Functional Dairy Foods for Combating Metabolic Disorder
Functional Dairy Foods for Metabolic Disorders Kaushik Khamrui Senior Scientist Dairy Technology Division National Dairy Research Institute Karnal, Haryana
What is Metabolic Disorder?Metabolism: chemical processes & inter-conversions that take place in the body for converting food into energyIncludes: Transportation and absorption of nutrients and minerals Breakdown and buildup of large molecules Inter-conversion of small molecules Ultimate production of energy from these chemical reactionsEvery chemical step of metabolism: catalyzed by an enzymeMajor part of a healthy metabolism is the generation of enzymesGenetic abnormality affects the function of an enzyme/causes it to be deficient/missing altogether – leads to various disorders - metabolic disorders
What is Metabolic Disorder?Disorders result from Inability to break down some substance that should be broken down Inability to produce some essential substance Host organism may fail to get proper nutrition, even if it is eating a healthy, balanced diet. Metabolic disorder symptoms: Muscle weakness Neurological problems Intestinal irregularities Cardiovascular problems, among many others Metabolic disorder: Inherited Exposure to toxins, diet, and drug use may cause metabolic disorders.
Metabolic Syndrome ‘Syndrome’: a combination or group of different symptoms that characterize a specific disease or illness WHO criteria of metabolic syndrome are: 1. Fasting plasma glucose: ≥ 100 mg/dl 2. Impaired plasma glucose tolerance: ≥ 140 mg/dl, two hours after 75g glucose challenge. Plus, any two of the following 3. Dyslipidaemia: Plasma triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL 4. Dyslipidaemia: High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol <35 mg/dL (men) or <39 mg/dL (women) 5. Hypertension: (≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥ 90 mm Hg diastolic) or taking blood pressure medication 6. Adiposity: Body Mass Index (BMI) greater than 30 and/or waist:hip ratio >0.9 in men, >0.85 in women 7. Microalbuminuria: Urinary albumin excretion rate ≥20 µg/min or albumin:creatinine ratio≥30 mg/g
Dairy Foods for Management of Metabolic Disorder1. Dairy Foods for Lowering Blood Glucose Level2. Dairy Foods for Lowering Dyslipidemia3. Dairy Foods for Lowering Hypertension4. Dairy Foods for Lowering Microalbuminuria5. Dairy Foods for the Lactose Intolerant6. Dairy Foods for the obese
Dairy Foods for Lowering Blood Glucose LevelEffect of foods on blood sugar: Glycemic Index (GI)Lower GI suggests slower rates of digestion & absorption of the food carbohydrates and indicates greater extraction of the products of carbohydrate digestion from the liver.A lower GI relates to a lower insulin demand and helps long- term control of blood glucose as well as blood lipids.GI of foods the type of starch (amylose versus amylopectin) physical entrapment of the starch molecules within the food fat and protein content of the food organic acids or their salts in the food.
Dairy Foods for Lowering Blood Glucose LevelHigh GI: > 70Medium GI: 56-69Low GI: < 55Most of the dairy products are naturally low in GI (Table 1)Fortifying with soluble fibers e.g., psyllium, pectin, guar gum, fructo-oligosaccharides etc. lower GI by speeding up the gastric emptying rate.
Dairy Foods for Lowering DyslipidemiaSaturated fat dairy foods: contribute to dyslipidemiaOne percent increase in energy as SFAs: elevate blood cholesterol by 2 mg/dl.Recent findings: dietary patterns with high dairy product intake are associated with reduced riskSome studies demonstrated: direct -ve association of dairy food consumption and components of metabolic syndrome, e.g., high blood pressure and adiposity
Two Approaches to Develop Dairy products to Fight Dyslipidemia1. Developing Low-fat Dairy Products: A DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) study conducted in USA “DASH” diet: Fruits, vegetables & Low-fat dairy products (milk, cheese or yoghurt) DASH diet increased HDL, lower triglycerides, lower blood pressure, weight loss, and reduced fasting blood glucose2. Fortification with specified nutraceuticals: Dietary fibers : soluble or insoluble in water Soluble dietary fibers have been associated with reducing the blood cholesterol levels. Consumption of water-soluble fiber binds to bile acids, which result in an increased excretion of cholesterol. Pectin, β-glucans, polydextrose, hydrolyzed guar gum etc. could be used in dairy-based beverages Plant sterol & stanol esters : FDA approved ingredient for reducing blood cholesterol
Dairy Foods for Lowering HypertensionBioactive ingredients from fractionation of milk protein reduce hypertensionHydrolysates: caseins and whey proteins are good source of casokinin and lactokininCasokinin and lactokinin are Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides (ACE-IP)Fermented dairy products/cheese: will help to control blood pressure
Dairy Foods for Lowering Microalbuminuria Microalbuminuria (MA) is defined as a persistent elevation of albumin content in the urine of ≥20 µg/min (≥30 mg/d) Established risk marker for the presence of cardiovascular disease and predicts progression of nephropathy (kidney disorder) Presence of MA is the kidneys warning to an increased cardiovascular risk Positive correlation between the protein content in the diet and MA A 0.1 g/kg body weight/day reduction in intake of animal protein: 11.1% improvement in MA 0.8 g/kg body wt per day may improve MA, this must be done in the context of overall adequate energy and nutrient intakeWays to decrease protein content in milk products:1. Increasing the moisture content2. Ultra and micro-filtration for selective removal of casein as well as whey proteins
Lactose IntoleranceInability to metabolize lactoseLactose: and galactose joined together in β, 1-4 linkageLactose as such is rarely absorbed by humansIntestinal β-galactosidase inefficiency, some individuals & even the whole population show lactose intoleranceEast and South India as 60-100% of among the inhabitants are lactose-malabsorbers.
Dairy Foods for the Lactose Intolerant Lactose free or low lactose (~30% of normal) dairy products: by partial or complete hydrolysis of the lactose The two methods of lactose hydrolysis are: acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis Enzymatic hydrolysis: using β-galactosidase an attractive method. β-galactosidase is widely distributed in nature, e.g., in plants, animal organs, bacteria, yeast and fungi etc. Immobilized enzyme: Reuses the enzyme - lowered enzyme cost Makes the process continuous Immobilization methods 1. Adsorption 2. Gel entrapment 3. Covalent bonding
Dairy Foods for the Lactose Intolerant A range of reduced lactose and lactose free milks are available in American and European Market. US market are Lactacid, Dairy Esse and Mootopia Lactose free brands available in Europe include Hyla, Emmi, Lacto free, etc. Reduced lactose/lactose free milk : lower freezing point sweeter than normal milk more susceptible to Maillard browning increases the cryoscopic value from 0.054 to 0.650 increases the cost of fluid milk by ~ $0.06-0.08/L. Valio, Finland patented chromatographic separation method to remove lactose from milk
ConclusionMetabolic Disorders: threatening to appear an epidemic in this centuryMay ways to cure it through dairy foods: Fortifying foods with particular neutraceutical(s) Manipulating composition: e.g., adjusting fat or protein content Producing low lactose or lactose-hydrolyzed milk