Deﬁnition of BioMass• Encompasses a variety of fuels and technologies used to produce renewable energy• Refers to: • land and water-based vegetation • organic wastes • photosynthetic organisms• These are non-fossil, renewable carbon resources from which energy can be produced and used as fossil fuel substitutes
Examples and uses• Wood, grasses, crops, agricultural and municipal wastes• Can be burned to produce heat• Used to create steam to turn turbines - electricity generation• Liquid biofuels can also be derived from biomass crops
Energy from biomass and waste is oftenreferred to as bioenergy. When plantmaterial is burned for energy purposescarbon dioxide is released. However,because plants absorb carbon dioxideduring their life cycle, the net emissions ofcarbon dioxide are zero. In this way, woodis said to be carbon neutral.
Beneﬁts of BioMass• Net reduction in CO2 emissions.• Indigenous resource - can reduce dependence on fuel imports• Secure energy supply• Employment - Fuel cultivation, Engineering consultants, environmental services, construction, legal/ﬁnancing, manufacturing, maintenance etc...
- Manufacturing - while there are some manufacturing companies in Ireland e.g. pellet equipmen there is significant potential for establishment of manufacturers of the various components of biofuel systems. - Maintenance, servicing and administration 350000 2005 300000 2010 250000 2020 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 s c n te es n s re op i io l io ob as ue ho du st at cr er lw of bu ns si fic gy a bi re ra om an -o i as er id tu st -g -c En o qu d ul re Bi in ric Li Fo o o W Bi Bi Ag Projected employment in the EU for biomass technologies. Wind is included for comparison. Source: EU Altener Report: Impact of RES on Employment, 2000.ironmental gains - biomass is sustainable and does not deplete future resources. - energy forestry crops have a much greater diversity of wildlife
BioMass feed stocks
•Energy Crops•Organic residues
Energy Crops• Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) - Production of wood fuel through the cultivation of high-yielding trees at close spacing on short time rotations • Willow • Poplar • Hemp • Miscanthus
Energy Crops• Liquid BioFuels - grown for production of liquid transport fuels.• Different production techniques • Biodiesel - derived from oil crops i.e. oilseed & camelina • Bioethanol - wheat, sugarbeet, sweet sorghum and woody crops • Biomethanol - Biomasses sources i.e. grasses, SRF, crop residues, municipal solid waste• Liquid BioFuels can be incorporated as blends with petrol/ diesel fuels or as a replacement for same
Organic Residues• Forest residues - tree tops, branches etc...• Wood wastes or by-products from wood processing• Agricultural residues - animal slurry and manure, chicken litter, spent mushroom compost and straw (disposal of these pose environmental problems)• Municipal solid waste - food processing waste, sewage sludge• Waste vegetable oil - catering industry• Tallow - animal fat of variable quality
Conversion of BioMass to energy • Direct combustion - some processing of biomass may be carried out prior to combustion e.g. sorting, chipping, pelleting or drying • Thermochemical processes - BioMass is upgraded to a liquid or gas by pyrolysis and gasiﬁcation • Decomposition of solid bioMass to liquid or gaseous fuels by process such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation
UK Sweden Spain Portugal Netherlands Italy Ireland Germany France Finland Denmark Belgium Austria 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 PJ/a Use of Biomass in European Countries. Source: AFB-net Report, 2001SUSTAINABLE ENERGY IRELANDRENEWABLE ENERGY INFORMATION OFFICE
climate in Europe. Our potential annual yield of wood is almost three times that of Finland, where the energyuse from biomass is 18%! We need to realise this potential and develop our natural biomass resources. 5.3 3.8 4.3 10.0 6.2 8.7 6.2 6.1 5.8 7.2 6.1 6.8 6.2 7.1 4.8 3.9 5.2 5.3 6.4 Ireland has the highest potential annual yield of wood in Europe (figures are based on Paterson’s Climatic Index m3/ha). Source: Forest Resources in Europe 1950-1990, 1994. Forestry in Ireland
The potential to develop our use of biomassfor energy cannot go unrecognized. Irelandhas the best growth climate in Europe. Ourpotential annual yield of wood is almostthree times that of Finland, where the energyuse from biomass is 18%!!!!!!
Barriers to BioMass• Lack of experience and familiarity with BioMass technologies• Attitude of the electricity, heat and fuel supply industries - changing• Initial capital costs - taxes on renewable energy systems (however greener homes grants now available), lack of grants (changing)• Uncertainty as to the availability of BioMass resources - Framing• Need for an integrated BioMass policy• Lack of information, education and training
What is Biomass? Biomass is the oldest fuel used by mankind. Wood has been used as a fuel for cooking and heating for over 500,000 years, but has suffered a decline in the last century as the use of fossil fuels increased. However, the environmentally harmful effects of burning fossil fuels coupled with the need to secure indigenous renewable sources of energy has resulted in a return to using natural and clean sources of energy such as biomass. Definition of Biomass The term biomass encompasses a variety of fuels and technologies used to produce renewable energy. Biomass refers to land and water-based vegetation, organic wastes and photosynthetic organisms. These are non-fossil, renewable carbon resources from which energy can be produced and used as fossil fuel substitutes. Examples of biomass include: wood, grasses, crops, agricultural and municipal wastes. Biomass can be burned to produce heat that is used to create steam to turn turbines to produce electricity. Therefore, energy from biomass can produce electricity and/or heat. Liquid biofuels can also be derived fromThe majority of todays lecture has been biomass crops such as oilseed rape. Energy from biomass and waste is often referred to as bioenergy. Whensourced from Sustainable Energy plant material is burned for energy purposes carbon dioxide is released. However, because plants absorb carbon dioxide during their life cycle, the net emissions of carbon dioxide are zero. In this way, wood is saidIreland’s BioMass fact sheet available to be carbon neutral.from:Sustainable Energy Ireland Atmospheric CO2, water and sunlightShinagh House Carbon released back into the atmosphere Converted into new plant material through photosynthesisBandon, Co. Cork,and available to download at: Which is harvested and burntor downloadable from: Source: British BioGen, the UK Trade Association for Bioenergy. SUSTAINABLE ENERGY IRELANDhttp://www.sei.ie/Renewables/Bioenergy/ RENEWABLE ENERGY INFORMATION OFFICE Hotline: 023 42193 Website: http://www.sei.ie/reio.htm 1