Created by Karen Mills
Use of humour
References to authority
Use of humour
Structure – beginning, middle and end
Bridging words and phrases
Links between introduction and conclusion
Voice intonation (pitch, speed, inflection)
Tone of voice
A dull expression that is over used;
often a simile or a metaphor.
Used because it is familiar to the audience
or because the speaker/writer can’t think
of a better way to show their idea/point.
“It’s as cold as ice out there”
An adjective that compares two things.
“Bigger, better, stronger.”
Used to make things described sound
better than another.
Plays to people’s emotions.
Used to stir up emotion in the
reader/listener, to convey an attitude to
someone or Something (angry, happy,
disapproving, enthusiastic etc)
Factual information that backs up
what is being said.
“Approximately 70% of students will pass the test.”
Used to support the main ideas or argument. Can
sway the audience to agree with you.
Can shock the audience or capture their
attention to keep them listening.
A deliberate exaggeration.
“I’ve got a tonne of homework.”
Used to emphasise a feeling or to bring humour to a situation.
A phrase used to express an order or command.
“Just do it”
Encourages the reader/viewer to act on the
Technical terms, specialised language.
Quick and accurate way to share
information – only helpful if jargon is
understood by the audience.
Sometimes used to show off
and sound intelligent.
Saying one thing
is another. Eg.
The moon is
Emphasises an aspect of the thing being
described. Helps us to see it in a new
way. Makes what is being said seem
The sound of the word imitates the
meaning or noise of the action
being described. Eg, The buzz of
Helps the reader/listener
experience what is
happening by recalling the
sound that something
Words that take the place of people’s name.
I, we, you, my, our…
“You are the ones who can make a
“We need to work together on this”
Gives a personal feel to the speech, helps
involve the audience. Creates a sense of unity
between the speaker and listener. Feels like
you are being spoken to directly.
Expressions that play on different meanings
of the same word or phrase
Eg, The board of Wrigley’s meet to chew
over the problems they were having with
the new gum.
Used to draw attention to words and to
create a humourous or ironic effect.
Using words or phrases more
“It was cold that night, very, very
Emphasises an idea, helps trigger
people’s memory of the idea.
A question that doesn’t need answering.
“Have you wondered what it would be
like to win Lotto?”
Used to involve the audience and get
them thinking about an idea.
The repetition of similar sounds, usually at
the end of a sentence.
“She left the room, she forgot the broom.”
Used to hold lines of poetry together and
help the listener to remember by creating a
pattern with words.
Beat of words. Can be regular or
“This is the night mail crossing the
Bringing the cheque and postal order.
(captures the sound of a train).
It is used to help the flow of the writing to
make it easier to remember or capture the
beat or sound of something.
the words ‘like’
or ‘as’. Eg, The
moon looks like
Used to help the audience imagine
something. Adds variety and colour to
Words belonging to a
particular group of people.
Slang is not usually used in
“Whatevs, Yolo, Skux”
Used to make the audience
feel involved and included as
it is a common language
within the group.
A catchy phrase often linked
to a company or product.
Used to sum up a key aspect
of the company and help
people to remember the
company or product.
Words describing a person,
item or place as being the most…
(the best of)
Fast to show excitement.
Slow to show importance.
The rise and fall
of your voice
when you speak.
When your voice goes
up at the end of the
sentence as if you were
asking a question.
Overall feeling, needs to
suit the words being said.
Eg, serious/sad tone used
when reading news
articles about disasters.