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REFOCUSING

COMMUNITY

DEVELOPMENT:

TAKING HOUSING OUT

By
Kayla R. Hogan
B.A. National-Louis University, 1993
M.S., Chic...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT

......................•..........................................................................
K,Hogan 1

ABSTRACT

--

Community development corporations (CDCs) are unique organizations that sponsor a
wide range of a...
~Hogan2
individuals with incomes below the median poverty level). The purpose of this research project
is to address the o...
K,Hogan 3

METHODOLOGY
This research project focused on issues related to the contribution of CDCs in urban
communities.

...
community-based

organizations to deal with the political realities of the times, community

"'"

organizing suffered and ...
K,HogfUt 5

fellow Senator Jacob Javits to enact the Special Impact Amendment to the Economic
Opportunity Act.
The Special...
K,Hogan 6
By the mid 1970s, CDCs had garnered support from private philanthropy, support
groups, and other intermediaries ...
K, Hogan 7
particular communities (Halpern, 1995). This radically altered the administration of community
.~

development ...
K,Hogan 8
FIGURE.1 COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

I

VERSUS GOVERNMENT POLICY SINCE 1930

_------,

GOVERNMENT POLICY
,

PROGRAMS
...
K,Hogan 9
government administrations met with bold social experimentation beginning in the mid 1930's
(see Trattner, 1994)...
K, Hogan 10
evaluation research and the CDC movement.

O'Conner (1995) found that political and

institutional barriers ha...
K,Hogan 11
for the difference between the success of the organization and the success of the resident
population it serves...
K,Hogan 12
These studies "[added] to a thoughtful and growing, but still limited, literature on how to design
and measure ...
K,Hogan 13
findings revealed four themes. The first two themes related to strategies and resources. There
was virtually no...
K,Hogan 14
CDCs as a viable strategy for community revitalization, the amelioration of blight, and poverty.
There also wer...
K,Hogan 15
In addition to exploring how these organizations fare under varying social, economic, and
political circumstanc...
K,Hogan16
services to under-served communities in Brooklyn, New York, RCF is a certified Community
Development Financial I...
K, Hogan 17
to first disentangle the acronym-laden fog of organizational definitions and labels (i.e., CDCs
(Community Dev...
K, Rogan 1~

decline of their communities in the 1980s? Are [CDC] leader's corrupt sell-outs, or the
stereotypical poverty...
K,Hogan 19
that hinder effectiveness (Stoecker, 1997, p.3). These organizations reflect the altruistic nature of
society a...
K,Hogan 20
perspective on the traditional CDC model is not the answer. Change is necessary and has
historically been a pre...
K,Hogan 11
impetus for those changes. Withoutstudies

that speak to the contributions CDCs make in

ameliorating poverty i...
K,Hogan 22
longer doing community develop~ent?

As these adaptations take place, new evaluation methods

are needed to bet...
K, Hogan 23
(United States Catholic Conference, 1986, as cited by Trattner, 1994). Traditionally, care for the
homeless an...
K,Hogan 24
children. The three new transitional facilities provided an additional 1,165 shelter beds and
served on average...
K,Hogan 25
Since IC no longer had the fiscal contract from CDHS, they had to identify a new
organizational role. IC added ...
K,Hogan 26
facility whose yearly count serves approximately eight-hundred homeless individuals discharged
from hospitals. ...
K,Hogan 27
•

Sanctuary Place is the seventh project and is a sixty-nine unit development that
has sixty-three efficiency ...
K,Hogan28

FIGURE.2

IC-IHDC DEVELOPMENT PATH

ORGANIZATIONAL

HISTORY

1984
The Interfaith Connctl Corthe
Homeless (IC) w...
K,Hogan 29
FIGURE. 3 IC-IHDC CROSS-SECTIONAL
Interfaith
Housing
Development
Corporation
IHDC
Housing
Developer
Incorporate...
K,Hogan 30
ANALYZING THE IC'AND IHDC NETWORK

The Interfaith Housing Development Corporation professes that the impetus fo...
K, Hogan 31
The research literature focuses attention on the fact that CDCs manage to achieve goals
.;.

and visions while...
K,Hogan 32
The change in the homeless service delivery system to "Housing First" is significant
because it led the collabo...
K,Hogan 33
IHDC are not a unified whole despite ~ome overlap in goals and objectives, so organizational
behavior may diffe...
K,Hogan 34
(e.g., housing production, social services, education and advocacy, etc.). The Interfaith Council
for the Homel...
K,Hogan 35
both similarities and differences reveal shared traits that reflect consistency between the
traditional model a...
- --- ~ -----=--~---~

~-

..

-

K,Hogan 36
organizational survival because the organization can refocus on another area....
K,Hogan 37
FIGURE 4. COMPARISON OF TRADITIONAL AND NON-TRADITIONAL CDCS

Traditonal CDCs

Non-Traditional CDCs

x

x

Affo...
K,Hogan 38
external environment that provide a c?ntext for analyzing changes within the organization.

Such

as the shift ...
.~

a

,

,'

•

.jo,

,.~"

K,Hogan 39

services in shelters to services in the home. The organizations' response to this...
K,Hogan40
area for further exploration. Creating and maintaining amenable relationships with outside
service providers who...
K,Hogan41

REFERENCES
Abt Associates (1973). An Evaluation of the Special Impact Program: Final Report. Cambridge,
Mass.: ...
____

_

_

~

••.•• :;c

~~~

K,Hogan42
Lemann, N. (1994). The Myth of Community Development.
January 9, 27-31, 50, 54, 6...
K,Hogan 43

Vidal, A. (1997). Can Community Re-Invent Itself? Journal of the American Planning
Association, 63:4, 429-438....
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Transcript of "Refocusing community development taking housing out krh-1"

  1. 1. REFOCUSING COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: TAKING HOUSING OUT By Kayla R. Hogan B.A. National-Louis University, 1993 M.S., Chicago State University, 1997 MASTERS PROJECT Submitted as partial fulfillment for the requirements For the degree of Masters in Urban Planning and Policy in the Graduate College of the University of Illinois at Chicago, 2004 Chicago, Illinois
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ......................•.................................................................................................................................. 1 INTRODUCTION •••••••••••..•.•••.....•.••...•.•••..••••..•..•••.••••••...•••....•.••••..•.••••••••••••.•••.•..••...•...•••••.•...•.••••.••••••.••....•..•..... 1 PAPER GOALS •.....••...•.....•.•..••••.•.......•..••••••.•••.•.......•.•.•••..•.••..••.•...••.••...•.....••...•.••..•..••..•••.......•.••..•.•••••..•....•...•. 2 METHODOLOGY .....•.•.••.•••.••.....•.•••••.•.••.....•....•••.•••..•.•..•••••.•..•.••.••..••..•.•...•.•.•.•.•.•...•.•..••.•.•.••.•.•.•..•.•.••..•..••.•.•.•. 3 HISTORY OF CDCS •.•.••••••..•••••..••.•...•••••.••..•.••.•••••••••••..••••••••.•••••••••.•••.•.••....••••.•.•.•...•.•.•.••••..•••••.•.•••••••....•••.•••••• 3 FIGURE.l COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT VERSUS GOVERNMENT POLICY SINCE 1930 8 THE CURRENT BASE OF ~NOWLEDGE •••.•.••.•....••.....•.•••••.•••.•••.•••.•.••...•...•••..•.•....•••...•.•...•.•...•.•••.•....•.•..•.••.. 8 MEASURING SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF CDCs: QUANTITATIVE APPROACHES , 10 LIMITATIONS OF CDC EVALUATION 14 CURRENT PERSPECTIVES ON THE TRADITIONAL CDC MODEL •.•.•..••.........•..................••......•..•.•....•15 TI-IE TRADITIONAL CDC MODEL 15 CHANGING THE TRADITIONAL CDC MODEL AND IMPROVING EV ALUA TION METHODS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 18 RESPONDING TO HOMELESSNESS IN CmCAGO IN THE 1980s 22 IC-IHDC INTERFAITH PARTNERSHIP SUMMARY 27 FIGURE.2. IC-IHDC DEVELOPMENT PA TH 28 FIGURE.3 IC-llIDC CROSS-SECTIONAL FLOWCHART 29 ANAL yzmG THE IC AND IHDC NETWORK EXTERNAL PRESSURES : INTERNAL STRUGGLES 30 30 . DISCUSSION: COMPARING THE TRADITIONAL CDC MODEL TO THE MULTI-LOCAL CDC MODEL 33 FIGURE 4. COMPARISON OF TRADITIONAL AND NON- TRADITIONAL CDCs 37 CONCLUSIONS •.•...•.••• •.•.•.•.••• ~ ,••.....•.••.•..••.•...•....••..•..•.•.•.•.....•••••.•.••••..•••••••..•••.•••••••.•.....••.•.•..•.••....•.•.••••.••..•.•. 39 REFEREl'ICES •..•..•••.••••••••.•.••.•••••.•.•...•.•.•.•.•.•.••..•.........•.......•.•.•.•.••••.••..•....•.•...........•..•.•........•..•.••.•.•..•••..•.••.•.•. 41
  3. 3. K,Hogan 1 ABSTRACT -- Community development corporations (CDCs) are unique organizations that sponsor a wide range of activities in order to address social problems and account for the collective concerns of many stakeholders. Changes in federal public policies stimulated the evolution of community-based initiatives that led to the CDC movement, Over the past thirty years, CDCs have emerged as strong community leaders despite tremendous risk of failure in volatile political environments. CDCs adapt to new organizational roles, identify additional partners and stakeholders, seek to rectify urban problems, and respond to conflicting demands. A daunting challenge persists to discover ways to improve methods that promote and support efforts to facilitate community development activities and ameliorate poverty in urban cities. The Interfaith Housing Development Corporation (IHDC) plays an instrumental role in community development in Chicago. Its mission and goals represent adaptations to the traditional CDC model. A non-profit developer of supportive housing, IHDC provides housing for the homeless or those at-risk ofhomelessness, low-income, chronically and mentally ill individuals. Through collaboration, networking, and strategic planning, the organization has been able to produce a lot of affordable, supportive housing throughout the ~ity of Chicago in a short amount of time. Keywords: community development corporations; poverty and blight; very low income INTRODUCTION The origins of community-based initiatives began in the Progressive Era in response to urban problems (Fisher, 1997). Historical accounts in the literature on community organizing and social welfare illustrate changes in federal public policy that stimulated evolution in community-based initiatives. A review of this literature reveals relationships between diverse efforts such as the settlement house movement and the community development corporation (CDC) movement (Halpern, 1994). In response to changes in the social, political, and economic environments, each generation of community-based initiatives modified previous strategies (see Fisher, 1997; Trattner, 1999). The historical context in which CDCs exist provides a basis for exploring the past and present state of these complex human service organizations (HSOs). Despite their extensive history and tradition in urban communities throughout the U.S., many question their contribution to revitalization and the amelioration of blight and poverty (i.e.,
  4. 4. ~Hogan2 individuals with incomes below the median poverty level). The purpose of this research project is to address the ongoing discourse about CDCs by examining the following research questions: 1) What is the "traditional" CDC model? What led to its development? What are the characteristic similarities and differences of the traditional CDC model and nontraditional adaptations, and what are the limitations of each approach to revitalization, blight, and poverty? 2) What are the contextual and organizational factors that precipitated the current perspectives of CDCs? 3) In what ways can evaluation methods be improved in order to expand and improve the contribution of complex HSOs in the amelioration of blight and poverty in the urban community? PAPER GOALS This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of the traditional CDC model and explores in depth one adaptation to the traditional model. Specifically, it examines a new nontraditional approach to the social problem of homelessness and poverty used by the Interfaith Housing Development Corporation (IHDC), a private, not-for-profit, project-based organization. Through an exploration ofIHDC's characteristic similarities and differences to the traditional CDC model, this paper illustrates a non-traditional approach to community development. This case study ofIHDC aims to provide insight into the adaptation process through analysis of the organizational structure, specific goals, and outcomes. Finally, this paper will lend itself to the advancement of knowledge by proposing to refocus the current goal of research from how to achieve outcomes (e.g., political and capital capacity) to an alternate perspective that emphasizes improving methods that examine external environments (e.g., socioeconomic conditions and public policies).
  5. 5. K,Hogan 3 METHODOLOGY This research project focused on issues related to the contribution of CDCs in urban communities. To achieve this objective, the literature on the history of community organizing, community development, social policy, and evaluation research was reviewed. A case study approach was used to document the organization. This included a review of archival information, annual reports, marketing materials, and interview data in order to glean more about . the organizational structure, role, and function. Site visits were conducted to observe the culture and physical environment of the organization. Key actors within the organization were interviewed between January 23 and March 2, 2004 to learn about the organizational structure, visions, objectives, and other specifics. HISTORY OF CDCS CDCs emerged as private non-profit entities organized to assume leadership roles in U.S. cities. The presence of CDCs emanated from a long tradition of community-based initiatives, beginning with the settlement house movement and including community-based organizations, Community Action, Model Cities, and the War on Poverty (Fisher, 1997). Each new community-based initiative sought to remediate social problems stemming from capitalism, poverty, disinvestment, poor sanitation, and crime. The period after World War II, represent an era in which there was significant focus on alleviating poverty in inner-city communities. From 1930 to 1960, community-based initiatives played a prominent role in the political arena; efforts focused on local reform were due to the disbelief in the ability of these federal programs (e.g., New Deal in 1930s and Urban Renewal in 1950) to adequately address the problems within the social, political, and economic environments. In 1950, when social welfare community work was better equipped than
  6. 6. community-based organizations to deal with the political realities of the times, community "'" organizing suffered and community development went abroad (see Fisher, 1994; Trattner, 1994). In order to keep social unrest and disorder at bay, foundations, and other non-governmental organizations cultivated models for federal programs, and in 1961, an approach known as community action agencies (Fisher, 1994) took hold. During this time, there were divergent perspectives on public versus private care for the needs of the nations' poor. Some held to the belief that care for the poor should be a matter of public responsibility while others believed that care should come from the private sector (see Trattner, 1994). Community-organizations began to mobilize. The transformation of community-based initiatives from the goal of promoting federal government reform to that of generating a local economy through community economic development followed (Fisher, 1994). The Ford Foundation and others established a major philanthropic presence in community-based economic development, first lobbying for Congressional funding and providing direct support for major CDCs in the late 1960' s, and later moving to create intermediaries to provide technical support in the 1970's (O'Conner, 1996). Prompted by changes in federal policies, a new community economic development effort launched the first generation CDC movement (Fisher, 1994). The CDC movement began in 1966 when Senator Robert Kennedy of New York toured Bedford-Stuyvesant, a New York community that is now a combination of two old Brooklyn communities in Bedford and Stuyvesant Heights. The community, one of the largest in the five boroughs, contained the largest African-American populations in New York City (see Fisher, 1994; Vidal, 1997). After touring this devastated community, Kennedy enlisted the support of
  7. 7. K,HogfUt 5 fellow Senator Jacob Javits to enact the Special Impact Amendment to the Economic Opportunity Act. The Special Impact Program (SIP) was a federal program that provided funds for economic development in communities battling problems associated with drug-dependency, unemployment, and deterioration. Under the SIP, one of the first known CDCs (see Bratt, 1989; Vidal, 1992), Bedford Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation (BSRC or Bed-Stuy) formed to produce jobs and economic development in blighted communities along with federal government programs like Model Cities. Kennedy stated at the time that the program for Bedford-Stuyvesant would, "combine the best of community action with private enterprise" (BSRC Website Overview section, para. 1). He further stated that, "neither [community action nor private enterprise] by itself is enough, but in their combination lies hope for the future" (Bedford Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation, http://v.rww.restorationplaza.onzlabout/ March 2004). The SIP sparked the development of the CDC movement. From 1966 to approximately 1970, less than 100 first generation CDCs were formed. Most had a primary mission of job creation. This federally funded program established the first generation CDCs, which represent the traditional cne, model (see Stoecker, 1997). The second generation CDCs began to form in 1970 due to protests over redlining and displacement caused by federal programs (e.g., Model Cities) (Vidal, 1992). This new generation adapted to environmental changes by developing new organizational structures designed to overcome the fragmentation and other problems associated with government bureaucracies shifting their focus from community economic development toward housing production (Pierce & Steinbach, 1990; Vidal, 1992). Changes in the political tide effectively dismantled SIP; consequently, CDCs had to adapt again.
  8. 8. K,Hogan 6 By the mid 1970s, CDCs had garnered support from private philanthropy, support groups, and other intermediaries (Vidal, 1992). External forces were at work again; in particular, the reluctance of the public sector to commit funds to CDCs was due to of lack of productivity, which was the direct result of inadequate program funding (Stoecker, 1997). Government and other funders did not invest significant resources into CDC evaluation due to inconsistent political pressure to do so and a lack of a centralized administrative accounting system to keep track of their contribution to anti-poverty goals (O'Conner, 1995). A major item of contention concerned the bureaucracies insistence that the funding for these purportedly community controlled CDCs come from the community themselves; however, the impossibility of local funding occurring was ignored (Stoecker, 1997). The battle over public versus private gained momentum and consistency as government sought continued support of community development programs. External dictates forced CDCs to expand even further beyond their capacity with the hope of receiving anything more than the meager set-asides written into the National Affordable Housing Act of 1990 (Center for Community Change, 1991). Despite the changes in the external environment, the number of CDCs grew from an initial 100 to over 2,000 (Vidal, 1997). However, by 1980, government spending vacillated, and federal, state, and local bureaucracies withdrew again from social welfare. By the 1990s, persistent poverty in urban communities manifested itselfin very gross and unmistakable ways (see Wilson, 1987). The private sector once again began to provide subsidies to emerging CDCs. In the mid 1990's the federal government implemented programs designed to initiate private investment (e.g., Empowerment ZoneslEnterprise Community-EZIEC Initiatives) which sought to regenerate political support for large-scale revitalization, not just improvements for
  9. 9. K, Hogan 7 particular communities (Halpern, 1995). This radically altered the administration of community .~ development prowams (Trattner, 1999), and CDCs had to change positions again. Compared to - ".~- the billions of dollars leveraged in tax-breaks for the major corporations to participate in the EZIEC programs, CDCs received meager funding to respond to the problems in the community that antipoverty analysts argued was most useful for maintaining social order (Stoecker, 1997). Despite reductions in direct federal support for housing development, including public housing, this period marks the beginning of CDCs insurgence into the affordable housing industry (Bratt, 1989; Vidal, 1997). Recent trends in government funding, in particular, the creation of the LowIncome Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), combined with expanded efforts of philanthropies and national intermediary group, suggest that CDCs will continue to be central players in the affordable housing industry (pierce and Steinbach, 1987). As previously indicated, this historical review is an effort to provide a contextual basis for analyzing the conditions under which traditional CDC models have grown and to inform the discussion about current issues related to the contributions CDCs make in urban communities in U.S. The next section examines this same history but in terms of knowledge generated about community development.
  10. 10. K,Hogan 8 FIGURE.1 COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT I VERSUS GOVERNMENT POLICY SINCE 1930 _------, GOVERNMENT POLICY , PROGRAMS 1940 Depression New Deal 1930 SocialWelfare and Liberal Reform 1950 Urban Renewal 1960 War on Poverty SIP 1980 Recession 1990 NationalAffordable HousingPolicy 1970 ModelCities I 2000 1930 SETTLEMENT HOUSE ; TOCDes 1930 1~Generation 1940 "CommunitySpin.()ffs" CommunityOrganizations Settlement House Movement 1950 1960 CDC Ma/ement 1" GenerationCDCs 1970 2"d Generation CDCs 1990 CDCs break into the AffordableHousing 1980 Industry CDCsgrew from 100to 2000+ CommunityAction Agencies 2000 1930 THE CURRENT BASE OF KNOWLEDGE The first three decades after World War n brought important changes in the role and production of knowledge related to comprehensive community-based initiatives (e.g., social welfare policy, evaluation research, and CDCs) (see Fisher, 1994; O'Conner, 1995; Trattner, 1999). Changes in the social, political, and economic environments contextualize the changes in federal public policy, the evolution of community-based initiatives, and evaluation research. The first social change aided the progress of community-based initiatives, and guided the formation of new and improved implementation methods; the uncompromising attitudes from previous
  11. 11. K,Hogan 9 government administrations met with bold social experimentation beginning in the mid 1930's (see Trattner, 1994). The second change, the Depression and the New Deal (late 1930's to 1940' s), was a political shift that stimulated the development of community spin-offs (Fisher, 1994). The final change, the introduction of a new federal planning and budget system, affected the economic environment. In the late 1950s and up to 1960, the Johnson administration mandated the Planning-Programming-Budgeting System (PPBS) in all executive branch agencies. Community-based initiatives in the post World War II era were deeply affected by federal public policy and the new political environment. Federal public policy ripened for the widespread use of experimental, outcomes-oriented research often associated with scientific evaluation (O'Conner, 1995). These changes gave evaluation research a prominent position in shaping community-based initiatives. Today, academic scholars, analysts, practitioners, and stakeholders are in disagreement about the actual contributions of community-based initiatives. Numerous studies exist that define, analyze, and advise CDCs, but a consensus about the role, function, and contribution of these organizations is elusive. The National Congress for Community Economic Development (NCCED), which has been tracking CDCs since 1988, defines CDCs according to their mission statement, role, and function in urban communities; however, the NCCED does not differentiate the activities of these organizations. One group that recognizes problems with evaluation research and community-based initiatives is the Aspen Institutes Roundtable Discussion on Comprehensive Community Initiatives for Children and Families (Connell, Kubisch, Schorr, and Weiss, 1995). One contributor to a volume of papers presented by this group took a chronological perspective to review and analyze the important historical underpinnings that influenced the development of
  12. 12. K, Hogan 10 evaluation research and the CDC movement. O'Conner (1995) found that political and institutional barriers have hampered effective evaluation, that CDCs face persistent dilemmas, and that scientific evaluation has played a relatively limited role in determining the fate of these organizations. Barriers to effectively evaluating comprehensive community-based initiatives relate to the "contextual analysis" required to understand the impact of CDCs (O'Conner, 1995). Gittell and Wilder (1999) concurred, asserting the importance of considering contextual factors directly influenced by the external interaction between and among economic, social, and political environments. MEASURING SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS QUANTITATIVE APPROACHES OF CDCs: CDCs have expanded on multiple dimensions, going "beyond the traditional focus on housing and business development into human services, community empowerment, and building social capital" (Rohe, 1998; Stoecker, 1997; Temkin & Rohe, 1998). "Unlike for-profit organizations, however, there is no single bottom-line measure against which organizational performance may be evaluated." (Drucker, 1990) CDCs work in tandem with other community leaders, private foundations and other stakeholders to create positive change (see Bratt, 1989; 1996; Vidal, 1997). In many U.S. cities, they are the most productive developers of affordable housing for low-income residents (Vidal, 1992). The National Congress for Community Economic Development (NCCED) estimated in 1991 that CDCs had created 320,000 units of housing (Vidal, 1992) and in 1995 NCCED added another 80,000 units. "CDCs do better than local housing authorities at providing housing (Stoecker, 1997), "but it is a drop in an ocean of need" (Twelvetrees, 1989, p.155). The current base of knowledge about CDCs emphasizes measuring success based on outcomes, which Gittell and Wilder (1999) and Twelvetrees (1996) both believe fails to account =
  13. 13. K,Hogan 11 for the difference between the success of the organization and the success of the resident population it serves. Several studies conducted over time to assess CDC performance and effectiveness in reducing urban blight and poverty reveal compelling evidence that supports the claim for improving evaluation measures and methods. After WWII, quantitative outcomes research increased as researchers adapted the methods of controlled experimental design developed over several decades, and applied in engineering, psychology, and educational research (Campbell and Stanley, 1966). This experimental approach favored a laboratory setting in order to establish the cause and effect of particular interventions with some degree of statistical validity. "The absence of ideal laboratory conditions wherein researchers could manipulate most of the variables, evaluations of human interventions became an exercise in control; controlling for contextual factors or natural processes not directly tied to the intervention in an effort to avoid bias" (O'Conner, 1995, p.31). Foundations and federal funding agencies generated a quantitative research industry and used CDC evaluations for political purposes to justify continued support for community development programs. However, early evidence suggests that this was problematic. For example, Abt Associates (1973) conducted a study of SIP in the early 1970's using statistical measures and concluded, ''while the SIP legislation stipulates "appreciable impact" as the overall goal of the Program, it fails to provide criteria for the "appreciability" of observed CDC impacts"(Abt Associates, 1973, p.9). Consequently, the decision whether a given CDC is capable of achieving appreciable impact (justifying continued support) is based on the subjective judgments of the individual observer (Abt Associates, 1973). The next generation of CDC studies was designed to begin to fill in the gaps in knowledge about community development-particularly, about CDCs as community stabilizers.
  14. 14. K,Hogan 12 These studies "[added] to a thoughtful and growing, but still limited, literature on how to design and measure community building or comprehensive community change initiatives" (Connell et al., 1995). These studies counter the widespread outcome-oriented evaluations of the past. Briggs, Mueller, and Sullivan (1997) write most studies have focused on challenges to, and successes in, housing development and management Claims about social effects have been largely rhetorical, and based on anecdotal evidence about quantifiable CDC success in particular contexts (pierce and Steinbach 1987). Based largely on program records, interviews with CDC staff and funders, and CDC self-reports, previous research has informed us about what CDCs produce, not how residents and communities benefit (Briggs et al, 1997). The Community Development Research Center of the New School for Social Research issued two reports on a major effort to understand the social effects of CDCs on urban community. These studies took place in two phases and utilized a mixed methods approach. The first report, "More Than Housing: How CDCs Go about Changing Lives and Neighborhoods (Sullivan, 1993) examined the practices through which twelve leading CDCs were attempting to revitalize the physical and social fabric of their target areas" (Briggs et. al.1997). While the twelve CDCs featured in the Phase I report varied widely in their specific programs, as well as their untested theories (i.e., theories without empirical data) about how to change their ) neighborhoods, the findings revealed that successful CDCs shared certain characteristics. Specifically, they all realized that in order for housing programs to remain viable, they had to pursue revitalization activities beyond housing (i.e., property management, organizing, social services, advocacy) (Briggs et. al, 1997). The second phase focused on measuring the contributions of CDC outcomes on three. dimensions (housing satisfaction, neighborhood safety, and community building), and key
  15. 15. K,Hogan 13 findings revealed four themes. The first two themes related to strategies and resources. There was virtually no variation in these strategies and resources, but the external context was significant across the board. The third and fourth theme related to community building and resident perceptions. The third theme was more specific than the first two and reflected struggles to change and enhance citizenship among community residents and groups, despite persistent barriers to community building that included crime, isolation due to joblessness, and resident transience. A major distinction was that CDC residents viewed their housing as a "move up" among members of the comparison group (Briggs, et. al, 1997). Another study utilized a broad operational definition to relate success directly to the CDCs' contribution to the well being of its constituents (target population) (Gittell and Wilder, 1999). These researchers attempted to capture the range of CDC experiences and outcomes and called for contextual analysis in identifying success. The study found four key factors that influenced CDC success: mission, political capital, organizational capacity, and funding (Gittell and Wilder, 1999). The researchers concluded by noting the importance of considering the direct influence of conditions that exist within the local context on the key factors identified. In each of the case studies, the local economic, social, and political climate had a direct impact on the form and effectiveness of CDC initiatives (Gittell and Wilder, 1999). Numerous analysts, including CDC advocates, continue to search for evidence that CDCs have enough impact to reverse neighborhood decline or that the development they produce would not have happened anyway (Stoecker, 1997). The lack of evidence does not indicate that CDCs have not made an impact, but rather, that the art or science of measuring the impact of CDC outcomes is in its infancy stage (Bratt, 1997). The strongest significance of these studies lies within their conclusions and recommendations. Each one identified the merits of traditional
  16. 16. K,Hogan 14 CDCs as a viable strategy for community revitalization, the amelioration of blight, and poverty. There also were strong similarities in findings on the influence of social, economic, and political contexts. However, none of the studies addresses the issue of why these similarities exist. LIMIT ATIONS OF CDC EVALUATION While researchers and practitioners from various disciplines have all weighed in to define and advise CDCs, the current base of knowledge is incomplete. Despite a long tradition and a multitude of studies, the impact of CDCs contribution to alleviating blight, poverty and other urban problems remains elusive. Various disciplines and many stakeholders have developed multiple definitions of CDCs; yet, no one has reached a consensus about how to measure the role and function of these organizations. The absence of a formal defmition has implications for CDCs and evaluation of their work. It is difficult if not impossible to measure undefined variables, which is why researchers often have had to rely on factors that are easy to quantify. CDCs have a long tradition, as indicated throughout the research literature. Methods and measures to evaluate organizational outcomes must consider the intimate connection between processes and outcomes. A recent trend in social scientific research counters the use of the large-scale experimental design approach of the past. Problems with CDC evaluations may be attributed to methodological constraints related to quantifying outcomes, wide variability in CDC efforts, changes in external environments (e.g., social economic, and political), and other factors. Inherent environmental changes exacerbate CDCs risk for not just failure, but also extinction (Hasenfeld, 1992). Changes in external environments are only part of the problem with CDC evaluations. Additional case studies are needed on CDCs that have failed, downsized, and merged so that factors contributing to these changes can be assessed and generalized to other relevant factors (Bratt and Rohe, 2003). Without studies that focus on why CDCs succeed or fail, the contribution of CDCs in urban communities will remain unclear.
  17. 17. K,Hogan 15 In addition to exploring how these organizations fare under varying social, economic, and political circumstances, evaluation research should also focus on "contextual analysis" of these factors (O'Conner, p.53). CDC studies are lacking comprehensive analyses that carefully track and detail evidence of the ways in which strings attached to outside funding restricts, undermines, and impedes CDC performance, goals, and objectives and overall contribution in urban communities. CURRENT PERSPECTIVES ON THE TRADITIONAL CDC MODEL THE TRADITIONAL CDC MODEL Since the emergence of the CDC movement, the role and activities of the traditional model has changed and expanded (Vidal, 1992). According to a national census of CDCs conducted by National Congress for Community Economic Development (http://www.ncced.org/ March 2004), there is an estimated 3,600 CDCs across the United States. A CDC is a type of not-for-profit entity; it is similar to any other not-for-profit entity organized under state law and holds a federal tax exemption (section 501 (c) (3) of the Internal Revenue Code), which enables the entity to organize and be recognized as a CDC. According to the NCCED, there is no legal definition for CDCs. These organizations define themselves by their mission statement, community-based leadership efforts, and work on housing production or job creation. Traditionally, residents, small business owners, congregations and other local stakeholders form CDCs to revitalize a low and/or moderate-income community (according to the definition given by the NCCED). Typically, these organizations function as producers of affordable housing and create jobs for community residents. CDCs create employment opportunities through micro business enterprises (e.g., micro lending) or commercial development projects. For example, BSRC provides financial assistance through the Restoration Capital Fund (RCF). Founded in 1998 to provide financial assistance and business development
  18. 18. K,Hogan16 services to under-served communities in Brooklyn, New York, RCF is a certified Community Development Financial Institution (CDFI), and a subsidiary of BSRC (Bedford Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation Website, http://www.restorationpJaza.ondabout/March2004).In addition, many CDCs provide a variety of social services tailored to the needs of their target population. For example, at Bethel New Life, community organizing is a key element of the organization. The Community Building division of the organization, created in 2001, provides social services related to helping residents with home ownership, school reform, advocacy, and legislation (http://www.bethelnewlife.ondcom building.htmI2004). There is ongoing speculation among CDCs, advocates, social scientists, and researchers about the appropriate role, purpose, and impact ofCDCs (see Stoecker, 1997, Bratt, 1989). The positions held by proponents who weigh in on the discussion about CDCs argue for strategic changes to the traditional CDC model. However, contenders argue for changes in public policy and hold to the belief that greater public support for physical development in urban communities and a "revamped and rejuvenated" public housing program provides a sounder solution. Both of these perspectives highlight crucial questions but neither considers the potential of evaluation research to answer the question that is the impetus for the debate: whether the impact ofCnes' contribution is enough to revitalize and ameliorate blight and poverty in urban communities (O'Conner, 1995). There are several adaptations to the CDC model, which vary significantly from organization to organization (Gittell and Wilder, 1999). Non-traditional approaches to community development (e.g., non-local housing development and mergers) make adaptations to the traditional CDC model. According to Stoecker (1997), community organizations might function more efficiently and increase capacity if they utilized a different approach. He proposes
  19. 19. K, Hogan 17 to first disentangle the acronym-laden fog of organizational definitions and labels (i.e., CDCs (Community Development Corporations), CBOs (Community- Based Organizations), CBDOs (Community-Based Development Organizations), etc. which only serve to confuse the distinction between community organizing, advocacy and community development. He recommends reserving the name "CDC" for those organizations that build buildings, "community organizer" or "advocacy group" should be assigned to those that build community power. He suggests the mergers of "multi-local CDCs" to increase capacity and calls for removing the community-based myth because he contends "individual communities no longer need nor should they wan, their own CDC" (Stoecker, 1997, p.19). CDCs should combine collective talent to produce physical redevelopment that exceeds community deterioration. Stoecker (1997) criticizes the traditional CDC model and proposes an alternative model of urban redevelopment that emphasizes community organizing, community-based planning, and high capacity multi-local CDCs (e.g., organizations that increase capacity through partnerships with other groups to expand their jurisdiction to multiple locations) to increase accountability through a strong community organizing process. Stoecker (1997) asserts that CDCs playa crucial role in the production of affordable housing. However, he contends that absent is a theoretical understanding of the ways in which CDCs "interact" with the contradictions of community and capitalism in America, and the political-economic forces that impinge on the CDC, potentially hindering its effectiveness (Stoecker, 1994, p.3). According to Stoecker, the CDC model should change; his model calls for compartmentalizing the CDCs' role (e.g., housing development organization) and function (e.g., housing production and organizing/advocacy). Lenz (1988) cites free-market assumptions about urban problems. "Given their organizing roots, why have [CDCs] not responded more aggressively to the economic and social
  20. 20. K, Rogan 1~ decline of their communities in the 1980s? Are [CDC] leader's corrupt sell-outs, or the stereotypical poverty pimps portrayed by the new right?" (Lenz, 1988, p.25) His reply to the last question is "for the most part no" (Lenz, 1988, p.25). "Professionals [CDC advocates and practitioners] are good people with bad theory; rather in the absence of theory on the steady decline of the political economy in communities they adopt the free market wisdom of economic decline and rebirth" (Lenz, 1988, p.25). This perspective provides evidence of the need for improved evaluation methods. Rachel Bratt (1997) suggests that Stoecker's (1997) alternative diminishes the value of the traditional CDC and compounds vulnerability, meaning observers tend to attribute ''weak performance to systematic causes" (e.g. political, social, and economic). Bratt (1997) opposes changes to the CDC model and advocates for policies that promote increased public support, placing responsibility for addressing serious problems in low-income communities on federal and state policies and suggests demanding an increase in public resources for CDCs. "The problem is at least minimally due to the. conflicts and contradictions facing CDCs. The real locus of responsibility rests with a public sector that is reluctant to regulate the private for-profit enterprises that wreak havoc on low-income communities and spend as little as possible on programs for the poor" (1997, p.27). This perspective also provides additional support for the claim that improvements in evaluation methods and measures will enhance knowledge about the contribution of CDCs. CHANGING THE TRADITIONAL CDC MODEL AND IMPROVING EVALUATION METHODS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT The problems that permeate the traditional CDC model are no more challenging than the problems in any other complex HSOs fighting the battle against poverty and capitalism. Every HSO struggles with the "contradictions of urban capitalism" and the "political economic forces"
  21. 21. K,Hogan 19 that hinder effectiveness (Stoecker, 1997, p.3). These organizations reflect the altruistic nature of society and are manifestations of societal obligations to the social welfare and well being of its cizitens. However, they are also a product of the American economic system that thrives on capitalism and are seen by some as wasteful, fostering dependence, obtrusive and controlling (Hasenfeld, 1992). "To understand these questions, we must look at [the] urban political economy and how the CDC model of urban redevelopment interacts with it" (Stoecker, 1997, p.3). Problems mayor may not justify changing the traditional CDC model. Bratt (1'997) indicates that due to a new generation of "comprehensive community initiatives" funded by private foundations, a number of organizations are already following the non-traditional model that Stoecker (1997) recommends. However, evaluation research does not neccesarily reflect these changes. The benefit of adopting Stoecker's (1997) alternative is that it calls for a distinction between role and function, which will provide operationalized definitions and account for the dimensions that would likely be added from such a change (e.g., property management, social services). These dinstinctions and subsequent operational definitions would likely lead to improvements in measurement to evaluate CDC performance. The current perspective held by research scholars about traditional CDC models and public policies that support them is more prescriptive than instructive. The question remains unanswered as to whether CDCs have a significant effect on ameliorating urban blight and poverty in urban communities. Many of the problems in the community and in anti-poverty efforts are local in origin, but many others originate outside the community, city, or state (Lenz, 1980). Lenz (1980) suggests well-organized groups contribute to the political process. They can make that contribution by confronting the problems with traditional evaluation methods and developing improved measures that account for the details of political involvement. The current
  22. 22. K,Hogan 20 perspective on the traditional CDC model is not the answer. Change is necessary and has historically been a prerequisite to the advancement of trends in community development activities. Nicholas Lemann's (1994) highly controversial article initiated the ongoing discourse regarding the contribution of traditional CDC models. However, it is extremely difficult to find statistical evidence that attributes revitalization of any inner-city neighborhood to the work of CDCs. Instead, we get many anecdotal revitalization success stories, such as the building of "festival markets" like in South Street Seaport in New York, or [the] shoring up of an area that is blue-collar rather than poor and residential rather than industrial, like in South Shore in Chicago (Lemann, 1994). While such cases provide proof that revitalization of urban communities is possible, they also support the claims made that improvements in evaluation research is needed. Scholars, academic researchers and various stakeholders freely point out problems with traditional CDC models. In order to gain a clearer perspective on the benefit and contribution of CDCs, it is important to begin to seek evaluation methods that measure useful planning and implementation strategies. As stated in the Current Base of Knowledge and in the History of CDCs sections of this paper, fluctuations and modifications to federal public policy and CDC programs stimulated adaptations to traditional CDC models. Organizations began to customize their strategies to make the transition into the affordable housing industry. The two timelines below illustrate changes in government federal public policies and evolutions in community-based initiatives from 1930 to 2000 (see Fisher, 1994; NCCED, 1995; Trattner, 1999; Vidal, 1992, 1997). CDCs have an extensive thirty-year history, well documented in the literature as a viable entity for change; and their ability to adapt to environmental fluctuations has always been the
  23. 23. K,Hogan 11 impetus for those changes. Withoutstudies that speak to the contributions CDCs make in ameliorating poverty in the urban community, the possibility that analyses underestimate or overestimate their potential is great. This may lead to government misappropriation and negative impacts associated with their failure (Bratt and Rohe, 2003). CDCs have historically sustained themselves in a turbulent "environment that renders them completely dependent and vulnerable to challenges that threaten the authority and legitimacy of the organization and their very existence" (Hasenfeld, 1992). However, the impact ofCDCs' contribution then, or now, is up for debate. Improved methods for evaluating CDC performance may lead to analysis of the "contradictions" of community and capital. For example, evaluation focused on process can identify the effects of constant changes in social, economic, and political environments as means for analyzing the conditions under which these organizations can thrive and more effectively achieve goals and objectives. Problems with the traditional CDC model cannot be accounted for simply in terms of changing the approach or federal public policy; rather, they must be seen as having complex antecedents that range from internal struggles and responses to external pressure. The shared traits between the traditional CDC model and its adaptations should be considered before criticizing and reducing the problems associated with the model down to an easy recommendation to expand capacity or federal public spending. Furthermore, we need to understand better what characteristics unify the traditional CDC model and adaptations to this approach. Traditional CDCs focused on community development in a single, low to moderateincome neighborhood with an emphasis on maintaining and strengthening indigenous networks and organizations (Fisher, 1994). Stoecker (1997) suggests subtracting housing from the community development equation. However, does this mean that housing developers are no
  24. 24. K,Hogan 22 longer doing community develop~ent? As these adaptations take place, new evaluation methods are needed to better define and advise them. Efforts to improve methods of evaluating CDC performance can provide a viable alternative to the current perspective if it also allows for a clear analysis of current non-traditional models. The following case study aims to improve our understanding of the characteristic similarities and differences in the traditional CDC model and its adaptations, and to develop better methods for evaluating the impact of "non-traditional" CDCs. The Interfaith Housing Development Corporation (IHDC), incorporated in 1992, represents this new form of housingfocused non-local organization that Stoecker (1997) proposes and that Bratt (1997) notes are already in existence. This organization is considered non-traditional because it does not serve a specific location but rather its mission aims to help a specific under served population, namely those who are homeless or at risk of homeless ness, by providing permanent affordable housing for them in the city of Chicago. IHDC is also considered an "adaptation" to the traditional model since it is a CDC that collaborates with other developers to produce housing that meets the needs of their homeless client population. While IHDC has several other partners, this analysis focuses on its relationship with the Interfaith Council for the Homeless (IC) since IHDC evolved in response to the need for a developer who could produce housing for the homeless. RESPONDING TO HOMELESSNESS IN CHICAGO IN THE 19805 Despite substantial increases in spending on social programs from 1968 to 1980, the poverty rate failed to decrease (Wilson, 1987), and the plight of the nations destitute, hungry, and homeless citizens worsened (Trattner, 1994). In November 1984 at a national conference, Catholic bishops presented "Economic Justice for All: A Pastoral Letter on Catholic Social Thinking" and called poverty in America a "social and moral scandal that must not be ignored. Works of charity cannot and should not have to substitute for humane federal public policy"
  25. 25. K, Hogan 23 (United States Catholic Conference, 1986, as cited by Trattner, 1994). Traditionally, care for the homeless and others on the margins of society had come from private citizens, churches, and non-profits. During this time, the Interfaith Council for the Homeless (lC) formed, garnering support from religious leaders helped to form a membership organization with a focus on homelessness and related issues (Hasenfeld, 1992). Leaders in the religious community led the initial membership; however, IC did not adopt a particular faith orientation or affiliation. According to the Executive Director, (Personal interview, March 2,2004): "IC, the organization, nor any of its affiliates espouse ,any one particular religious, creedal, philosophical, or theological denomination. The most important impetus for membership and collaboration was and is a concern and interest in homelessness and impacts of poverty." At that time, the organizational goal centered on providing advocacy and referrals for homeless individuals. From 1984 to approximately 1986, IC collaborated with religious congregations throughout the city of Chicago to provide referral, advocacy, and support for the homeless. Initially, the Chicago Department of Human Services (CDHS) contracted IC to provide service linkages (i.e., no direct-services) between Warming Centers and homeless clients. The Warming Center Program expanded into the largest emergency shelter program in Chicago. Even though the program provided 1300 beds per night, the numbers of homeless individuals entering the emergency shelter program increased and consequently so did the Warming Center Program. At the height of the Warming Center Program, it provided 208,670 man-nights (annually) of emergency shelter to 22,230 new (non-repeating) homeless men, women and children. In response to the increasing numbers of men, women, and children entering the emergency shelter system, three new transitional shelters opened to provide service exclusively for women and
  26. 26. K,Hogan 24 children. The three new transitional facilities provided an additional 1,165 shelter beds and served on average 2,080 meals per day. The housing shortage went unattended, and the homeless population steadily increased. In 1989, the city contract for the Warming Center Program went to another service provider. Despite the response and substantial use of the Warming Center Program, the prevalence of the citywide homeless problem and the absence of affordable housing was largely unaffected by the insurgence of the emergency shelter program. The IC membership group adopted a position taken by many social welfare scholars, acknowledging that the causes of social problems of dependency, mental illness, and chronic diseases are just as important as treatments (Trattner, 1994). In response, according to a member of the original membership group, an assessment of the affordable housing situation in Chicago led the organization to assemble a collaboration that would blend traditional and non-traditional approaches to community development. "We brought in someone with a background in finance, the current IHDC Executive Director who has an accounting background and business knowledge to coordinate development finance" (Personal interview, February 24, 2004). Initially IC provided advocacy and referral to the homeless population but lacked "a formal program to intervene in the cyclical effects of poverty and homelessness" according to the board chairperson (Personal interview, February 2, 2004). The interest was not in providing medical treatment of chronic disease or illnesses because, as the board chairperson explained (Personal interview, February 24, 2004): "you have a whole set of rules as a hospital [medical facility]." Instead, IC positioned itself as a ., service connector, providing supportive social services that are difficult to administer to the homeless population.
  27. 27. K,Hogan 25 Since IC no longer had the fiscal contract from CDHS, they had to identify a new organizational role. IC added an educational and advocacy program coordinator to the staff to establish and facilitate a policy and practical agenda that addressed the systemic causes of homelessness. Already providing outreach, organizing, and advocacy, IC began identifying additional partners to address the homeless problem. "Equipped with a building and a plan written on paper," IC solicited input from colleagues in the health and human services sector to develop policy and procedures for their first undertaking in the affordable, supportive housing . industry. At that time, social services began to playa prominent role in the emergency shelter programs. IC decided to switch its focus from service connector/facilitator to service provider. For the next two and a half years, IC provided supportive social services (e.g., resource referral, case management, crisis intervention, support groups, and meetings) inside emergency shelters. IHDC incorporated in 1992 and that same year it collaborated with IC and other religious community leaders to address the escalating needs of the homeless population. IHDC is a partner in an interfaith conglomerate that proclaims to center all of its activities, programs, and initiatives on social justice and homelessness. IHDC is an independent Illinois not-for-profit corporation with a 501 (c) (3) charitable organization designation from the Internal Revenue Service. IHDC operates as a strategic planning subsidiary created to provide permanent housing for very low-income individuals (i.e., individuals whose yearly income is less than half of the official poverty line- $7,412 for a family of three) or those with a particular preexisting conditions that confine them to the margins of society (e.g. chronic or mental illness, and drug addiction). Interfaith House was the first major undertaking of the two organizations. Interfaith House opened in 1994; its co-owners Interfaith House, Inc. operate the sixty-bed respite care
  28. 28. K,Hogan 26 facility whose yearly count serves approximately eight-hundred homeless individuals discharged from hospitals. Nearly 10 years later, IHDC opened Sanctuary Place, which provides housing for women and families who are disabled and formerly homeless. Currently, IC maintains its operation at Sanctuary Place. IC has two programs that operate simultaneously with very similar functions: 1) intensive case management and supportive services for 63 female residents and 6 families at Sanctuary Place; and 2) intensive case management, referral, and advocacy for 20 families living independently in scattered site subsidized housing throughout the city of Chicago. IC provides supportive social services for a total of 160-170 people. In between these two developments, IHDC has produced other viable community development projects and generated close to forty-million dollars in development capital: • Inner Voice Veterans House, opened in 1993, was the first. Co-owners Inner V oice, Inc. operates the fifteen unit transitional housing facility that services veterans who have completed chemical dependency programs. ' • Interfaith House was the second development project, opened in 1994, was the first collaboration between IC and IHDC. A sixty-bed respite care facility. • Vision House the third development, is a twenty-five unit multi-family supportive housing structure that serves individuals and families affected by mV/AIDS. • In 1998, the fourth project, Cressey House was opened. Cressey House is owned and operated by IImC's partner The Cathedral Shelter of Chicago and has twenty-seven multi-family units for individuals and families recovering from substance abuse. • The fifth project completed in 1999, Ruth Shriman House is an eighty-two unit low-income senior housing facility. • The Children's Place at Vision House, the sixth development project, started in 2002, is incomplete. Upon completion (scheduled for later this year), the facility will provide an array of social services that include full-service day care, mental health counseling, play therapy, and parental support for the parents and families of Vision House.
  29. 29. K,Hogan 27 • Sanctuary Place is the seventh project and is a sixty-nine unit development that has sixty-three efficiency apartments and six three-bedroom town homes for formerly homeless women and children. • Casa Kirk Apartments is a partnership with Claretian Associates, and is a twentysix multi-unit complex that serves mixed-income (i.e., low-income and affordable rent) families. • Independence House is currently still in construction and incomplete. This facility will have twenty-five family units and will serve recovering parents and their children. In total, when these projects are completed, IHDC will have produced over three hundred units of affordable housing throughout the city of Chicago in about 10 years - a significant number for anyCDC. IC-IHDC INTERFAITH PARTNERSHIP SUMMARY Today, IC and IHDC work in tandem with each other and additional faith-based organizations. In combination, this collaboration represents the supportive housing model mandated in the 10-year "Housing First" plan to end homelessness. Each subsidiary has its own 501 (c) (3) with different roles and responsibilities and unique functions but all profess commitment to homelessness and related concerns. This collaboration also establishes the organization as a non-traditional adaptation to the traditional CDC model. Figure 2 summarizes the history and evolution of the partnership, while Figure 3 shows the expansion oflHDC as a housing producer since its inception in 1992, and provides a visual overview of organizational capacity and dates and function of other collaborations and development projects.
  30. 30. K,Hogan28 FIGURE.2 IC-IHDC DEVELOPMENT PATH ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORY 1984 The Interfaith Connctl Corthe Homeless (IC) was organized to work collaboratively within the religious community of metropolitan Chicago 1986 The Warming Center Program is inItiated a collaborative effort with the city to fund emergency shelters 1989 Education and advocacy became an important part of the the IC mission 1992 The Interfaith Housing Development Corporation (llIDC) is formed to provide low-income housing 19994 Interfaith House The first major collaboration between IC and IHDC 2003 Sanctuary Place collaboration between IC and IHDC
  31. 31. K,Hogan 29 FIGURE. 3 IC-IHDC CROSS-SECTIONAL Interfaith Housing Development Corporation IHDC Housing Developer Incorporated, 1992 Interfaith Council for the Homeless IC Formed, Supportive Social Service 1984 Interfaith House Respite Care 1994 Sanctuary Place Supportive Housing 2003 FLOWCHART ranc Housing Developments Inner Voice Transitional Housing 1993 Vision House Supportive Housing 1997 Cressey House Supportive Housing for Substance Abusers 1998 Ruth Shriman Senior Housing 1999 The Children's Place at Vision House Projected Incomplete Casa Kirk Apartments Mixed Income Projected Incomplete Independence House Supportive Housing Projected Incomplete I
  32. 32. K,Hogan 30 ANALYZING THE IC'AND IHDC NETWORK The Interfaith Housing Development Corporation professes that the impetus for its work is to collaborate with faith-based community groups and other community partners with a concern and interest in homelessness and the impacts of poverty. The role of both Ie and IHDC is indicative of their supplemental functions to one another. IC's overall plan has a diverse set of objectives, and attempts to create a collective voice through policy and practice with a social conscious. IC-IHDC participates in a city funded housing program that imparts ideals, regulations and stipulations to which the organization attempts to comply. Strategic planning enables IC-IHDC to transform the ideal of the mission into viable ventures and opportunities to serve the homeless population throughout the city. Each organization has a clearly defined function that illustrates the non-traditional approach: 1) IC provides intensive case management, supportive services, advocacy, and referral; and 2) IHDC provides housing development. Together, they are community partners that provide an array of resources that serve to promote the mission, goals and objectives of each organization. Collaboration with community partners coupled with the fact that neither IHDC nor IC are bounded by a specific neighborhood, provides both increased mobility and latitude to execute its mission of providing services for the homeless throughout the city of Chicago. EXTERNAL PRESSURES ... INTERNAL STRUGGLES External pressures exist and relate to the need for consistent donations and sponsors, according to the IC's Executive Director, "[Ie] we are constantly soliciting religious organizations for financial contributions and other resources" (Personal interview, March 2, 2004). The organization has a number of religious congregations that provide annual financial support and donations. The organization has sixty annual contributors and thirty-five other social service agencies in the network of service providers.
  33. 33. K, Hogan 31 The research literature focuses attention on the fact that CDCs manage to achieve goals .;. and visions while working against tremendous odds in constantly changing external environments. For example, the IC Executive Director acknowledged that IC "works on systemic issues" (Personal interview, March 2, 2004). The organization attempts to "better the service delivery" and "change the system that perpetuates homelessness." The Executive Director indicated that IC strives to "spread the message" about homelessness-"I [the Executive Director] conduct seminars, speeches, and serve on the Chicago Continuum of Care executive board, governing board and the implementation committee." Similarly, the goal ofIHDC aims to produce models of quality, state-of-the-art housing for low-income people as a means to demonstrate that affordable housing can be an asset to the community. In 2002; the Mayor of Chicago approved a ten-year plan to end homelessness. "Housing First" is the cities new model for homeless service delivery. The program philosophy mandates housing and supportive social services in permanent residences, not in shelters. The Chicago Department of Human Services (CDHS) commissioned IC as a supportive service model for the "Housing First" pilot program. IC transformed into a "Housing First" service delivery model and collaborated with other organizations throughout the city to locate rental subsidies and Housing Choice Vouchers (i.e., Section 8) to establish a permanent residence for their homeless clients. After securing a permanent residence, IC would then provide the supportive services. CDHS administers the public contract, and IC receives a line item in their budget to provide supportive services at Sanctuary Place and in scattered site subsidized housing throughout the city. Initially, IC assisted in assessments for apartment readiness, transition to subsidized housing, resource location (e.g., furniture, security deposits, etc). Now.the organization provides services to Sanctuary Place, which is an example of the "Housing First" approach.
  34. 34. K,Hogan 32 The change in the homeless service delivery system to "Housing First" is significant because it led the collaboration between IC and IHDC. Both the affordable housing shortage and the cyclical nature of homelessness served to motivate this collaboration. The new homeless service delivery system supported the non-local development-centered focus ofIHDC. Collaboration with IC enabled IHDC to concentrate on its mission of providing affordable, permanent housing. This systems-level change enabled IC to provide service to individuals in their own home, not in shelters. The Board of Directors ofIC and IHDC arekey actors bridging both organizations. The Board members and Directors makeup the IC-IHDC network that links social service, advocacy, and education with affordable housing development to formulate a comprehensive program. As IC's Executive Director stated, "Case managers are housing retainers and are expected [to help] with any issue that is standing as a barrier for clients to move forward. One of the visions and goals for the housing and supportive service model of the "Housing First" Program is community assessment, housing retainers refer clients to the Mayor's Office on Workforce Development, and other specialized, technical programs in the community" (Personal interview, March 2, 2004). On-site supportive services include addiction support groups and life enhancement groups for clients. The IC-IHDC collaboration is a non-traditional adaptation to the traditional CDC model because it compartmentalizes the function of housing production and social services. The current political environment supports this approach as it makes the organization less vulnerable to changes in the external environment In particular, the philosophy of the current political environment is stated in the cities' housing policy, housing first, and social services in the home. Economic changes can also have implications on CDCs and can cause external pressure. Ie and .~.:
  35. 35. K,Hogan 33 IHDC are not a unified whole despite ~ome overlap in goals and objectives, so organizational behavior may differ; yet collaboration requires cooperation and the ability of these two separate units to work together and be mutually supportive of each other. DISCUSSION: MODEL COMPARING THE TRADITIONAL CDC MODEL TO THE MULTI-LOCAL CDC IHDC evidences elements of Stoecker's (1997) proposed alternative CDC modeL The chief components that distinguish IHDC as a non-traditional adaptation to the CDC model are its primary function (i.e., housing development) and its "multi-local" approach to community development (e.g., mergers via partnerships). IHDC resembles the merging approach to capacity building (e.g., political and capital capacity) by collaborating with other faith-based groups to expand their jurisdiction to multiple locations throughout the city. Although it is not religiously oriented, IHDC collaborates with faith-based organizations to produce housing development projects in multiple locations throughout the city of Chicago. The traditional role of faith-based organizations as indigenous community service providers created potential for collaboration with IHDC. Gittell (1980) showed that lower class voluntary organizations were more likely than middle class organizations to shift from advocacy to service because of problems maintaining long-term organizing efforts and financial support. In contrast to advocates who believe that CDCs are doing a good job at community development others believe that it is not enough to reverse blight and poverty. Critics contend that CDCs have become another developer attempting to cash in on the big business of housing subsidies following supply-side free market economics (Lenz, 1988). The IHDC non-traditional approach blends the business approach with service and advocacy by converging with the religious sector. IC and IHDC form a large interfaith conglomerate, a multi-dimensional organization with a number of smaller corporations that serve a variety of different functions
  36. 36. K,Hogan 34 (e.g., housing production, social services, education and advocacy, etc.). The Interfaith Council for the Homeless, the parent organization, provides advocacy, referral, and supportive services, while IHDC produces affordable supportive housing. Adaptation to internal limitations (e.g., capacity, efficiency) and external vulnerabilities (e.g., environmental change) is essential element to the survival of all HSOs. A key determinant of the organization's service delivery system is that of the environment in which it is embedded (Hasenfeld, 1992). IHDC functions as a traditional CDC in that the survival of the organization is contingent on its ability to obtain resources from the external environment. Strategy is what sets IHDC apart; multi-local mergers enable this unit to maximize efficiency, build political and capital capacity, and establish a hybrid method that combines traditional and non-traditional approaches. IHDC is the affordable housing developer of the interfaith conglomerate. IHDC does not administer or facilitate the supportive social programs. "They only do housing," as the Executive Director of'K' stated. "[Housing] is a very important part." (Personal interview, March 2, 2004) IC is the social service arm, which administers and facilitates the social programs for the larger organization. Housing development is the major function ofIHDC; this is consistent with Stoecker's (1997) definition in his alternative to the traditional CDC model. Yet, the question remains unanswered: how do we evaluate the effects of this strategy? As Stoecker (1997) suggests, a multi-local CDC approach may increase political and capital capacity. However, he does not provide insight into ways of examining or implementing this approach. This is essentiai to the development of generalized knowledge about the multi-local approach and its successful implementation, The traditional CDC model and its adaptations share similar characteristic traits related to strategy, resources, and differences in approach to community development. Comparison of ------------------------ ~
  37. 37. K,Hogan 35 both similarities and differences reveal shared traits that reflect consistency between the traditional model and non-traditional adaptations. These shared traits help to distinguish the role and function of the traditional CDC model from its adaptations. For example, traditional CDCs focused on community development and job creation in one single low-income neighborhood with indigenous community members. While non-traditional adaptations do not necessarily share this trait, they share other factors such as advocacy, housing development, funding, and service to low-income populations. Traditional models were one-dimensional where non-traditional models are multidimensional. Each has its own unique strengths and weaknesses innate to its individual function. For example, one of the strengths of the traditional CDC model is that it is designed to spur . indigenous community members to become enterprising and create economic opportunities for themselves. However, a weakness is its one-dimensional approach to community development in a single location with only indigenous community members, which increases vulnerability to changes in the external environment. Vulnerability to the constant fluctuations and modifications in federal and municipal housing policy, and funding resources can result in decreased capacity and CDC failure. Alternatively, one of the strengths of the non-traditional multi-local approach is its multidimensional nature. The multi-local approach allows non-traditional adaptations to diversify their portfolios. These organizations can participate in a variety of different physical development projects. For example IHDC, has collaborated with various community partners to facilitate housing development for different constituencies ranging from homeless veterans to senior citizens. Diversity provides more stability and makes the organization resilient to changes in the external environment. If funding in one-area ends, diversity reduces the threat of ----.~
  38. 38. - --- ~ -----=--~---~ ~- .. - K,Hogan 36 organizational survival because the organization can refocus on another area. Diversification can also be a weakness and contribute to lost focus. The organization can become consumed in the process of garnering support and maintaining partnerships, inattention to the organizational mission, goal and objectives can be detrimental. Inattention and preoccupation with appealing to additional partners can cause the organization to neglect its responsibilities. Sustaining partnerships can become the organizational focus, diverting attention away from the organizational mission of providing affordable housing for the homeless. Non-traditional adaptations share the goal of physical development with the traditional CDC model, but take a different approach. Utilizing the same funding sources as other traditional CDCs, IHDC provides physical development for low-income populations throughout the city of Chicago with different partners Within indigenous communities, which is a nontraditional adaptation to the traditional approach. Social service administration, client advocacy, education, and organizing are traits that non-traditional adaptations share with the traditional CDC model. However, IHDC takes a distinctly different approach to these as well. IHDC contracts with IC to provide supportive social service, advocacy, and education. The single focus of the traditional CDC model on one community limits capacity. One of the characteristics of HSOs is that these organizations experience cyclical legitimacy crises, the social awareness of the problems in indigenous communities and the legitimacy of the traditional CDC model have eroded due to disappointments about its contributions in ameliorating blight and poverty (Hasenfeld, 1992). Consequently, due to its one-dimensional approach, the traditional CDC model may not survive. The following table illustrates shared traits and providesa basis for analyzing traditional and non-traditional adaptations.
  39. 39. K,Hogan 37 FIGURE 4. COMPARISON OF TRADITIONAL AND NON-TRADITIONAL CDCS Traditonal CDCs Non-Traditional CDCs x x Affordable Housing Development (low-income housing) Community Economic Development in one Single Localized Area x x Funding Resources (private and Public Funding) x Shared Traits Advocacy (community organizing, education, outreach) x x x Indigenous Community Members x Job Production x x Low-income Populations Origin (Community Organizations, Grassroots Organizing, Reform) x Purpose (Create jobs and housing in on Single Localized Area) x x Regional Development x Supportive Social Service Shared traits between traditional and non-traditional adaptations have implications on evaluation of these approaches. Evaluation ofIHDC's non-traditional approach must consider more than just quantitative measures of success. Quantitative data that measures success based on outcomes alone would be insufficient. Quantitative data would not assess changes in the
  40. 40. K,Hogan 38 external environment that provide a c?ntext for analyzing changes within the organization. Such as the shift to "Housing First" and supportive service approach to addressing the needs of the homeless in the city of Chicago, evaluations would have to consider the contextual factors, quantitative data would not convey. Non-traditional approaches to community development necessitate adaptations to traditional evaluation methods. Improved evaluation methods would need to consider the effects of partnerships and collaborations (e.g., reconsider variables of interest to particular organizations). In the case of a multi-functional conglomerate like IC-IHDC, evaluation methods should consider the "synergy" effects of partnerships in order to measure the extent to which the sum of the individual parts (i.e., social service and housing development) function better or worse as a whole. Such methods would provide insight into the individual and collective contribution of these separate and distinct organizations in alleviating the social problem of poverty and homelessness and community revitalization. The linear one-dimensional perspective of quantitative measurement of outcomes in terms of performance would then change to include qualitative measurement of benefit to the community and target population. Refocusing the current goal of research from quantitative measurement on how to achieve outcomes to include qualitative measurement of impacts may provide a means for examining the benefit and contribution of traditional and non-traditional approaches to community development. environments. The evolution oflC is a direct response to changes in external The organization adapted to the change a new service delivery system by reframing itself as a ''housing retainer." IC operates as a "moral entrepreneur," and acts to shape to the external environment through its practices (Hasenfeld, 1992). In other words, IC experienced a "legitimacy crisis" when the service delivery system changed from supportive
  41. 41. .~ a , ,' • .jo, ,.~" K,Hogan 39 services in shelters to services in the home. The organizations' response to this systems level ".'. change was to reframe its service delivery to housing retainer. These and other "contextual" factors must be considered in evaluation of the IC-IHDC adaptation to the traditional CDC model. Both are working on changing the "systemic issues" related to poverty and homelessness, but each organization has its own unique method. Evaluation of the IC-IHDC approach must consider the benefits of each organizations individual contribution in order to understand the impact of the organization as a whole. CONCLUSIONS In summary, one of the strengths of the non-traditional approach is that the multi-local adaptation increases organizational capacity. Specifically, the multi-local adaptation expands jurisdiction to multiple areas throughout the city and creates opportunities for additional collaborations. For IHDC, the strongest area of collaboration appears to be with other community service agencies. Apparently the organization has established "appropriate" partnerships (i.e., each partner plays to its unique strength) with outside service providers. As a large organization with smaller corporations that focus on different functions, each is enabled to maximize capacity. The combination of housing and social service has likely reduced property management problems (e.g., evictions) that may divert organizational development and hinder capacity maximization. A weakness of the non-traditional approach is that the multi-local. model and collaborations involve trust and a certain amount of expertise among key actors. Although the multi-local approach and collaborations play to each organization's strengths, these can also create new challenges, as the organization must constantly nurture and protect the relationship. The extent to which partnerships with outside service providers creates constraints is another •••
  42. 42. K,Hogan40 area for further exploration. Creating and maintaining amenable relationships with outside service providers who may have different priorities (e.g., different organizational goals/mission/objectives) may create constraints or limits collaborations over time. It is unclear whether the collaboration between IC and IHDC yields positive affects for the organization or the "systemic issues" of homelessness. While this collaboration enables each organization to capitalize on its individual strengths, it remains to be seen if this approach significantly reduces homelessness and poverty. This could be measured with methods that combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Future research would focus on evaluating the ways in which IHDC balances the opportunities and constraints of collaborations and multi-local mergers. Clearly, a new direction for examining CDCs is necessary and the research presented here begins the process of identifying potential limitations innate to evaluating traditional and non-traditional adaptations (i.e., the multi-local model). Furthermore, it is necessary to consider the relationship between contextual factors (i.e., drug dependence and homelessness) in order to better understand the ways in which contexts affect organizational approaches to service delivery, its homeless constituency, capacity, and efficiency. A combination of quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods will not only gauge CDC performance, but also the impact of community development strategies and efforts to reduce blight and poverty.
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