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Surveys SD Surveys SD Presentation Transcript

  • Policy Research 101 How to Design a Survey … and when and how to avoid it! Keith Curry Lance Consultant RSL Research Group
  • Major Alternatives to Surveys
    • Available data
    • Focus group interviews
    • Key informant interviews
    • Observational studies
    • Experiments
  • Key Questions
    • What do we need to know?
      • How will we use the information?
    • Who has it?
      • Are they an authoritative source? How willingly will they share it?
    • What kind of information is it?
      • Who, what, how often vs. how, why
  • Issues in Survey Design
    • What questions to ask
    • General format
    • Item formats
    • Structured responses
    • Wording items
    • Ordering items
    • Maximizing usable returns
    • Format for data entry
    • Data entry & analysis
    • Web-based surveys
      • Sampling
      • Design
      • Administration
      • Data processing
  • What Questions to Ask
    • Competence of respondent
    • Privacy of respondent
    • Relevance to issue
    • Needing v. wanting to know
    • Survey as educational tool
  • General Format
    • Length
    • White space on page
    • Columns, back of page
    • Defining sections, spaces; emphasizing key items (lines, boxes, shading, placement)
  • Item Formats
    • Open-ended questions
    • Structured responses:
      • Yes/no, true/false
      • multiple choice
      • check-off lists
      • ranking lists
      • Likert scales
      • Matrix items
  • Structured Responses
    • Standardized ranges
    • Comprehensive, exhaustive
    • Mutually exclusive
  • Wording Items
    • Neutrality, balanced viewpoints
    • Clear, brief items
    • Simple items (no compounds)
    • Redundant items (testing reliability)
  • Ordering of Items
    • Logical sequence
    • Time sequence
    • Controversial item placement
    • Halo effect, response sets
    • Alternating item format
  • Maximizing Usable Returns
    • Keep it short
    • “Bribery” to respond (reward, prizes)
    • Easing return (SASE, fold/refold)
    • Organizing to receive returns (addressee i.d., storage)
    • Follow-up mailings, calls
  • Format for Data Entry
    • Numbering cases
    • Numbering items
    • Placing item numbers
    • Spacing responses
    • Using column, matrix items
    • Alternating item formats
    • Capturing numeric responses (check, circle; line, space, box)
  • Data Entry and Analysis
    • Coding alpha, string responses (converting words to numbers)
    • Missing responses, pages
    • Unclear, illegible, inaccurate or multiple responses
    • Numbering cases
    • Spreadsheet, database, data entry, statistical software
  • Web-Based Surveys
    • Sampling issues
    • Design issues
    • Administration issues
    • Data processing issues
  • Web-Based Surveys: Sampling
    • Difficulty of random sampling
    • Self-selection factors
    • Sampling biases
  • Web-Based Surveys: Design
    • Response format options (radials, toggles, drop-downs)
    • Controlling responses (single v. multiple response items, parameters, contingencies)
    • Opportunity for elaboration (contingencies, survey length)
  • Web-Based Surveys: Administration
    • Authentication of respondents
    • Follow-up issues
    • Web form for data entry from paper
  • Web-Based Surveys: Data Processing
    • Data delivery options (e-mail, text file, database file)
    • Data editing options (automatic edit/error checks)
  • Tools for Survey Research
    • Links about survey research: http://www.lrs.org/resources.asp#surveys
    • Links about other research methods: http://www.lrs.org/resources.asp
    • Sample size, cooperation rate, and response rate calculators, random date generator, and other calculators: http://www.lrs.org/tools.asp
  • Contact Information
    • Keith Curry Lance
    • Consultant, RSL Research Group
    • Tel. 303 466 1860 - Mobile 720 232 5866
    • [email_address] or
    • [email_address]
    • http:// www.linkedin.com/in/keithcurrylance
    • http://www.RSLresearch.com