21st Century Learning and the Future of School Libraries

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  • 1. 21 st Century Learning &The Future of School Libraries Keith Curry Lance
  • 2. Outline• 21st Century Learner Skills & school libraries• How much do libraries matter? (quantitative studies of academic achievement)• How do libraries matter? (qualitative studies of student learning)• Further research needs
  • 3. AASL’s 21st Century Learner Standards • Inquire, think critically, and gain knowledge. • Draw conclusions, make informed decisions, apply knowledge to new situations, and create new knowledge. • Share knowledge and participate ethically and productively as members of our democratic society. • Pursue personal and aesthetic growth.
  • 4. How much do libraries matter? Quantitative Studies 2 2 4
  • 5. Quantitative Studies TimelineCO2 IAAK NM [FL] ID CO4PA1 OR MI IL IN CO3 SLJ PA2’00 ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05 ’06 ’07 ’08 ’09 ’10 ’11 ‘12MA TX MN1 [FL] MN2 ON1 CA ON2 MO WI NY NC Other Researchers Related Events
  • 6. Library Predictors ofAcademic Achievement • Hours & scheduling • Staffing • Information resources • Visits • Expenditures
  • 7. Flexible SchedulingDefinition Related Issues• Library has no set daily or • School schedule weekly schedule for classes • Planning time for teachers to visit. • Collaboration between• Classes scheduled as result librarians & classroom of collaborative planning to teachers integrate classroom & library activities.• Library as classroom; provides access to resources and teaching of 21st Century Learner skills.
  • 8. ID Administrator Assessments of ICT Standards by Flexible Scheduling100% 85% 79% Essential75% 65% 59% Less than essential50% 42% 35%25% 21% 15% 0% Excellent Less than Excellent Less than excellent excellent ICT Literacy Teaching Social Responsibility Teaching
  • 9. Advanced Percent of HS Students by ID Administrator Value on Flex Scheduling40% 35% Essential30% 27% Less than essential20% 18% 12%10%0% Reading Language arts
  • 10. School Library StaffingKey Staff Variables Related Issues• State-certified school • Librarians lacking librarians (aka teacher librarian certification librarians) • Support staff in place of• Support staff librarians—certified or• Selected staff activities not • Impact of librarian’s certification status on interaction with teachers
  • 11. CSAP Reading Scores by Library Staffing, 201115% Advanced 12% 11% 11% Unsatisfactory10% 9% 8% 6% 5%5% 5%0% 1 FTE+ < 1FTE 1 FTE+ < 1FTE Endorsed librarian Non-endorsed library assistant
  • 12. How ID Librarians & Teachers Interact Differently Based on Librarians Certification Status Fixed vs flex schedule 59% 83% Teachers join students in library 49% 41% Librarian provides resources 37% 30% Teacher asks for resources 36% 22%Librarian invites to learn new skills 12% 3% Teacher asks to learn new skills 12% 4% Librarian initiates collaboration 10% 3% Certified Teacher initiates collaboration 8% 2% Not certified 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% Percent of Librarians Reporting Activity At Least weekly
  • 13. CO Public Schools by Advanced Reading Levels by Endorsed Librarian Trends, 2005-2011 Librarian Librarian 2005 & No librarian No librarian 2005 2011, not 05 11 2011, librarian 05 & 11 0% 33.3% 29.2%25% 49.1% 44.9% 14.7% 17.8%50% 20.0% 18.6% 14.6% 18.2% 12.3%75% 14.5% 33.3% 38.5% 18.2% 22.8%100% Lower scores, lower increase Lower scores, higher increase Higher scores, lower increase Higher scores, higher increase
  • 14. Percent Change in 4th Grade NAEP Reading Scores by State, 2004-05 to 2008-094.0% 2.8% 2.0% 1.8%2.0% 1.5% 1.7% 0.5% 0.5% 0.2% 0.0%0.0% More librarians-2.0% Fewer librarians -2.8%-4.0% All students Poor Black Hispanic English students students students Language Learners
  • 15. Library Information ResourcesResearch To Date Rapidly Evolving• Print collections Environment• Computers in library • Smartphones and elsewhere providing • Tablets access to Internet & • Apps & widgets licensed databases • Social networking • E-books, other e- documents, & e-readers • Remote & Wifi access
  • 16. IL 5th Graders Meeting / Exceeding Reading Standards by Size & Age of Print Collection75% 71% 67% 71% 71% 66% 66%50%25% Median + < median0% Print volumes/100 Subscriptions/100 Average copyright students students date
  • 17. IL 8th Graders Meeting / Exceeding Reading Standards by Access to Networked Computers75% 70% 70% 65% 66%50% Median +25% < median0% Library computers per 100 Other computers per 100 students students
  • 18. Library Visits• Whole-class instruction • Individual, pair, and – Librarian & teacher co- small-group activities teach, 21st Century skills – Book talks integrated – Homework help – Librarian works – Reading partners alone, 21st Century skills coordinated with – Scavenger hunts classroom curriculum – Self-guided library tours – Self-selected reading – Study partners / small groups – Tutoring
  • 19. IN 3rd Grade Combined Passing Results by Teacher Reports of Class Visits on Flex Schedule100%75% 72% 64%50%25% 0% Monthly + < monthly
  • 20. CO3 3rd & 5th Reading Scores by Individual Library Visits per Week75% 71% 15% 67% 13%50% 11% 10%25% Proficient or advanced 5% Unsatisfactory0% 0% Median + < median
  • 21. School Library ExpendituresSchool Library IssuesExpenditures • Accounting for school• Usually include: library spending – Books • Overlaps between – Periodicals library & technology – Licensed databases programs – DVDs, audio books • School overhead costs – Computers – Supplies
  • 22. IL 8th Graders Meeting / Exceeding Reading Standards by Library Expenditures75% 71% 65% 64% 57%50% Median +25% < median0% Reading Writing
  • 23. CO Reading Performance by School Library Expenditures 100% 25% Proficient or advanced : median or above Proficient or advanced : below medianPercent scoring proficient or advanced Unsatisfactory : median or above Unsatisfactory : below median 80% 20% 72% 72% 68% Percent scoring unsatisfactory 66% 67% 62% 60% 14% 14% 15% 12% 10% 10% 40% 9% 10% 20% 5% 0% 0% 3rd Grade 4th Grade 5th Grade
  • 24. Control Variables • Community characteristics – Poverty (% students eligible for Free & Reduced-price Meals program) – Racial/ethnic demographics (% students per group) • School characteristics – Per pupil spending – Teacher-pupil ratio
  • 25. Why Do Libraries Matter So Much? • Poverty highly correlated with other control variables. • Library programs not highly correlated with poverty. • Quality of library programs depends on: – Quality of librarian – Principals & site-based management – Teacher background & experience with school libraries
  • 26. How do libraries matter?(Qualitative studies of student learning) • Ohio (2003) • New Jersey (2005) • Delaware (2006)
  • 27. CISSL Impact Study ModelKinds of Help Surveys• Getting needed info • Students• Using info to complete school • Faculty work Help Scale• With school work generally • Most helpful• Using computers • Quite helpful (library, school, home) • Some help• With general reading interests • A little help• When not at school • No help
  • 28. Teachers Identifying Ways Library Helps Students Get Info They Need100% 88% 88% 84%75%50%25% 0% Know steps in Find different Feel good finding / using sources about asking info for help
  • 29. Teachers Identifying Ways Library Helps Students Use Info to Complete School Work100% 86% 83% 81%75%50%25% 0% Know research takes workuseBecome more interested in t Know how to different sources
  • 30. Teachers Identifying Ways Library Helps Students with School Work Generally100% 90% 82%75% 72%50%25% 0%Learn more facts about topics about topics dont understa Get first facts When they
  • 31. Teachers Identifying Ways Library Helps Students Use Computers in Library, at School, and at Home100% 86% 86% 85%75%50%25% 0% Do school work Find info in / out library Internet better better Search
  • 32. Teachers Identifying Ways Library Helps Students with General Reading Interests100% 81% 80% 78%75%50%25% 0% Find stories they like Read more Enjoy reading more
  • 33. Teachers Identifying Ways Library Helps Students When Not at School100% 82%75% 67% 54%50%25% 0% Discover interesting topics Use public library library website Use
  • 34. Supporting Infrastructure Needs of 21st Century School Library Programs• Latest PA study, funded by IMLS• First quantitative study to address 21st Century Learner standards and Common Core Standards• Also includes qualitative research with administrators, teachers, and librarians• Findings to include estimated costs of funding 21st Century school library programs
  • 35. What Else?• What else do we need to know about how and how much school libraries matter?
  • 36. For More AboutSchool Library Impact Studies • Library Research Service’s School Library Impact Studies page http://www.LRS.org/impact.php • Mansfield University’s School Library Impact Studies Project http://library.mansfield.edu/impact.a sp • Rutgers’ Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries’s Impact Studies page http://cissl.rutgers.edu/joomla- license/impact-studies