Space, Time and Space-Time. Where, When and How
should we use them? Considerations for archaeological
research questions i...
Archaeology Data in 4 Dimensions
X, Y, Z, Time
Segontium Section Is a 2D representation of
4D Events
With
thanks
to
Mortim...
Archaeological Biographies of 'sites'
• Megalithic sites with continuity to
NE, BA, IA, RM, Med, and Current
periods
• Dif...
Simplified Conceptual Model
for Interoperability between archaeological records
Finds
Contexts
are deposited in

Stratigra...
Harris Matrix example
• Model common ‘core’ of Archaeological processes
• Principle archaeological concepts modelled as
CR...
Stratigraphic relationships are
spatio-temporal
• Musvario stratigraphy -
based on interpreting the
spatio- temporal
seque...
Physical and Stratigraphic Relationships
crmeh:EHE0007.Context
crmeh:EHE1001ContextEvent
Below,
Above,
Same As
crm:P7 Took...
Spatial data items identified from STELLAR Linked
Data preparations
• Context – Context_location
• Sample -Sample Location...
CRMEH_FINDS
find_id
find_note
find_type
find_type_uri
find_material
find_material_uri
within_context_id
production_period
...
Other Historic Environment geo-spatial data.
• Geophysics Raster plots – georeference
• CAD drawings – e.g. Building eleva...
Region Connection Calculus - Spatial
Relationship Axioms
• disconnected (DC)
• externally connected (EC)
• equal (EQ)
• pa...
What about the Temporal?
• Can use combinations
of Dates & Periods
• Issue - Periods are
Spatio-temporal e.g.
"Roman"
• Al...
Allen Temporal Operators & Stratigraphic relations

• P120: occurs before  (occurs after)
• P114: is equal in time to
• P1...
Continuity of Existence of Archaeological Features
G. Lucas
• Absolute or Relative
Chronologies
• Excavation data deals
in...
Hypothetical Stratigraphic Sequence represented as Spatio-Temporal Events
With thanks to Paul Cripps
Spatio-Temporal Relationships
Stratigraphy & Events
• CRM Events represent Spatio-
temporal archaeological
phenomena
• Pha...
Conceptual Reference Model
is also a
Conceptual Reference Matrix
But do we need a new way to
visualise all the complexity ...
STAR project cross-searching & Browse Interface
Internet Archaeology Vol 30 http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue30/tudhope_i...
Conclusions & Challenges
• Need to consider more explicit ways of expressing
spatio-temporal relations within archaeologic...
Gavin Lucas. "The Archaeology of Time"

CIDOC CRM. http://cidoc.ics.forth.gr/

Tudhope, May, Binding, Vlachidis. "Connecti...
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Space, Time and Space-Time. Where, When and How should we use them? Considerations for archaeological research questions involving spatio-temporal phenomena and the conceptual relationships between them.

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Space, Time and Space-Time. Where, When and How should we use them? Considerations for archaeological research questions involving spatio-temporal phenomena and the conceptual relationships between them.

  1. 1. Space, Time and Space-Time. Where, When and How should we use them? Considerations for archaeological research questions involving spatio-temporal phenomena and the conceptual relationships between them. 
 by Keith May @Keith_May
 
 Incorporating work by 
 Paul Cripps, Prof Doug Tudhope, Ceri Binding 
 Faculty of Advanced Technology
 University of South Wales

  2. 2. Archaeology Data in 4 Dimensions X, Y, Z, Time Segontium Section Is a 2D representation of 4D Events With thanks to Mortimer Wheeler
  3. 3. Archaeological Biographies of 'sites' • Megalithic sites with continuity to NE, BA, IA, RM, Med, and Current periods • Difference between spatio- temporal continuity of archaeological features and the distinct 'biography' of events that took place at certain periods in the past within certain spatial boundaries represented by the remains of those features that we find in the present La Hougue Bie - Jersey CC0 Wikipedia
  4. 4. Simplified Conceptual Model for Interoperability between archaeological records Finds Contexts are deposited in Stratigraphic Units Groups Samples are taken from Phases Dates/ TimespansPeriods are within Took Place at Spatial Coordinates are within Identifies Identifies Identifies date date Investigations date Spatio-Temporal Relations Research Objectives Inform Places
  5. 5. Harris Matrix example • Model common ‘core’ of Archaeological processes • Principle archaeological concepts modelled as CRM entities & relationships • Limited degree of minute detail • Matrix holds stratigraphic relationships • N.B. Distinguishing positive Deposits from negative Cuts
  6. 6. Stratigraphic relationships are spatio-temporal • Musvario stratigraphy - based on interpreting the spatio- temporal sequencing of the order that the mosaic tiles 'must' have been placed in the design • Stratigraphic relations seen in alterations to a brick wall or floor - n.b. it is not strictly following 'Law of superimposition'
  7. 7. Physical and Stratigraphic Relationships crmeh:EHE0007.Context crmeh:EHE1001ContextEvent Below, Above, Same As crm:P7 Took Place at crm:E53.Place crm:E5.Event rdfs:subClassOf BondedWith, ButtedBy, Butts, Jointed ConsistsOf, CutBy, DividedInto, DivisionOf, FillOf, PartOf, Within Physical relationships Stratigraphic relationships crm:E63.BeginningofExistence rdfs:subClassOf crm:P7 Took Place at CRMarchaeo:A4.Stratigraphic Genesis Event Contains, Cut By, Cuts, Filled By Negative Contexts E.g. Cut Positive Contexts E.g. Deposits, Walls, etc rdfs:subClassOf
  8. 8. Spatial data items identified from STELLAR Linked Data preparations • Context – Context_location • Sample -Sample Location • Finds – some precise geo data present in many recording systems, & finds are directly related to the context they derive from which does have spatial attributes. • Group – Group_location – this will be more challenging as it gets its spatial information from several contexts • Investigation – investigation_location • Phase – None directly present but spatial extents can be shown by relationships to Group info • Research Objectives – Broad Place names e.g. Explore the extent of the Mesolithic remains at Starr Carr, Yorkshire
  9. 9. CRMEH_FINDS find_id find_note find_type find_type_uri find_material find_material_uri within_context_id production_period within_investigation_id language CRMEH_CONTEXTS context_id context_note context_type context_type_uri context_period context_location within_context_id within_group_id within_investigation_id strat_lower_id strat_equal_id language CRMEH_INVESTIGATION_P ROJECTS investigation_id investigation_description investigation_type investigation_type_uri investigation_timespan Investigation_location CRMEH_SAMPLES sample_id sample_note sample_type sample_type_uri within_context_id within_group_id within_investigation_id language CRMEH_SAMPLES_M EASUREMENTS sample_id measurement_type measurement_type_uri measurement_unit measurement_unit_id measurement_unit_uri measurement_value CRMEH_GROUPS group_id group_note group_type group_type_uri group_location group_period within_group_id within_investigation_id language CRMEH_OBJECTIVES objective_id objective_note investigation_id project_design addressed_by_id shape_subprogramme nhpp CRMEH_PHASE phase_id phase_name phase_type phase_note preliminary_eyear/lyear Linked Data Templates • Context – Context_location • Sample - Sample location • Group - Group location • ?Phase - derived from Group • Investigation Location Semantic Technologies - STELLAR Template fields from CRM-EH • Stratigraphic relationships too
  10. 10. Other Historic Environment geo-spatial data. • Geophysics Raster plots – georeference • CAD drawings – e.g. Building elevations • Lidar and 3d point cloud ?time values • Marine remote sensing data? Sonar? 3D point clouds • Photography - raster georeference e.g. Aerial photos
  11. 11. Region Connection Calculus - Spatial Relationship Axioms • disconnected (DC) • externally connected (EC) • equal (EQ) • partially overlapping (PO) • tangential proper part (TPP) • tangential proper part inverse (TPPi) • non-tangential proper part (NTPP) • non-tangential proper part inverse (NTPPi)
  12. 12. What about the Temporal? • Can use combinations of Dates & Periods • Issue - Periods are Spatio-temporal e.g. "Roman" • Allen operators - temporal relationships • CIDOC CRM Allen operators • How to visualize Continuity better?
  13. 13. Allen Temporal Operators & Stratigraphic relations • P120: occurs before  (occurs after) • P114: is equal in time to • P115: finishes (is finished by) • P116: starts (is started by) • P117: occurs during (includes) • P118: overlaps in time with (is overlapped in time by) • P119: meets in time with  (is met in time by) Stratigraphically means "Directly" Below/Before Above/After But not necessarily Meets in time
  14. 14. Continuity of Existence of Archaeological Features G. Lucas • Absolute or Relative Chronologies • Excavation data deals in Relative Chronology e.g. Stratigraphy • Then tries to hang the Relative chronology on an Absolute Chronological 'hook'
  15. 15. Hypothetical Stratigraphic Sequence represented as Spatio-Temporal Events With thanks to Paul Cripps
  16. 16. Spatio-Temporal Relationships Stratigraphy & Events • CRM Events represent Spatio- temporal archaeological phenomena • Phases reflect Spatio-temporal relationships in archaeological record • Stratigraphically above/after & below/before ? • Space-Time volumes
  17. 17. Conceptual Reference Model is also a Conceptual Reference Matrix But do we need a new way to visualise all the complexity of those relationships ? Over and above Harris Matrix which are working tools which are not easily published and archived? A section drawing is one way Plans and a plan matrix is another But need to incorporate the semantic complexity of all the spatio-temporal information within those records
  18. 18. STAR project cross-searching & Browse Interface Internet Archaeology Vol 30 http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue30/tudhope_index.html
  19. 19. Conclusions & Challenges • Need to consider more explicit ways of expressing spatio-temporal relations within archaeological records • Need new ways to visualise the complexity of the spatio- temporal relations • Semantic technologies offer some possibilities, but currently it is simpler for Temporal relations than Spatial.... • but can also help in conceptualising the Spatio-Temporal
  20. 20. Gavin Lucas. "The Archaeology of Time" CIDOC CRM. http://cidoc.ics.forth.gr/ Tudhope, May, Binding, Vlachidis. "Connecting Archaeological Data and Grey Literature via Semantic Cross Search" - Internet Archaeology Vol 30 Contact: Keith.May@english-heritage.org.uk @Keith_May References
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