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  • In pairs, write three reasons why news institutions are having to manage a decline? Discuss/go through with students from other tables. Add to list any other points discussed with other pairs. <br /> When you have as many as you can write up a detailed mind map with your discussions. <br />
  • The Guardian has has suffered the most, closely followed by The Times & Daily Telegraph. The readers of these papers are more likely to be ABC1 business men/women who are into their high-tech gadgets e.g. Smartphones, Blackberries, i-Pads etc. And therefore more likely to access their news on the go via mobile devices using either the internet site for the newspaper or pod/ vodcasts, BBC News online etc. These newspapers are also less likely to enter into the same sort of price promotions that you will see with the tabloid newspapers. <br />

New digital media lessons New digital media lessons Presentation Transcript

  • L1: New & Digital Media LO: To identify ‘new & digital media’ forms and to explore their importance in contemporary society
  • Starter - Brainstorm • What do you think constitutes ‘new and digital media’? • Brainstorm as many items as possible • You have 2 minutes
  • New & Digital Media includes....the internet The web Internet chat Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) e.g. Internet telephony
  • New & Digital Media includes....gaming
  • New & Digital Media includes.... new media technologies PVR’s (Personal Video Recorders)
  • In this topic you will be exploring the impact of new & digital media on a specific area, both through a teacher–led case study and an individual case study, investigating an area of your choosing. The teacher-led case study will be on the ‘impact of new and digital media on news’.
  • You should make sure your case study includes research on the impact of new media on audiences and on institutions. You will also explore links to any relevant theories and current media issues/ debates.
  • HW Research Activity – Due 26/11/10 • Using the internet you must research the following and make detailed notes. Post all your research onto your mest 3 blog: Who are the major players in terms of news providers in the UK and what exactly do they own? (You must consider all 3 platforms and commercial as well as non-commercial institutions) o
  • Plenary – Discuss & feedback • The last 20 years have been more significant in terms of media and its role in society than the whole of the previous 200 years. • Each person should be able to contribute to this discussion using appropriate examples to explain points made.
  • L2: New & Digital Media LO: To explore the impact of new & digital media on news
  • Starter Activity • How does today’s consumer/audience member receive news? • Brainstorm as many different ways as you can (there are loads!) • Consider: How they receive it (forms & technologies) o What platforms they receive it on o Where they can receive it o • Extension: How does this differ from 10 / 20 years
  • Originally news was received through.... Word of Mouth And then from the 17 Century to the early 20th Century also by..... th Newspapers
  • 1920’s we had radio news.... joined by TV in 1930’s.....
  • And also by cinema newsreels broadcast in special newsreel theatres in the 1930’s
  • You should have come up with some of the following ways in which news has changed......
  • E-media News Broadcast Print
  • Local news BB C CH5 ITV CNN Interactive (red button) Teletext Satellite / Cable TV News Broadcast Print SK Y Rollin g news CH4 Terrestrial E-media BBC News 24
  • Local news BB C CH5 ITV Teletext Satellite / Cable National Regional Local Broadcast Print SK Y Rollin g news Interactive (red button) TV News CNN CH4 Terrestrial E-media BBC News 24 Speech/ Talk Radio Radio UGC Traffic/Weathe
  • Local news BB C CH5 ITV CNN Interactive (red button) Teletext TV News Satellite / Cable National Regional Local Broadcast Print SK Y Rollin g news CH4 Terrestrial E-media BBC News 24 Speech/ Talk Radio Radio National Loca l Newspapers Freesheet s UGC Traffic/Weathe
  • Local news BB C CH5 ITV Internet BBC Website Teletext News Search Engines Newspaper websites/ online Satellite / Cable National Regional Local Broadcast Podcast s Print SK Y Rollin g news Interactive (red button) TV E-media CNN CH4 Terrestrial Youtube channel s BBC News 24 Speech/ Talk Radio Radio National Loca l Newspapers Freesheet s UGC Traffic/Weathe
  • Paid subscriptions Search/ web browser 3G Sports, business, weather etc Text news alerts UGC Citizen Journalism Smart Phones Internet BBC Website CH5 ITV CNN SK Y Rollin g news CH4 Interactive (red button) (video) Terrestrial Teletext TV E-media Youtube channel s Local news BB C BBC News 24 News Newspaper websites/ online National Regional Local Broadcast Podcast s Search Engines Satellite / Cable Print Speech/ Talk Radio Radio National Loca l Newspapers Freesheet s UGC Traffic/Weathe
  • Paid subscriptions Search/ web browser 3G Sports, business, weather etc Text news alerts UGC Citizen Journalism Smart Phones Local news BB C BBC News 24 CH5 ITV CH4 Interactive (red button) CNN SK Y Rollin g news (video) Terrestrial Teletext Satellite / Cable Copy this onto your E-media News paper Broadcast TV Youtube channel s Internet BBC Website Speech/ Talk Radio Podcast s Search Engines Newspaper websites/ online National Regional Local Print Radio National Loca l Newspapers Freesheet s UGC Traffic/Weathe
  • Paid subscriptions Search/ web browser 3G Sports, business, weather etc Text news alerts UGC Citizen Journalism Smart Phones Internet BBC Website CH5 ITV CNN SK Y Rollin g news CH4 Interactive (red button) (video) Terrestrial Teletext TV E-media Youtube channels Local news BB C BBC News 24 News Newspaper websites/ online National Regional Local Broadcast Podcast s Search Engines Satellite / Cable Print Speech/ Talk Radio Radio National Loca l Newspapers Freesheet s UGC Traffic/Weathe
  • What do you think has been the impact of this explosion in the many different ways & formats we can now receive news? • Consider the impact for both audiences and institutions. • Who has benefitted most? • You must give explanations for your answers. • Work in pairs and make notes (you may want to create a table/ spider diagram etc to help you organise your thoughts).
  • Plenary – Feedback & Discuss Who benefits most from the impact of new and digital media on news? VS .
  • L3: New & Digital Media LO: To explore the impact of UserGenerated Content on news stories, the news agenda, and the role of the professionals.
  • Starter Activity • Consider this statement in respect of TV news: ‘Is reality becoming more real?’
  • The Rise & Rise of UGC • Read the article (Media Magazine, Dec 2009 pg 56-58) and then break it down into a mind map/ flash cards/ or whatever works for you. • Consider having sections for: o o o o o o examples theory (audience reception etc.) benefits to institutions benefits to audience wider issues and debates SHEP
  • Answer the following in your books: 1. What is meant by the term ‘citizen journalist’? 2. What was one of the first examples of news being generated by ‘ordinary people’? 3. List some of the formats for participation that are now offered by news organisations. 4. What is one of the main differences between professionally shot footage and that taken first-hand (UGC)? 5. What is a gatekeeper? 6. How has the role of a gatekeeper changed? 7. What is one of the primary concerns held by journalists over the rise of UGC?
  • Plenary - Feedback & Discuss • What impact are these changes having on: o News stories? o The News Agenda? (the choice of stories that make up the news i.e. what is considered newsworthy) o The role of professionals in news?
  • L4: LO: To explore and discuss some of the impact of new media on news institutions Resources: Handout - NEWSPAPERS: The effect of online technology Starter: Discuss the following...... Newspapers are currently ‘managing a decline’ (Greenslade: The Guardian). But why has this happened? (be specific)
  • Newspapers: In Decline (from handout) • Newspaper institutions are in competition with one another to ensure they have enough people consuming their products so that they can make money from advertising to safeguard their survival. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult for paperbased news forms to compete with the rise in e-media news services. • Over the last decade, the UK’s daily newspapers have lost some 2.25 million readers. Falling circulations mean less money through the till and newspapers’ other main source of income, advertising, is also drying up. In the last 10 years, advertising revenues have fallen by about 20%. In the struggle to stay profitable, newspaper companies are cutting staff, closing offices and, in the case of local papers, getting rid of titles. Some within the industry predict that within the next 10 years we could even see one or two of Britain’s biggest daily
  • Look at the following ABC (Audit Bureau of Circulation) data. Which title has suffered most? Can you think why certain newspapers may be more at risk than others? What other explanations could there be for the decline in sales of certain titles?
  • Why is the Newspaper Industry in Crisis? (from handout) • Some of the reasons have to do with the way the newspaper institutions reacted to changes in technology, namely the internet. The last few years have witnessed a revolution in how industries deal with news and how audiences access it. As the internet increases its dominance on the media landscape, readers’ attention and loyalties have become divided as papers compete with round the clock reporting and unmediated content. • According to Sull, who writes a blog for the Financial Times, there are five reasons why the newspaper industry is in a deeper crisis than it should be:
  • Reasons for decline (from handout) • Ignoring Signs of Change: Since the early 1980’s, institutions have been able to access real time news through networks. This was more than a decade before the Internet took off. Most newspaper executives ignored these early signs of changes in news gathering techniques. • Dismissing unconventional competitors: Newspapers ignored a steady stream of innovations that they might have imitated to enhance their own business model, e.g. distributing news through multiple media (terminals, television, Internet, and periodicals) • Experimenting too narrowly: Some newspapers did spot the rise of digital technology early and experiment with alternatives. However, most of these companies limited the scope of their experimentation to replicating their paper offering on-line rather than encouraging audience interaction. • Giving up on promising experiments too quickly: Promising business models take time to become successful in many cases and the process entails many setbacks. Some newspapers did not give new ideas time to build. • Embarking on a ‘crash course’: Many institutions felt they were not
  • Reasons for decline (from handout) • So, there are many reasons why the newspaper industry finds itself in a transitional period which is calling into question the nature of the production and reception of news. At the heart of this debate is the idea that in the future most news will be either accessed via broadcast or e-media platforms. • Most institutions have been slow to embrace the web but are now using the platform to target audiences, but it is proving harder to make profits from online publishing than from oldfashioned printed forms. With so many free news sites to choose from, audiences are not prepared to pay money to read newspapers online. That means that they have to rely on webbased adverts to generate income. But it is not straight-forward as online advertisers have many more spaces to choose from and there is less certainty in terms of who will see these adverts, making the market more complex and competitive.
  • Traditional Paper-based Form Has a purchase price. Is not free Can be easily marked or destroyed Usually target a specific audience base Online News Site Has predominantly free content Can be accessed anywhere with internet access Content remains even if portal of access is destroyed. Costly to produce; paper, printing etc. Costly to distribute Cheap to distribute Can offer countless news stories at any one time plus the ability to archive stories, although many Complete of these news stories are simply replications or this table re-workings of main news stories and may be cut ‘ The impact online technology has had on news’ and pasted news stories from other mainstream news sites. (on handout) Only print version of story available Cannot be updated immediately and regularly Can be interactive Cannot allow audience immediate feedback/ citizen journalism Can offer in-depth analysis and comment but is Varied options for expansion of topic matter. In limited by space. depth editorials and comment.
  • Traditional Paper-based Form Online News Site Has a purchase price. Is not free Has predominantly free content Has to be purchased from a retailer Can be accessed anywhere with internet access Can be easily marked or destroyed Usually target a specific audience base Content remains even if portal of access is destroyed. Can target a range of different audiences Costly to produce; paper, printing etc. The design and the upkeep of site still costly to run Costly to distribute Cheap to distribute Can only offer a certain amount of news at any one Can offer countless news stories at any one time time plus the ability to archive stories, although many of these news stories are simply replications or reworkings of main news stories and may be cut and pasted news stories from other mainstream news sites. Only print version of story available Can offer different ways of presenting news stories, through video, blogs etc. Cannot be updated immediately and regularly Offers rolling and breaking news immediately Is not interactive Can be interactive Cannot allow audience immediate feedback/ citizen Can offer immediate feedback for audiences and journalism opportunities for audiences to participate in ‘making’ news Can offer in-depth analysis and comment but is limited by space. Varied options for expansion of topic matter. In depth editorials and comment.
  • PLENARY – Consider.... Should News be Free? • Each person should be able to give at least one reason either in support of or against news being free before they leave the room.
  • LO: To explore the debate surrounding charging for online news content. L5: New & Digital Media Resources: Handout - NEWSPAPERS: The effect of online technology Handout - Briefing: The death of the newspaper
  • STARTER What gratifications might audiences get from The Guardian website? Use the table in your handout to identify
  • Feature Audience Gratification Long-running chat boards Network of weblogs Leaving comments on articles Readers can access articles online, on mobile devices through RSS feeds or on eBook readers. Varied selection of categories in easy accessible genre areas Images Podcast Access to paper-based content Dating sites/ personals Can make an audience feel powerful by creating the idea that they are challenging the news institution’s values
  • Who is right? (from handout) With all of these gratifications for audiences available via online content should news be free? • James Murdoch of NewsCorp has been critical of free news provision online, in particular he states that the BBC and its “expansion of state-sponsored journalism is a threat to the plurality and independence of news provision,” He also said the scope of the BBC’s activities and ambitions was “chilling” and that news on the web provided by the BBC made it “incredibly difficult” for private news organisations to ask people to pay for their news. “It is essential for the future of independent digital journalism that a fair price can be charged for news to people who value it.”
  • Who is right? (from handout) • Essentially, NewsCorp are driven by the need to make money whereas the BBC, a Public Service Broadcaster is less governed by the economic imperative because they are funded predominantly by the revenue generated by the television license. News Corporation has said it will start charging online customers for news content across all its websites in a bid to recoup and generate money from subscriptions, but this does not automatically mean that people will pay.
  • News Online – The Democratisation of News? • News providers are finding themselves in a complex position in relationship to online technology but it is the changing lifestyles of audiences that pose the biggest problem for papers. “The world is changing and newspapers have to adapt” Rupert Murdoch, NewsCorp KEY WORD Democratisation – the act of making something democratic i.e. the people taking action or choosing for others to act in their interests
  • In pairs discuss and make notes: What are the changes in audiences lifestyles that Rupert Murdoch refers to?
  • News Online • The internet has made it easier than ever for audiences to find news. At the click of a button, they can catch up on the latest stories in whatever form they choose – text, audio or video. Rupert Murdoch, chairman of NewsCorp states; “The internet has given readers much more power. Everybody wants choice and thanks to the personal computer, people are taking charge of their own lives and they read what they want to read or what they are interested in and young people today are living on their computers. The
  • Plenary: Based on what you have read come up with some arguments in response to this statement. Should newspapers be charging for news online? YES NO
  • Should newspapers be charging for news online? Some possible arguments YES NO Online newspaper audiences are It’s pointless locking the stable door growing while print circulations are when the horse has bolted. falling, and news still costs money to gather and report. Just because something is now free doesn’t mean consumers won’t be willing to pay for it one day. Look at music downloads Newspapers should be more innovative, and develop the sort of niche expertise that is worth paying for. Newspapers play a vital role in democracy and charging could save them. Society will suffer if we let them die. Media barons have had it good for 100 years or more; they have to accept that their monopoly on news is now over.
  • Homework • Read the article ‘The death of a newspaper’ and from the discussions in class and what you have read write a detailed letter to Rupert Murdoch in which you challenge his view for charging for online news content.
  • L6: New & Digital Media LO: To explore the concepts of pluralism & marxism in relation to the impact of new & digital media on news
  • STARTER: Card match exercise – based on the following sort the statements you have in front of you as either a Marxist OR a Pluralist belief Pluralists argue that we live in a classless society and media organisations are responsive to an audience and are economically determined whereas Marxists believe the mass media are a tool used by ruling bodies to maintain hegemonic control over the masses and a class divided society
  • Match the ideology and write in your books Society is a system of competing groups and interests, none of them predominant (i.e. classless). The media seek greater audiences because of the profit motive. Audiences are perceived as capable of manipulating the media and having access to ‘the plural values of society’ enabling them to ‘conform, accommodate or reject’. Pluralis m Media producers produce media texts which maintain social divides. Control of the media is said to be in the hands of an elite who allow a considerable degree of flexibility in production choices. The media have dumbed down their output and construct texts simply to generate mass audiences Mass media are seen as a way of entertaining the workers while drip feeding them ideologies and beliefs (effects theory) Media organisations are seen as enjoying an important degree of autonomy from the state Marxis m
  • Match the ideology and write in your books Society is a system of competing groups and interests, none of them predominant (i.e. classless). Media producers produce media texts which maintain social divides. Media organisations are seen as enjoying an important degree of autonomy from the state The media seek greater audiences because of the profit motive. Control of the media is said to be in the hands of an elite who allow a considerable degree of flexibility in production choices. The media have dumbed down their output and construct texts simply to generate mass audiences Audiences are perceived as capable of manipulating the media and having access to ‘the plural values of society’ enabling them to ‘conform, accommodate or reject’. Mass media are seen as a way of entertaining the workers while drip feeding them ideologies and beliefs (effects theory) Pluralis m Marxis m
  • Applying the theory.... ‘To what extent’ exercise • Now consider how these arguments/ ideologies can be applied to the impact of new and digital media on news using the following statement: Developments in new/digital media mean that audiences can now have access to a greater variety of views and values. To what extent are audiences empowered by these developments? Teacher note – Laminated ‘To what extent’ cards to use for this activity are in the SOW folder and include instructions they are also on the following slides if you need extra copies
  • 1 ……….. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
  • To what extent debate game…. (Other equipment needed – 5p piece or similar object per group) Split class into groups of 3 or 4 Using 5p piece and circles running top to bottom of page numbered 1 – 9. Heading at top of paper is ‘To what extent’. Starting with 5p on number 5 students are to debate the exam question: To what extent ……………………. For each point that offers positive evidence to support the argument the 5p is moved 1 point up the scale and vice versa. 5p will be moved up and down accordingly providing a wide range of arguments which can be used in an essay answer. Students to work around the group asking each in turn to make a point either agreeing or disagreeing with the statement. All in group must note down each of the points and person providing the point must include a specific textual example to support the point made.
  • Plenary & Homework – Feedback Key Points • All students to make notes on key points fed back. • Write up the arguments for and against the statement regarding audience empowerment as a result of new and digital technology in news.
  • L7 New & Digital Media LO: To explore the concept of globalisation and its impact upon news institutions & audiences today Resources: Globalisation handout from Revision Express book
  • Starter Activity – Discuss with a partner Globalisation has been termed: The ‘McDonaldisation’ of society / the globe. What do you think this means?
  • Defining the concept Globalisation • Read the handout on Globalisation (Revision Express) as a class and discuss.
  • Activity • ‘The news automatically becomes the real world for the TV user and is not a substitute for reality, but is itself an immediate reality’ (Marshall McLuhan) • In groups of 4 brainstorm ideas, examples, theories etc that you would use to respond to the statement above. Use the handout to help you answer this question (consider news values also).
  • Presentations • Each group is to present ideas back. • All groups will peer assess each presentation for its range of ideas, use of relevant examples, theories and wider issues and debates. • All students to make notes during presentations.
  • Plenary • Write up a summary list of key points from the presentations. • Each person to provide a key point regarding globalisation and news before leaving the room.
  • LO: To assess how a major news institution has been affected by the impact of new & digital media technology. L8 & 9 New & Digital Media
  • Starter • List as many different companies and their products that you can think of that are owned by NewsCorp. (this includes TV, Music, Websites, Cinema Newspapers .) • Were you right? Check here.... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/News_Corporation
  • Class Activity – Complete for Homework (this will be posted onto the blog) • NewsCorp. is the world's third-largest media conglomerate. • In the UK (under two subsidiary companies, News International and BSKYB), its news interests include The Times, The Sunday Times, The Sun & The News of the World (and their online versions) in addition to SKY News & SKY Sports News (a cross-platform , vertically integrated, multi-media company). • Using NewsCorp as an example in pairs research and respond to the following question: ‘Why and with what success are traditional media institutions adapting to the challenge posed by new/digital media?’ • This must be a multimedia presentation addressing the above question and must include relevant examples, theories, issues & debates and wider context (SHEP) as applicable. o Include the following in your response:       Online subscriptions Price promotions for newspapers Content and its appeal Paid subscriptions for TV content Audience figures vs. Competition Impact of changes on both the audience and the institution • WORD: be presenting KEYYou willConglomerate back next lesson con·glom·er·ate A corporation made up of a number of different companies that operate in diversified fields.