Close
Listening
and

Reading
Created by Karen Mills
Personal pronoun
Rhetorical question/questioning
Emotive words
Informal language
Use of humour
Anecdotes
Listing
Quotations
References to authority
Use of humour
Alliteration
Metaphor
Simile
Rhythm
Repetition
Imperatives
Structure – beginning, middle and end
Bridging words and phrases
Links between introduction and conclusion
Voice intonation (pitch, speed, inflection)
Tone of voice
Pauses
A dull expression that is over used;
often a simile or a metaphor.
Used because it is familiar to the audience
or because ...
An adjective that compares two things.
“Bigger, better, stronger.”
Used to make things described sound
better than another...
Plays to people’s emotions.

Used to stir up emotion in the
reader/listener, to convey an attitude to
someone or Something...
Factual information that backs up
what is being said.
“Approximately 70% of students will pass the test.”
Used to support ...
A deliberate exaggeration.
“I’ve got a tonne of homework.”

Used to emphasise a feeling or to bring humour to a situation.
A phrase used to express an order or command.
“Just do it”

Encourages the reader/viewer to act on the
advice.
Technical terms, specialised language.
Quick and accurate way to share
information – only helpful if jargon is
understood ...
Saying one thing
is another. Eg.
The moon is
cheese.
Emphasises an aspect of the thing being
described. Helps us to see it...
The sound of the word imitates the
meaning or noise of the action
being described. Eg, The buzz of
the chainsaw.
Helps the...
Personal Pronouns

Words that take the place of people’s name.

I, we, you, my, our…
“You are the ones who can make a
diff...
Expressions that play on different meanings
of the same word or phrase
Eg, The board of Wrigley’s meet to chew
over the pr...
Using words or phrases more
than once.
“It was cold that night, very, very
cold.”
Emphasises an idea, helps trigger
people...
Rhetorical Question
A question that doesn’t need answering.
“Have you wondered what it would be
like to win Lotto?”
Used t...
The repetition of similar sounds, usually at
the end of a sentence.

“She left the room, she forgot the broom.”
Used to ho...
Beat of words. Can be regular or
irregular.
“This is the night mail crossing the
boarder,
Bringing the cheque and postal o...
Compares two
things using
the words ‘like’
or ‘as’. Eg, The
moon looks like
cheese.
Used to help the audience imagine
some...
Words belonging to a
particular group of people.
Slang is not usually used in
formal situations.
“Whatevs, Yolo, Skux”
Use...
A catchy phrase often linked
to a company or product.
Used to sum up a key aspect
of the company and help
people to rememb...
Words describing a person,
item or place as being the most…
(the best of)
Fast to show excitement.
Slow to show importance.
The rise and fall
of your voice
when you speak.
When your voice goes
up at the end of the
sentence as if you were
asking a question.
Overall feeling, needs to
suit the words being said.
Eg, serious/sad tone used
when reading news
articles about disasters.
Loud to show excitement.
Soft to show fear.
A planned rest in speaking
to emphasise an idea.
The
End…
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Close listening, speeches, English, Unfamiliar Text

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Close listening

  1. 1. Close Listening and Reading Created by Karen Mills
  2. 2. Personal pronoun Rhetorical question/questioning Emotive words Informal language Use of humour
  3. 3. Anecdotes Listing Quotations References to authority Use of humour
  4. 4. Alliteration Metaphor Simile Rhythm Repetition Imperatives
  5. 5. Structure – beginning, middle and end Bridging words and phrases Links between introduction and conclusion
  6. 6. Voice intonation (pitch, speed, inflection) Tone of voice Pauses
  7. 7. A dull expression that is over used; often a simile or a metaphor. Used because it is familiar to the audience or because the speaker/writer can’t think of a better way to show their idea/point. “It’s as cold as ice out there”
  8. 8. An adjective that compares two things. “Bigger, better, stronger.” Used to make things described sound better than another.
  9. 9. Plays to people’s emotions. Used to stir up emotion in the reader/listener, to convey an attitude to someone or Something (angry, happy, disapproving, enthusiastic etc)
  10. 10. Factual information that backs up what is being said. “Approximately 70% of students will pass the test.” Used to support the main ideas or argument. Can sway the audience to agree with you. Can shock the audience or capture their attention to keep them listening.
  11. 11. A deliberate exaggeration. “I’ve got a tonne of homework.” Used to emphasise a feeling or to bring humour to a situation.
  12. 12. A phrase used to express an order or command. “Just do it” Encourages the reader/viewer to act on the advice.
  13. 13. Technical terms, specialised language. Quick and accurate way to share information – only helpful if jargon is understood by the audience. Sometimes used to show off and sound intelligent.
  14. 14. Saying one thing is another. Eg. The moon is cheese. Emphasises an aspect of the thing being described. Helps us to see it in a new way. Makes what is being said seem more original.
  15. 15. The sound of the word imitates the meaning or noise of the action being described. Eg, The buzz of the chainsaw. Helps the reader/listener experience what is happening by recalling the sound that something makes.
  16. 16. Personal Pronouns Words that take the place of people’s name. I, we, you, my, our… “You are the ones who can make a difference” “We need to work together on this” Gives a personal feel to the speech, helps involve the audience. Creates a sense of unity between the speaker and listener. Feels like you are being spoken to directly. More inclusive.
  17. 17. Expressions that play on different meanings of the same word or phrase Eg, The board of Wrigley’s meet to chew over the problems they were having with the new gum. Used to draw attention to words and to create a humourous or ironic effect.
  18. 18. Using words or phrases more than once. “It was cold that night, very, very cold.” Emphasises an idea, helps trigger people’s memory of the idea.
  19. 19. Rhetorical Question A question that doesn’t need answering. “Have you wondered what it would be like to win Lotto?” Used to involve the audience and get them thinking about an idea.
  20. 20. The repetition of similar sounds, usually at the end of a sentence. “She left the room, she forgot the broom.” Used to hold lines of poetry together and help the listener to remember by creating a pattern with words.
  21. 21. Beat of words. Can be regular or irregular. “This is the night mail crossing the boarder, Bringing the cheque and postal order. (captures the sound of a train). It is used to help the flow of the writing to make it easier to remember or capture the beat or sound of something.
  22. 22. Compares two things using the words ‘like’ or ‘as’. Eg, The moon looks like cheese. Used to help the audience imagine something. Adds variety and colour to the text.
  23. 23. Words belonging to a particular group of people. Slang is not usually used in formal situations. “Whatevs, Yolo, Skux” Used to make the audience feel involved and included as it is a common language within the group.
  24. 24. A catchy phrase often linked to a company or product. Used to sum up a key aspect of the company and help people to remember the company or product.
  25. 25. Words describing a person, item or place as being the most… (the best of)
  26. 26. Fast to show excitement. Slow to show importance.
  27. 27. The rise and fall of your voice when you speak.
  28. 28. When your voice goes up at the end of the sentence as if you were asking a question.
  29. 29. Overall feeling, needs to suit the words being said. Eg, serious/sad tone used when reading news articles about disasters.
  30. 30. Loud to show excitement. Soft to show fear.
  31. 31. A planned rest in speaking to emphasise an idea.
  32. 32. The End…

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