MEDIA KEY TERMS Images and Definitions for RevisionPART A: CAMERA SHOTSPART B: CAMERA ANGLESPART C: CAMERA MOVEMENTPART D: COMPOSITION
PART A: CAMERA SHOTS• Aerial shotA camera shot taken from an overhead position (usually from quite a far distance like in a helicopter).Often used as establishing shots to establish cities or places in city.
PART A: CAMERA SHOTS• Establishing shotEstablishes setting of a scene, often giving viewer information about where scene is set. Can be range ofdistances from wide/long shot of whole city or wide shot of a place in a city or shot of house or even close upof a sign. Usually at the beginning of a scene to give clarity to audience of the setting.
PART A: CAMERA SHOTS• Two shotOf two characters communicating, interacting or conversing. Usually to signify or show a relationship betweenthe two characters. (doesn’t always have to be humans)
PART A: CAMERA SHOTS• Mid/medium shotFraming of a character or subject of their torso (mostly torso and head but could be torso and legs)
PART A: CAMERA SHOTS• Point of ViewShows a view from the character’s perspective, edited in such a way that the audience are aware of who thecharacter is (for example they would show a reverse shot of that character)
PART A: CAMERA SHOTS• Long shotFraming of a character or subject of their whole body
PART A: CAMERA SHOTS• Close up ShotFraming of a character or subject of some particular part of their body or object such as face, hand, details ofan object like a plate.
PART A: CAMERA SHOTS• Over the shoulder shotA shot which is filmed as if it is from the back of a character’s shoulder. The character facing the subject usuallyoccupies 1/3 of the frame but it could vary depending on purpose. For example if the shot is to show thecharacter facing the audience is very inferior perhaps they would only occupy ¼ of the shot.
PART A: CAMERA SHOTS• Overhead ShotA type of camera shot in which the camera is placed above a character, action or object being filmed. Distancescould vary. (like birds eye view)
PART A: CAMERA SHOTS• Extreme close up shotA shot that is of a part of body or face to show extreme detail to audience to give them more information ordetail about a character or object.
PART B: CAMERA ANGLES• Low angleAn angle that taken from a lower place that looks up at character or subject, often used to make the characteror subject appear bigger/more dominant/powerful etc.
PART B: CAMERA ANGLES• High AngleAn angle that taken from a higher place that looks down at character or subject, often used to make thecharacter or subject appear smaller/vulnerable/weak etc.
PART B: CAMERA ANGLES• Canted or Oblique angleCamera angle that makes what is shot to appear skewed or tilted, could be used to disorientate the audience
PART C: CAMERA MOVEMENT• PanWhen camera pivots horizontally either from left to right or right to left to reveal more information (revealmore of a setting for example) It can be used to give viewer a panoramic view, sometimes used to establish ascene that can’t fit in one shot/frame.
PART C: CAMERA MOVEMENT• TiltOpposite to pan: When camera pivots vertically either from top to bottom or bottom to top to reveal moreinformation (reveal more of a setting for example) It can be used to give viewer more information/view aboutsettings, objects, characters etc. Often used to reveal a whole outfit of a character.
PART C: CAMERA MOVEMENT• TrackMovement of camera that moves from side to side without a pivot to follow an object or character. Caninclude smooth movements from side to side, frontwards, backwards or even on a curve but cannot includecomplex movement around a subject. ‘Track’ is referred to rails in which a wheeled platform (which has thecamera on it) sits on in order to carry out smooth movement.
PART C: CAMERA MOVEMENT• DollyWhen a camera moves in and out (not track and not zoom) or backwards and forwards on an object called adolly which is like a tripod with wheels
PART C: CAMERA MOVEMENT• StedicamA stabilizing mount for a camera which mechanically isolates the operator’s movement from thecamera, allowing a very smooth shot even when operator is moving quickly or on uneven surface. Used whentripod cannot be used or at high action filming such as sporting events so there is not shaky cameramovements.
PART C: CAMERA MOVEMENT• ZoomWhen the camera feature zoom goes in towards an object or character to reveal more significance or detail.Speed of zoom can vary.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ni5LdzvLY7o slower zoomExample: fast zoom in on characters face in ‘The Ring’ opening sequence
PART C: CAMERA MOVEMENT• Reverse ZoomOpposite of zoom. Often called ‘zoom out’ When the camera feature zoom goes out away from an object orcharacter to reveal more details/setting around them. Speed of zoom can vary.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_edwbetOlfU&feature=relatedExample: slow reverse zoom (or zoom out) in ‘Psycho’ when the camera zooms out from the dead girl’s eye inthe shower to reveal her dead body.
PART C: CAMERA MOVEMENT• VertigoA movement which is zooming and dollying at same time. For example dolly out, zoom in.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nAhGM2Fyl8Q&feature=related
PART D: COMPOSITION• BalanceBalance is arranging elements so that no one part of a work overpowers, or seems heavier than any other part.The three different kinds of balance are symmetrical, asymmetrical, and radial. Symmetrical (or formal) balanceis when both sides of an artwork, if split down the middle, appear to be the same. The human body is anexample of symmetrical balance. The asymmetrical balance is the balance that does not weigh equally on bothsides. Radial balance is equal in length from the middle. An example is the sun.**from wikipediaThe way we carefully place objects or subjects in a frame to show balance or equalness in colour, size ortexture.Balance in Shapes Balance in size Balance in colour
PART D: COMPOSITION• Symmetry (connected to balance)When the shot (or frame) is equally symmetrical or balanced on both sides. Both sides look nearly identical onboth sides. Often used in filming to show order, normalness or organisation.
PART D: COMPOSITION• Asymmetry (connected to balance)When the shot (or frame) is equally asymmetrical or unbalanced on both sides. Both sides look different onboth sides. Often used in filming to show disorder, chaos or various objects, characters or subjects.
PART D: COMPOSITION• Rule of thirdsThe rule of thirds is a compositional rule in visual arts such as painting, photography, film and design. The rulestates that an image should be imagined as divided into nine equal parts by two equally-spaced horizontal linesand two equally-spaced vertical lines, and that important compositional elements should be placed along theselines or their intersections. Proponents of the technique claim that aligning a subject with these pointscreates more tension, energy and interest in the composition than simply centering the subject would.**from wikipedia
PART D: COMPOSITION• Depth of fieldIn optics, particularly as it relates to film and photography, depth of field (DOF) is the distance between thenearest and farthest objects in a scene that appear acceptably sharp in an image. Although a lens can preciselyfocus at only one distance at a time, the decrease in sharpness is gradual on each side of the focuseddistance, so that within the DOF, the unsharpness is imperceptible under normal viewing conditions.**from wikipediaDepth of field is distance which is in focus = the writing picture has shallow depthOf field because it is only a small amount in focus.
PART D: COMPOSITION• Focus pullsfocus pull (AKA rack focus) is a creative camera technique in which you change focus during a shot. Usually thismeans adjusting the focus from one subject to another.• The shot below begins focused on the plant in the foreground, then adjusts focus until the girl is sharp.
PART D: COMPOSITION• Shallow focusShallow focus is a photographic and cinematographic technique incorporating a small depth of field. Inshallow focus one plane of the image is in focus while the rest is out of focus. Shallow focus is typicallyused to emphasize one part of the image over another. Photographers sometimes refer to the aestheticcharacter of the area that is out of focus as bokeh.*from wikipedia
PART D: COMPOSITION• Deep focusThe opposite of shallow focus is deep focus, in which the entire image is in focus. Consequently, in deep focusthe foreground, middle-ground and background are all in focus.*from wikipedia