Information Architecture –        Part 1: Class #1              Keith Schengili-RobertsCopyright © 2013, The iSchool Insti...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                    What is Information Architecture?           Class...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                    What is Information Architecture?           Class...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                    What is Information Architecture?           Class...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                    What is Information Architecture?           Class...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                    What is Information Architecture?           Class...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                    What is Information Architecture?           Class...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                    What is Information Architecture?           Class...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                    What is Information Architecture?           Class...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                    What is Information Architecture?           Class...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                       What is Information Architecture?           Cl...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                      What is Information Architecture?           Cla...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                   What is Information Architecture?           Class ...
Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic                     What is Information Architecture?           Clas...
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Information Architecture - Part 1 - Spring 2013 - Class 1

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Transcript of "Information Architecture - Part 1 - Spring 2013 - Class 1"

  1. 1. Information Architecture – Part 1: Class #1 Keith Schengili-RobertsCopyright © 2013, The iSchool Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  2. 2. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Instructor Keith Schengili-Roberts keith.schengili.roberts@utoronto.ca Class #1 March 13, 2013 Keith Schengili-Roberts Copyright © 2013, The iSchool Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  3. 3. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Today’s Class • Administration / Introduction • What is Information Architecture? • The IA Process Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  4. 4. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Recommended Text: #1 Recommended Text #1: Information Architecture for the World Wide Web, 3rd Edition by Louis Rosenfeld & Peter Morville (The “Polar Bear” book) O’Reilly & Associates, 2007 Cover price: $51.99 (though street price is lower, especially online) Encapsulates much of what is taught in this course; excellent reference work Second edition available on Google Books Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  5. 5. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Recommended Text: #2• Recommended book: Ambient Findability by Peter Morville (2005)Subtitle: What We Find Changes Who We Become“Morville discusses the Internet, GIS, and other network technologies that are coming together to make unlimited findability possible. Morville looks back at the history of wayfinding and human evolution, suggesting that our fear of being lost has driven us to create maps, charts, and now, the mobile Internet.”A key book that explores how humans seek information within their environment Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2014, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  6. 6. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Recommended Text: #3 Prioritizing Web Usability, (2006) which is largely an update to his previous essential text Designing Web Usability. List price: $68.99, but again, deals are to be had (especially online). Not available on Google Books. Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  7. 7. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Recommended Text #4• The very latest book from Jakob Neilsenand associates: Mobile Usability (2012)List price: $36.99Watermarked eBook/PDF version ~$22.39.“How do we create a satisfactory userexperience when limited to a small device?This new guide focuses on usability formobile devices, primarily smartphones andtouchphones, and covers such topics asdeveloping a mobile strategy, designing forsmall screens, writing for mobile, usabilitycomparisons, and looking toward thefuture.” Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute
  8. 8. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Recommended Text #5• Pervasive Information Architecture by Andrea Resmini and Luca Rosati (2012)• Arguably a modern successor to the “Polar Bear” book• Looks at how IA has become a necessity in designing “information ecosystems” as people need better wayfinding tools• Also talks about how IA plays a role in the creation of cross-channel experiences, where the virtual increases merges with the physical world Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute
  9. 9. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture The “Other” Book• You have been handed a “book” containing all of thepresentation material to be used in this course• I will be changing/updating some items along the way toreflect particular class interests that can’t be anticipatedprior to the “book’s” publication. Change is good. ;-) Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  10. 10. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture More Admin Stuff• Copies of the presentation deck for each class andrelated materials will be made available at thefollowing Web site: www.infoarchcourse.com• Go to “Course Files” page and download the zipfiles containing the course materials Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  11. 11. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Who is this guy? Keith Schengili-Roberts • Author of “Core CSS, 2nd Edition” (2003) and 3 previous technical titles • Professional Webmaster since 1995 early examples: Delrina, Cyberjack, Symantec • Consultant with Mekon, advising clients on CMS deployments • Previously the Information Architect and then the Manager, Documentation & Localization at AMD (part of the Graphics Products Group, formerly known as ATI). • Member of the Information Architecture Institute • Writer of The Computer Paper’s popular “Web Weaving Series” (started in 1994) • Instructor at FIS since 1999; have taught/currently teach: • “PHP and MySQL Web Development” • “Enterprise Content Management” • “Information Architecture – Part 2” Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  12. 12. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture What I Do What I work on as an Information Architect/Consultant: • Aid firms moving from unstructured to structured content • My specific expertise is in DITA XML • Advise clients on the best CMS for their needs; advise their IAs and Writers on Best Practices • Work on the Return on Investment (ROI) that can be expected • Was keynote speaker at Content Management Strategies 2012, and an invited speaker to the Information Architecture Colloquium in Lyon, France Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  13. 13. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture IAs are Typically Wearers of Many “Hats”• In my experience the IAs I teach are those who may or may not have “IA” as part of their official title, but do the equivalent work• Also, most IAs have never had any formal training in the art and craft of IA, which is where this course comes in• I see my role as instructor in part to teach you the fundamentals and give you the tools necessary to better do the work you are likely already doing Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  14. 14. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Teaching Philosophy• Plan is to introduce you to some new ideas, with theintention of making you re-think how you currentlyimplement Information Architecture in practice• Teach for real-world applicability• People learn best by doing, and by sharing their ownexperiencesEnd goal: provide some fundamentals for the work most ofyou are likely already doing Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  15. 15. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Timetable for ClassesClass Timetable:• Wednesday March 13th, 6:00 - 9:00 p.m. (Class #1)• Wednesday March 20th, 6:00 - 9:00 p.m. (Class #2)• Wednesday March 27th, 6:00 - 9:00 p.m. (Class #3)• Wednesday April 3rd, 6:00-9:00 p.m. (Class #4 -Assignment #1 due)•Wednesday April 10th, – no class, but Assignment #2 due Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  16. 16. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Rough Course Outline Class 1 Class 3 • Administration / Introduction • Navigation and User • What is Information Expectations Architecture? • Writing for the Web • The IA Process • Fonts and Legibility Class 2 • Creating Sitemaps and Flow Charts (Using Visio) • Card Sort Exercise Class 4 • Discovery • User-Centric Design • Findability • Defining User Types • Metadata, Taxonomies and Folksonomies • Personas & Scenarios • IA and SharePoint Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  17. 17. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Goals • By the end of this course you should have a good theoretical basis in the basics of Information Architecture • Should have the tools necessary to methodically tackle the redesign of any Web site/content • Both “Part 1” and “Part 2” courses mix instruction with plenty of hands-on examples; completed assignments can be used to build a portfolio • Will have time to work on parts of assignments in class Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  18. 18. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Introductions • Please introduce yourself to the class: • Why are you interested in Information Architecture? • What do you hope to get out of this series of classes? Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  19. 19. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture What I am Looking for in the Assignments • Bringing together concepts and techniques that have been learned over the course • Being able to identify theoretical approaches and why they have been incorporated (or why they haven’t) • Demonstrating how your new approach will improve upon the old (i.e. “Before and After” approach works well) • Having done the work – the time invested in your project should be evident in your assignment Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  20. 20. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Assignment #1 • Create a full set of personas/scenarios for a targeted Web site/digital content • Format: Written; between 5-10 pages in length total (including images); ultimately am looking for quality, not quantity. • When Due: Final class (Date TBD) • Worth 40% of class mark • See “A” class versions of this assignment at: infoarchcourse.com/files.php#iaadvanced-assignment1-samples Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  21. 21. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Assignment #2 • Creating “Before” and “After” Information Architect sitemaps (i.e. “blueprints”) that better optimize the layout/structure of a target Web site of your choosing • When Due: Wednesday April 10th 2013 (One week after the final class) • Worth 40% of course mark • See “A” class versions of this assignment at: infoarchcourse.com/files.php#iaadvanced-assignment2-samples Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  22. 22. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Marking Rationale • Since most people attending the class are already practicing IA, I don’t just provide a mark on each assignment, but a critique of what you have done (and how to make it better) • Breakdown of Marks: • Assignment #1 = 40% • Assignment #2 = 40% • Participation in class = 20% Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  23. 23. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture What is Information Architecture? • As you will see, there is no one definition Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  24. 24. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture “Defining the D*mn Thing” (DTDT)Defining what IA is has been a long-standing argument…• My favourite is from the Polar Bear book:1. The combination of organization, labeling, and navigation schemes within an information system.2. The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content.3. The art and science of structuring and classifying web sites and intranets to help people find and manage information.4. Maps out how the site will accommodate change and growth over time Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  25. 25. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture “Defining the D*mn Thing” (DTDT) (cont).• An early definition from Richard Saul Wurman (1996):1. The individual who organizes the patterns inherent in data, making the complex clear2. A person who creates the structure or map of information which allows others to find their personal paths to knowledge.3. The emerging 21st century professional occupation addressing the needs of the age focused upon clarity, human understanding and the science of the organization of information Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  26. 26. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture IA’s Are Always Seeking Patterns…• Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  27. 27. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Maps• Maps are one way connecting using the “virtual” to describe the physical world Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  28. 28. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Charles Joseph Minard• It took Charles Minard (1781-1870) to start thinking of using maps to show more than just geography: Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  29. 29. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture A Picture Can Contain a Thousand Words (If Done Right)• “It may well be the best statistical graphic ever drawn” said Edward Tufte Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  30. 30. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture A Good Book on (Visual) IA• Minard’s map was highlighted in Tufte’s landmark book The Visual Display of Quantitative Information (1983)• It was in turn absorbed and referenced by a new generation of UI designers, leading to things like the Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines (1993), which popularized UI ideas still used today Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  31. 31. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture What Does an Information Architect Do? • Develops and communicates a holistic view of a Web site or of the display of digital content • Clarifies the mission and vision for a Web site/digital content, balancing the needs of the organization and the audience • Designs a site/targeted content for a specific audience concentrating on ease-of-use • Determines what type of content (and for Web sites, additional functions) is displayed/presented Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  32. 32. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Signs You Might Already Be an Information Architect ☺ • When looking at a web site, do menus that hold no meaning to you whatsoever leave you in a bad mood? • Do you find yourself running between the designers, the programmers, the writers and the account executive trying to hold a unified vision together? • Do you leave a web site fuming when the words that are used to describe sections have nothing to do with the content that is found there? • Do you feel that the important stuff in the web site you’re building is somehow between the pages as well as on the pages? • Ref: http://iainstitute.org/documents/learn/Am_I_an_IA.pdf Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  33. 33. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture IA as a Synthesis of Disciplines A good Information Architect is somebody who has knowledge of the following disciplines: • Psychology • Usability Engineering • Graphic Design • Writing • Marketing • Content Structure/Strategy Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  34. 34. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture The Types of Systems IAs Work With • Organizational/structural systems: These constrain the way content can be grouped. • Labelling systems: Artifacts of taxonomies that determine logical relations among content groups. • Navigation systems: Provide a means of moving through the site based on the scheme for the labelling. • Search systems: Search, metadata, search engine optimization. Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  35. 35. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Why is IA important? • Users get lost and frustrated • Loss of potential customers, members, sales • Management • Poorly architected Web sites/digital content are hard to manage – changes take more time and cost more • Inconsistent messaging • Lack in the flexibility of growth Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  36. 36. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Why is IA important? (cont.) Put another way, “where’s the pain?” (Louis Rosenfeld) Pain can be manifested in: • Lost time/productivity (e.g. Intranets) • Bad impressions on customers, resulting in fewer sales • Lower unit sales • Fewer members registering or enrolling • More marketing materials mailed out to explain/sell/bring awareness to the things users should be finding on the Web site • More offline support (i.e. calls to tech support) required Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  37. 37. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Why is IA important? (cont.) • It is a foundation for great Web/content design • It is the blueprint upon which all other aspects of the site/content structure is built: form, function, metaphor, navigation, interface, interaction and implementation of business rules • Creates a visual representation of all business rules (Web) Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  38. 38. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Is There ROI from IA? • The answer seems to be “yes” but it is hard to nail down the specifics: • A Forrester report suggest that 42% of online purchasers made their most recent purchase because of previous good experience with the retailer • Buyers give up on two-thirds of shopping attempts Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  39. 39. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture One Commonly Told Story of I.A. Effectiveness • Skechers redesign of their Web site helped increase sales more than 400% • But is that the whole story? • No. The redesign was done immediately before the Christmas shopping season. • In the end, do not take such stories at face value Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  40. 40. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Audience Reach “There are more than a billion users on the Internet, so any site that has less than ten million customers (in other words, almost any site) has not tapped into 99 percent of the potential audience”. Jakob Nielsen/Hoa Loranger, 2006 Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  41. 41. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Notice Any Similarity in the Following? “There are 1 billion users on the internet and half of them could come to your site. If the average cost of an abandoned shopping cart is $20 you will lose $10 billion a year in sales of your designer pet food.” Daniel Rosenberg: www.baychi.org/calendar/20031014/ While the statement from previous slide is mathematically true, other factors (such as market segment targeted, focus audience, language, geography, etc) effectively act as a constraint on your total audience. So, beware of “voodoo economics” when it comes to IA. Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  42. 42. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Seven Myths of Usability ROI 1. Generalization is valid 2. Calculation of ROI from the Producer Perspective 3. You Can Ignore Other Factors 4. Analog Comparisons are Not Required 5. All Usability Dollars are Spent Effectively 6. Executives Will Believe Voodoo Economics 7. UE Resources will Reduce the Software Schedule Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  43. 43. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Seven Myths of Usability ROI (Cont.) 1. Generalization is valid: “a user interface typically has around 40 flaws that can slow users and lead to errors”. Hardware? Software? Web? Not all interfaces will have 40 flows. 2. Calculation of ROI from the Producer Perspective: “the average annual bill for supporting a PC is $13,000.” In practice companies want market share and do not care about reducing the cost for the consumer. Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  44. 44. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Seven Myths of Usability ROI (Cont.) 3. You can ignore other factors: “revenue increase 80% for the new version, and usability was cited as the second most significant improvement.” So what the #1 reason? (Doubling the size of the sales force?) 4. Analog comparisons are valid: “there was a loss of approximately 50% of potential sales from the site as people cant find stuff.” Do you buy something each and every time you go into a bricks-and-mortar store? Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  45. 45. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Seven Myths of Usability ROI (Cont.) 5. All usability dollars are spent effectively: devilishly hard to measure value of usability in isolation; effective marketing likely provides bigger bang for the buck. 6. Executives will believe voodoo economics: see Jakob Nielsen/Hoa Lorangers “Audience Reach” quoted earlier. Executives know better (or at least good ones do). 7. UE Resources will reduce the software schedule: As a general rule, new processes tend to increase the time to market. Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  46. 46. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Caveats Regarding Usability • What studies are out there tend to be incomplete or without related business variables (“all crap” - Rosenberg) • Ultimately usability is one variable of overall “product design”, which includes: • Features • Performance • Cost • Reliability • Usability • A successful product or Web site ultimately depends on all of these factors Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  47. 47. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture I.A. Deliverables (Web) • Content Inventory (“Content Survey”, “Content Audit”) • Competitive Analysis • Usability/Accessibility analysis/recommendations • Personas (“User Profile”) • User Scenarios (“Use Case”, “Task Analysis”, “User Flow”) • Sitemap (“Site Hierarchy Map”, “Site Diagram”, “Blueprint”) • Wireframes (“Page Architecture”, “Page Schematic”) • Style Guide The items in blue are the subjects covered in Part 1 of the Information Architecture course, and the rest are covered in the Part 2 sessions of the Information Architecture class. Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  48. 48. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Three Circles of IA Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  49. 49. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture What’s in a Name… • Often you will find many combinations of these “buzzwords” used to describe a job function, or a particular approach to IA, but in fact the roles often have a large overlap Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  50. 50. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Speaking about Jobs… Go to: www.workopolis.com or www.monster.ca and do a search on “Information Architect” Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  51. 51. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Approaches to Information Architecture • IA is still very much a developing discipline, and there are a number of theoretical approaches to the subject, including the following: • “Bad” Web Sites • Patterns/Patterning • Content Management • User-Centric Approach Overall trend is to incorporate and formalize aspects of all of these that prove to be useful from a practical perspective. Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  52. 52. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture “Bad” Web Sites • Vincent Flanders is the main proponent of this approach (www.webpagesthatsuck.com and www.youtube.com/user/vincentflanders) • Basic idea is to look at “bad” Web sites and look at why they fail • Not a prescriptive approach; and therefore limited in applicability; doesn’t say what is good about “good design”, focuses solely on the bad • Can serve as good counter-examples • Notable that some User Centric advocates lean towards this approach, though use it as a stepping-stone to improving UI design Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  53. 53. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Some Recent Examples • bearflagwine.com • pandminc.com • The term “mystery-meat navigation” came from him • Sites serve as good examples of what not to do, but do not tell you what you should do (other than “don’t do this”) • 2012 nominees: webpagesthatsuck.com/ worst-websites-of-2012- overview.html Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  54. 54. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Another Approach for “Bad vs. Good” (Providing the “Why”) • Edward R. Tuftes Visual Explanations (available from: www.edwardtufte.com) • More a book on visual design than anything else, but contains many good lessons for people looking to architect the display of information • His work has proven to be very influential in many fields, including IA Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  55. 55. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture “Bad” Example Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  56. 56. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture “Bad” Example (cont.) • Full example of the slide (which includes titles/captions) Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  57. 57. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture “Good” (or at least “Better”) Example • Example from www.asktog.com/books/challengerExerpt.html • Point of all this is: if you can convey useful information in a glance, do so Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  58. 58. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Information is Beautiful A good site for inspiration on visualizing information: www.informationisbeautiful.net Good TED talk by David McCandless (host of the “Information is Beautiful” site): www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/david_mccandless_the_beauty_of_data_visualization.html (or bit.ly/tTng06) Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  59. 59. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture User-Centric Design (a.k.a. Usability Design)•Best known proponent is Jakob Nielsen, Ph.D.Web site: www.nngroup.comHis books:• Designing Web Usability: The Practice of Simplicity (2000)• Homepage Usability: 50 Websites Deconstructed (2001)• Prioritizing Web Usability (2006)• Eyetracking Research (2009)• Mobile Usability (2012) Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  60. 60. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture The User-Centric Approach • Two main principles (first stated in Designing Web Usability): • Web users want to find the info they want easily. • If they don’t know what they want, users still want to browse quickly and access the info they come across in a logical manner. Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  61. 61. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture The User-Centric Approach and “Patterning” • Christopher Alexander is an architect who initiated an approach to architectural thinking that formulated a set of rules, called “patterns”. • Each "pattern" represents a rule governing one working piece of a complex system, and the application of pattern languages can be done systematically. • Example: dining rooms work best when they are adjacent to a kitchen Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  62. 62. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Patterning and the Web • Patterning takes a look at the individual elements of GUI design and “flows” of information; produces a better understanding of why given elements on a page work, and how to best use them in novel situations • The Design of Sites follows these ideas; can be found on Google Books Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  63. 63. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture A Simple Pattern… Action Buttons • People know how to use three- dimensional buttons in everyday life • This knowledge of the real world is transferred over to the virtual by the use of graphical user interface buttons • You can take advantage of this knowledge by making important buttons on your Web site appear three-dimensional Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  64. 64. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture So What Draws Your Eye the Most on This Page? • www.ebay.ca Web site, circa 2006 (image from Wayback Machine) • Take a look at it today an look for the 3D elements there; are they still effective? Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  65. 65. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Content Management • Main proponent is Ann Rockley (an FIS graduate) • Focus is not so much on Web sites per se but any form of content and how to manage it • Information can be improved it is broken down into its constituent pieces, in a process known as “chunking” • Benefits user by providing more clear information, provider by providing a usable, common framework Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  66. 66. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Managed Content: Key Ideas • “single sourcing” – create/store/manage reusable content to be deployed to many different sources i.e. Web, manuals, marketing info, etc • Information is “chunked” into its constituent parts (i.e. concepts and procedures) • Items should be able to stand on their own • Organization is inherent in content, and the CM process helps make organizing it explicit Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  67. 67. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Content Management Flow• Taken from a Rockley presentation (now offline) Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  68. 68. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Content StrategyA more recent offshoot from ContentManagement, which concentrates on howproviding content to users, and howcorporations can get the most value out ofinformation• There is a split between a marketing- and a more content management-related focus of this term • “Content strategy plans for the creation, publication, and governance of useful, usable content.” Kristina Halvorson • “…content strategy is all about the why and how and content marketing is what you actually deliver – the tools, techniques, channels and content types” Michael Brenner Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  69. 69. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Key IA Online Information Sources • Boxes and Arrows: www.boxesandarrows.com (arguably the site on current practices in I.A.) • Jakob Neilsens site: www.useit.com • Information Architecture Resources: www.jjg.net/ia • Peter Morvilles I.A. site: www.findability.org • Information Architecture Institute: www.iainstitute.org • xBlog: www.xplane.com/xblog/ • Dan Brown’s GreenOnions.com: blog.greenonions.com • Jeffrey Veen’s Blog: www.veen.com/jeff/ Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  70. 70. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture Some Words of Wisdom… • If you remember nothing else from this course, remember this: “Information architecture is an iterative process.” • In other words, don’t expect to necessarily get it right the first time. Good IA is a process; it is never static. Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1
  71. 71. Welcome & IntroductionInformation Architecture: Basic What is Information Architecture? Class #1 Approaches to Information Architecture An example of this from the software GUI world… A more recent (2009) iteration of the CCC software • “Almost final” refers to the initial public release of the software • It is easily up to +60 iterations now Keith Schengili-Roberts Katherine Chornoboy &iSchoolProcter Copyright © 2013, The Scott Institute Information Architecture - Part 1

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