Functional Dairy Foods for Combating Metabolic Disorder


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Functional Dairy Foods for Combating Metabolic Disorder

  1. 1. Functional Dairy Foods for Metabolic Disorders Kaushik Khamrui Senior Scientist Dairy Technology Division National Dairy Research Institute Karnal, Haryana
  2. 2. What is Metabolic Disorder?Metabolism: chemical processes & inter-conversions that take place in the body for converting food into energyIncludes:  Transportation and absorption of nutrients and minerals  Breakdown and buildup of large molecules  Inter-conversion of small molecules  Ultimate production of energy from these chemical reactionsEvery chemical step of metabolism: catalyzed by an enzymeMajor part of a healthy metabolism is the generation of enzymesGenetic abnormality affects the function of an enzyme/causes it to be deficient/missing altogether – leads to various disorders - metabolic disorders
  3. 3. What is Metabolic Disorder?Disorders result from  Inability to break down some substance that should be broken down  Inability to produce some essential substance  Host organism may fail to get proper nutrition, even if it is eating a healthy, balanced diet.  Metabolic disorder symptoms:  Muscle weakness  Neurological problems  Intestinal irregularities  Cardiovascular problems, among many others  Metabolic disorder:  Inherited  Exposure to toxins, diet, and drug use may cause metabolic disorders.
  4. 4. Metabolic Syndrome ‘Syndrome’: a combination or group of different symptoms that characterize a specific disease or illness WHO criteria of metabolic syndrome are: 1. Fasting plasma glucose: ≥ 100 mg/dl 2. Impaired plasma glucose tolerance: ≥ 140 mg/dl, two hours after 75g glucose challenge. Plus, any two of the following 3. Dyslipidaemia: Plasma triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL 4. Dyslipidaemia: High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol <35 mg/dL (men) or <39 mg/dL (women) 5. Hypertension: (≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥ 90 mm Hg diastolic) or taking blood pressure medication 6. Adiposity: Body Mass Index (BMI) greater than 30 and/or waist:hip ratio >0.9 in men, >0.85 in women 7. Microalbuminuria: Urinary albumin excretion rate ≥20 µg/min or albumin:creatinine ratio≥30 mg/g
  5. 5. Dairy Foods for Management of Metabolic Disorder1. Dairy Foods for Lowering Blood Glucose Level2. Dairy Foods for Lowering Dyslipidemia3. Dairy Foods for Lowering Hypertension4. Dairy Foods for Lowering Microalbuminuria5. Dairy Foods for the Lactose Intolerant6. Dairy Foods for the obese
  6. 6. Dairy Foods for Lowering Blood Glucose LevelEffect of foods on blood sugar: Glycemic Index (GI)Lower GI suggests slower rates of digestion & absorption of the food carbohydrates and indicates greater extraction of the products of carbohydrate digestion from the liver.A lower GI relates to a lower insulin demand and helps long- term control of blood glucose as well as blood lipids.GI of foods  the type of starch (amylose versus amylopectin)  physical entrapment of the starch molecules within the food  fat and protein content of the food  organic acids or their salts in the food.
  7. 7. Dairy Foods for Lowering Blood Glucose LevelHigh GI: > 70Medium GI: 56-69Low GI: < 55Most of the dairy products are naturally low in GI (Table 1)Fortifying with soluble fibers e.g., psyllium, pectin, guar gum, fructo-oligosaccharides etc. lower GI by speeding up the gastric emptying rate.
  8. 8. GI of Common FoodsDairy Products Orange 44 SugarsMilk (whole) 22 Papaya 58 Fructose 23Milk (skimmed) 32 Pear 38 Glucose 100Milk (chocolate flavored) 34 Pineapple 66 Honey 58Ice Cream (full-fat) 61 Watermelon 103 Lactose 46Yogurt (low-fat) 33 Maltose 105Cheese 0 Breads Sucrose 65Paneer 0 White Bread 70 Whole Wheat Bread 69 VegetablesGrains Beets 69Basmati Rice 58 Snacks Cabbage 10Brown Rice 55 Cashews 22 Carrots 49 Peanuts 14 Corn 55Fruits Popcorn 55 Green Peas 48Apple 38 Potato Chips 55 Mushrooms 10Banana 55 Noodles (instant) 46 Potato (baked) 93Grapes 46 Walnuts 15 Sweet Potato 54Mango 55 Pumpkin 75 Onion 10 High GI: > 70 Medium GI: 56-69Low GI: < 55
  9. 9. Dairy Foods for Lowering DyslipidemiaSaturated fat dairy foods: contribute to dyslipidemiaOne percent increase in energy as SFAs: elevate blood cholesterol by 2 mg/dl.Recent findings: dietary patterns with high dairy product intake are associated with reduced riskSome studies demonstrated: direct -ve association of dairy food consumption and components of metabolic syndrome, e.g., high blood pressure and adiposity
  10. 10. Two Approaches to Develop Dairy products to Fight Dyslipidemia1. Developing Low-fat Dairy Products:  A DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) study conducted in USA  “DASH” diet: Fruits, vegetables & Low-fat dairy products (milk, cheese or yoghurt)  DASH diet increased HDL, lower triglycerides, lower blood pressure, weight loss, and reduced fasting blood glucose2. Fortification with specified nutraceuticals:  Dietary fibers : soluble or insoluble in water  Soluble dietary fibers have been associated with reducing the blood cholesterol levels.  Consumption of water-soluble fiber binds to bile acids, which result in an increased excretion of cholesterol.  Pectin, β-glucans, polydextrose, hydrolyzed guar gum etc. could be used in dairy-based beverages  Plant sterol & stanol esters : FDA approved ingredient for reducing blood cholesterol
  11. 11. Dairy Foods for Lowering HypertensionBioactive ingredients from fractionation of milk protein reduce hypertensionHydrolysates: caseins and whey proteins are good source of casokinin and lactokininCasokinin and lactokinin are Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides (ACE-IP)Fermented dairy products/cheese: will help to control blood pressure
  12. 12. Dairy Foods for Lowering Microalbuminuria Microalbuminuria (MA) is defined as a persistent elevation of albumin content in the urine of ≥20 µg/min (≥30 mg/d) Established risk marker for the presence of cardiovascular disease and predicts progression of nephropathy (kidney disorder) Presence of MA is the kidneys warning to an increased cardiovascular risk Positive correlation between the protein content in the diet and MA A 0.1 g/kg body weight/day reduction in intake of animal protein: 11.1% improvement in MA 0.8 g/kg body wt per day may improve MA, this must be done in the context of overall adequate energy and nutrient intakeWays to decrease protein content in milk products:1. Increasing the moisture content2. Ultra and micro-filtration for selective removal of casein as well as whey proteins
  13. 13. Lactose IntoleranceInability to metabolize lactoseLactose: and galactose joined together in β, 1-4 linkageLactose as such is rarely absorbed by humansIntestinal β-galactosidase inefficiency, some individuals & even the whole population show lactose intoleranceEast and South India as 60-100% of among the inhabitants are lactose-malabsorbers.
  14. 14. Dairy Foods for the Lactose Intolerant Lactose free or low lactose (~30% of normal) dairy products: by partial or complete hydrolysis of the lactose The two methods of lactose hydrolysis are: acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis Enzymatic hydrolysis: using β-galactosidase an attractive method. β-galactosidase is widely distributed in nature, e.g., in plants, animal organs, bacteria, yeast and fungi etc. Immobilized enzyme:  Reuses the enzyme - lowered enzyme cost  Makes the process continuous Immobilization methods 1. Adsorption 2. Gel entrapment 3. Covalent bonding
  15. 15. Dairy Foods for the Lactose Intolerant A range of reduced lactose and lactose free milks are available in American and European Market. US market are Lactacid, Dairy Esse and Mootopia Lactose free brands available in Europe include Hyla, Emmi, Lacto free, etc. Reduced lactose/lactose free milk :  lower freezing point  sweeter than normal milk  more susceptible to Maillard browning  increases the cryoscopic value from 0.054 to 0.650  increases the cost of fluid milk by ~ $0.06-0.08/L. Valio, Finland patented chromatographic separation method to remove lactose from milk
  16. 16. ConclusionMetabolic Disorders: threatening to appear an epidemic in this centuryMay ways to cure it through dairy foods:  Fortifying foods with particular neutraceutical(s)  Manipulating composition: e.g., adjusting fat or protein content  Producing low lactose or lactose-hydrolyzed milk
  17. 17. Thank You