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Deja Vu Ja Vu
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Deja Vu Ja Vu

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  • 1. Déjà vu, ja vu From Outputs to Outcomes & Outcomes to Outputs … and Back Again Alan W. Zimmerman Consultant, PL System Administration & Finance Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction Keith Curry Lance Director Library Research Service Colorado State Library & University of Denver
  • 2. What We’ll Talk About
    • Outputs vs. outcomes
    • Output measures
      • Traditional, newer, on the horizon
      • State detail, Bertot/McClure e-measures, state e-measures
    • Analytical perspectives
    • Contexts of use
    • Tools
    • From output to outcome measures
  • 3. Outputs vs. Outcomes
    • Definitions
      • Amount of service provided vs. how it made a difference for the end-user
    • “ Ownership”
      • Library or project vs. user or indirect beneficiary
    • Perspectives
      • One person’s output is another’s outcome!
  • 4. FSCS Output Measures
    • Traditional
    • Per capita: Library visits, reference transactions, circulation, interlibrary loan
    • Children’s as percent of total circulation, program attendance
  • 5. More FSCS Measures
    • Newer
      • Users of e-resources per capita
      • Program attendance per capita
    • On the horizon
      • Registration as percent of population
      • Alternatives to users of e-resources:
        • Users of public Internet computers per capita
        • Visits to library’s home page
  • 6. More Detailed State Measures
    • Circulation by format (e.g., books, videos, audio books)
    • Reference questions by source (e.g., in-person, phone, e-mail, chat)
    • Interlibrary loan (e.g., returnable vs. non-returnable, in-/out-of-state, by library type)
    • Programs/attendance by type (e.g., story hours, reading clubs, literacy training)
  • 7. Outputs from Network Performance Measures (Bertot & McClure)
    • Public access workstation users
    • Formal user IT training
    • Point-of-use IT training
    • Virtual reference transactions
  • 8. Electronic/Digital Output Measures from States
    • IT training attendance (IA, KY, MD, NM, TX)
    • Database searches (AZ, LA, PA, WA)
    • Virtual visits (LA, NC, VA, WA)
    • Virtual reference transactions (FL, LA, WA)
    • Users of public access computers (MD, VA)
    • OPAC sessions (NC, WA)
    • Items examined (PA, VA)
  • 9. PLUS a few unique items …
    • Public access computer circulation (Nevada)
    • Number of electronic holds (Washington)
    • Number of electronic renewals (Washington)
    • Percent of time public Internet access terminals in use (Washington)
  • 10. Analytical Perspectives
    • Simple Reporting
    • Lending Perspective
    • Trend Analysis
    • Peer Comparison
    • Comparative Trend Analysis
  • 11. Simple Reporting
    • Totals
    • Per capita figures
  • 12. Totals Example
  • 13. Per Capita Example
  • 14. Lending Perspective
    • Per capita figures
    • Day-in-the-life figures
      • Wichita PL annual report
      • In an average day, WPL …
      • Registered almost 50 new customers
      • Circulated over 5400 items
      • Answered over 900 questions
      • Provided 409 public computer sessions
      • Attracted 183 customers to library programs
    • Comparisons of library outputs with those of other public agencies, nonprofits, private sector
      • On daily basis, US public libraries circulate 4 times as many items as FedEx delivers.
      • Annual visits to CO libraries outnumber ski lift ticket sales 6-to-1.
  • 15. Trend Analysis
    • Year-to-year change (up or down)
    • Change over time
  • 16. Year to Year Change Example
  • 17. Change Over Time Example
  • 18. Peer Comparison
    • Rankings
      • Hennen ratings, FSCS state rankings
    • Percentiles, quartiles
    • Average
  • 19. Ranking Example #1
  • 20. Ranking Example #2
  • 21. Percentiles Example
  • 22. Comparative Trend Analysis
    • Differences in trends associated with some library characteristic (e.g., LSA population, legal basis type, metro status)
  • 23. Comparative Trend Analysis Example
  • 24. Contexts of Use
    • Accountability (Reporting)
    • Advocacy
    • Planning
    • Evaluation (including Standards)
  • 25. Tools
    • Bibliostat CONNECT software
    • NCES Compare Libraries tool
    • LRS-i peer comparison & historical analysis tools
  • 26. Bibliostat Connect Software
    • Functionality: user selects peers & data for comparison, software generates tables & charts
    • Datasets: FSCS, PLDS, state(s), Census data
    • Availability: http://connect.informata.com / (via statewide or local subscription)
  • 27. NCES Compare Libraries Tool
    • Functionality: user selects peers & data for comparison, site generates tables & charts
    • Datasets: FSCS only
    • Availability: http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/libraries/compare/Index.asp
  • 28. LRS-i Tools
    • Functionality: peer comparison & historical analysis (one or more libraries), site generates tables & charts
    • Datasets: State only
    • Availability: http://www.lrs.org/interactive/index.asp
  • 29. From Output to Outcome Measures
    • Is it possible to bridge the gap between outputs and outcomes?
    • To what extent is stating outcomes a matter of perspective (user’s vs. library’s)?
    • What’s the relationship between intended outcomes and outputs? In the absence of true outcome data, can a rhetorical connection be made?
    • When is one person’s output another’s outcome?
  • 30. From Output to Outcome Measures
    • Attendance at Pleasantville Public Library’s 2005 series of summer-job-seeking workshops for teenagers was 2,500.
    • Outcome: By June 15, 2005, 2,250 of 2,500 teenagers (90%) who attended workshops at library found jobs.
    • Outcome-like: In 2005, 2,500 teenagers learned how to seek summer job successfully at workshops.
  • 31. From Output to Outcome Measures
    • Enrollment in Pleasantville’s summer reading program (SRP) was 5,000. 4,500 completed it.
    • Outcome: Of 4,500 children who completed SRP, 95% maintained or gained reading skills, compared to 65% of all elementary students.
    • Outcome-like: Of 5,000 children enrolled in SRP, 90% completed it, improving odds they would maintain or improve reading skills over summer.
  • 32. From Output to Outcome Measures
    • During FY 2004-05, the AskMarian virtual reference service answered 42,000+ questions statewide.
    • Outcome: As a result of using AM, 1/3 of users received help with homework or school project, 1/4 obtained info for work, and 1/10 learned more about issue.
    • Outcome-like: 42,000 AM users gained info they could use at school or work, to be better-informed community members, or to meet other info needs.
  • 33. From Output to Outcome Measures
    • FY 2004-05, statewide ILL statistics: 250,000 provided, 300,000 received. FY 2002-03, 200,000 & 250,000, respectively.
    • Outcome: After implementation of the state’s new fast-track interlibrary loan system, interlibrary lending increased by 25% and borrowing by 20%.
    • Remember, output for one or more libraries may be the state’s outcome.
  • 34. From Output to Outcome Measures
    • Remember 3 Keys to Creating Outcome-Like Output Statements
    • Express from user’s viewpoint, not library’s
    • Remember that intentions anticipate outcomes (at least theoretically), and connect output to those intentions rhetorically
    • Remember that one person’s (or agency’s) output may be another’s outcome
  • 35. From Output to Outcome Measures
    • Exercise