-head High-head power stations power stations power stations Run-of-river Storage power stations power stations Detached Joined Submergedpower stations power stations power stations Series of power stations with head reservoir Run-of-river power stations Storage power stations
40. 40. Hydroelectric power stations Low-head Medium-head High-head power stations power stations power stations Run-of-river Storage power stations power stations Detached Joined Submergedpower stations power stations power stations Series of power stations with head reservoir Run-of-river power stations Storage power stations
41. 41. }
42. 42. SYSTEM COMPONENTS Dams - are ﬁxed structure and enables a controlled ﬂow of water from the reservoir to the powerhouse. }
43. 43. SYSTEM COMPONENTS Dams - are ﬁxed structure and enables a controlled ﬂow of water from the reservoir to the powerhouse. } Weirs - can be either ﬁxed or movable
44. 44. SYSTEM COMPONENTS Dams - are ﬁxed structure and enables a controlled ﬂow of water from the reservoir to the powerhouse. } Weirs - can be either ﬁxed or movable
45. 45. SYSTEM COMPONENTS Dams - are ﬁxed structure and enables a controlled ﬂow of water from the reservoir to the powerhouse. } Weirs - can be either ﬁxed or movable Barrages - have moveable gates
46. 46. SYSTEM COMPONENTS Dams - are ﬁxed structure and enables a controlled ﬂow of water from the reservoir to the powerhouse. } Weirs - can be either ﬁxed or movable Barrages - have moveable gates Reservoirs - A supplementary supply of water
47. 47. SYSTEM COMPONENTS Dams - are ﬁxed structure and enables a controlled ﬂow of water from the reservoir to the powerhouse. } Weirs - can be either ﬁxed or movable Barrages - have moveable gates Reservoirs - A supplementary supply of water Intake, penstock, powerhouse, tailrace (discussed above)
48. 48. }
49. 49. }
50. 50. SOCIAL &ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS Hydroelectric power is a mature technology used in many countries, producing about 20% of the world’s electric power. }
51. 51. SOCIAL &ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS Hydroelectric power is a mature technology used in many countries, producing about 20% of the world’s electric power. } Hydroelectric power accounts for over 90% of the total electricity supply in some countries including Brazil & Norway,
52. 52. SOCIAL &ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS Hydroelectric power is a mature technology used in many countries, producing about 20% of the world’s electric power. } Hydroelectric power accounts for over 90% of the total electricity supply in some countries including Brazil & Norway, Long-lasting with relatively low maintenance requirements: many systems have been in continuous use for over fifty years and some installations still function after 100 years.
53. 53. The relatively large initial capital cost has long since beenwritten off, the ‘levelised’ cost of power produced is less thannon-renewable sources requiring expenditure on fuel andmore frequent replacement of plant.
54. 54. The relatively large initial capital cost has long since beenwritten off, the ‘levelised’ cost of power produced is less thannon-renewable sources requiring expenditure on fuel andmore frequent replacement of plant.The complications of hydro-power systems arise mostly fromassociated dams and reservoirs, particularly on the large-scaleprojects.
55. 55. The relatively large initial capital cost has long since beenwritten off, the ‘levelised’ cost of power produced is less thannon-renewable sources requiring expenditure on fuel andmore frequent replacement of plant.The complications of hydro-power systems arise mostly fromassociated dams and reservoirs, particularly on the large-scaleprojects.Most rivers, including large rivers with continental-scalecatchments, such as the Nile, the Zambesi and the Yangtze,have large seasonal flows making floods a majorcharacteristic.
56. 56. Therefore most large dams are (i.e. those >15m high) arebuilt for more than one purpose, apart from the significantaim of electricity generation, e.g. water storage for potablesupply and irrigation, controlling river flow and mitigatingfloods, road crossings, leisure activities and fisheries.
57. 57. Therefore most large dams are (i.e. those >15m high) arebuilt for more than one purpose, apart from the significantaim of electricity generation, e.g. water storage for potablesupply and irrigation, controlling river flow and mitigatingfloods, road crossings, leisure activities and fisheries.Countering the benefits of hydroelectric power are excessivedebt burden (dams are often the largest single investmentproject in a country), cost over-runs, displacement andimpoverishment of people, destruction of important eco-systems and fishery resources, and the inequitable sharing ofcosts and benefits.
58. 58. Therefore most large dams are (i.e. those >15m high) arebuilt for more than one purpose, apart from the significantaim of electricity generation, e.g. water storage for potablesupply and irrigation, controlling river flow and mitigatingfloods, road crossings, leisure activities and fisheries.Countering the benefits of hydroelectric power are excessivedebt burden (dams are often the largest single investmentproject in a country), cost over-runs, displacement andimpoverishment of people, destruction of important eco-systems and fishery resources, and the inequitable sharing ofcosts and benefits.For example, over 3 million people were displaced by theconstruction of the Three Gorges dam in China....