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Turkey, innovation and tradition



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  • 1. TURKEY:INNOVATION ANDTRADITIONBy Hasan Simsek and Ali Yildirim Presenter: Denis Katusiime
  • 2. Some basic information on Turkey At the boundary of Europe and Asia By 2000, the population of Turkey was 67,803,000. Founded as the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. Received independence under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk).
  • 3. the history of Turkish educationcan be understood The Ottoman Period (Prior to 1923) The Modernization Era (1923-1950) The Quest for Democracy (1950-1980) The Crises Created by Dichotomies (1980-present).
  • 4. Education in the Ottoman period Formation of the Turkish Republic in 1923. Religious teaching dominates the education system Foundations finance and govern schools with religious orientation. Government Schools influenced by western education. Foundations and Organizations outside Turkey finance private school. Girls and boys at all levels study separately. Education is not given high priority.
  • 5. The Modernization Era (1923-50) A full-scale restructuring of educational institution begins. Education is for social, cultural and economic revolution in Turkey. Religious system of the Ottoman period is seen as being hostile to change &modernization. Public schools are free for all students Need to transform all sectors of society Schools with religious orientation are closed The Unification of Educational Law
  • 6. Modern era continued Primary education is compulsory. Co-education begins (1924). Science (most reliable guide in life) Turkey invites John Dewey to study the school system and make recommendations. In 1927 Ataturk declares laicism (Secularism). Constitution-Islam is no longer a state religion. Latin alphabet as opposed to Arabic alphabet
  • 7. Democracy and Turmoil (1950-80) Threat of communism and promotion of Nationalism in school curricula &textbooks. Village landlords gain more political power. Religious teaching returns to school. Emphasis on economic growth &democratization of society in policies. Education as a transformative tool in society is ignored. Deterioration of education and schools in a mess School facilities are no longer efficient and students and teachers find their way in the political camp.
  • 8. Dichotomies in Education (1980-present) Public support military to avoid anarchy Increased centralization in the education Curriculum and textbooks become nationalistic (history, geography &biology). MONE criticized for giving in to political pressure. Students needs and interest not addressed Growth of more private institutions
  • 9. Dichotomies continued. MONE started reforms but it could not maintain them (insufficient classroom space for more courses, inadequate counseling to guide students in course selection, confusion between stakeholders, and rigidities in a centralized system). Lack of confidence in government to implement educational change Adjustment to EU norms in terms of class size, departments, training etc.
  • 10. Traditional Approach to Education Subject matter is the main concern Emphasis on teaching methods The student is simply a learner Students as deficient and in need of discipline and pressure to keep learning. Children go to school to learn what they do not know. Individual interests, motivations and psychological states are not given attention. Teachers are authorities and not guides.
  • 11. Progressive Approach to education Focuses on children’s problem-solving ability and individual interests and needs. Teaching methods used differently Focus on how to think not what to think. Teachers are intellectual guides/facilitators in the problem-solving process not presenters of knowledge. Raises people who think freely and flexibly, who are democratic and secular.
  • 12. Unrealistic reforms Establishing 41 universities in three years. Changing the entire elementary and secondary school in two to three years. Policy transfer (Finland and USA) Lack of experts and the financial power to implement the reforms. There was no support from teachers
  • 13. Conclusion Turkey made a lot of reforms in education because schools, teachers and infrastructure increased. Education reform in Turkey is important but it should be gradual. Do not expect to a system in one day. The Turkish people should agree on how religion and secularism can accommodate each other in one state without overstepping other people’s values. Whatever reform is put in place, it should be contextualized (policy transfer).