Traumatic brain injuries
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Traumatic brain injuries






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Traumatic brain injuries Traumatic brain injuries Presentation Transcript

  • Traumatic Brain Injuries Katrina Dickey February 22, 2011
  • Definition
    • Injury to the brain caused by an external force (Smith, et al, 230);
    • An injury to the head that may cause interference with normal brain functions (Smith, et al,230);
    • An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. (Heward, 459)
  • Types of TBI
    • Open Head Injuries
      • not very common
      • occur when the brain is penetrated by a foreign object and neural fibers are torn
      • causes of open head injuries are bullet wounds or blows to the head with hard or sharp objects
      • can cause serious behavior and sensory difficulties in the area of the brain where the damage has occurred
    • Closed Head Injuries
      • much more common
      • no penetration of the brain involved
      • usually the result of the head hitting an object with extreme force (internal compression, stretching and rubbing)
      • As a result of this force the brain collides against the skull and nerve connections within the brain are damaged
      • Some common causes of closed brain injuries are car accidents, falls, sports-related injuries, abuse and Shaken Baby Syndrome. (Heward, 460)
  • Severity
    • Mild Severity TBI
      • typically caused by concussions which result in brief loss of consciousness (seconds to a maximum of 30 minutes)
      • after affects include headaches, dizziness and fatigue
      • If repeated over a short period of time (hours, days or weeks) the damage can be extensive and possibly fatal
      • An example of a mild TBI would be a concussion during a sport activity
  • Severity
    • Moderate Severity TBI
      • results in bruising, swelling and bleeding of the brain
      • blood vessels of the brain can rupture and cause a hematoma, putting excess pressure on the brain
      • can result in loss of consciousness over a period of 30 minutes to a maximum of 24 hours
      • may be confused for a few days or weeks and suffer significant behavioral and cognitive impairment over the following months
  • Severity
    • Severe TBI
      • result in comas that can last anywhere from days to weeks, and possibly longer
      • there is often a loss of oxygen to the brain, known as anoxia.
      • cause permanent damage to the individual; physically, cognitively and behaviourally.
  • Signs and Symptoms of TBI
    • Physical and Sensory Indicators
      • chronic headaches
      • Dizziness
      • Nausea
      • vision impairment
      • hearing impairment
      • sleeping problems
      • Depression
      • Seizures
      • poor balance and coordination
      • reduced motor speed
      • difficulty regulating body temperature
    • Cognitive Indicators
      • difficulty concentrating
      • easily distracted
      • Confusion
      • organization difficulties
      • difficulties with reading comprehension
      • inability to understand verbal and non-verbal cues
      • difficulty expressing language, both orally and written
  • Signs and Symptoms of TBI
    • Social, Emotional and Behavioural Indicators
      • agitation
      • Irritability
      • Anxiousness
      • aggressive behaviour
      • inability to control anger/temper outbursts
      • excessive talking
      • reduced judgment
      • over estimation of personal abilities.
  • Tips for Teachers
    • shorter day
    • frequent breaks
    • reduced work load
    • rehearsal of social situations
    • provide clear instructions and prompts
    • provide multi-step (broken down) instructions
    • use auditory and visual cues together
    • have resource time for the student at the beginning and end of each day
    • offer behaviour counseling
    • tape-record lessons
    • assign note taker
    • extra time for assignments and tests
    • review and modify the student’s IEP every 30 days
    • maintain high expectations
    • multiple assignments for practice   
    • encourage questions
    • emphasize main points and key ideas frequently
    • repeat information often
    • provide specific feedback to the student about their performance and behaviour on a regular basis
    • being each class with a review of pas material and overview of new material
    • teach mnemonic strategies
    • teach social skills
    • keep family updated
    • use images and diagrams to simplify material
    • educate fellow students about TBI
  • Resources
    • Hallahan, Daniel P., et al. Exceptional Learners: An Introduction to Special Education . (USA: Pearson Education, Inc., 2009)
    • Heward, William L., Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education (New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2009)
    • Smith, Tom E.C., et al, Teaching Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Settings: 2 nd Canadian Edition , (New Jersey: Pearson Education Canada, Inc., 2006)