Traumatic Brain Injuries Katrina Dickey February 22, 2011
Definition <ul><li>Injury to the brain caused by an external force (Smith, et al, 230);  </li></ul><ul><li>An injury to th...
Types of TBI <ul><li>Open Head Injuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not very common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>occur when the br...
Severity <ul><li>Mild Severity TBI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>typically caused by concussions which result in brief loss of con...
Severity <ul><li>Moderate Severity TBI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>results in bruising, swelling and bleeding of the brain </li>...
Severity <ul><li>Severe TBI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>result in comas that can last anywhere from days to weeks, and possibly ...
Signs and Symptoms of TBI <ul><li>Physical and Sensory Indicators  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chronic headaches </li></ul></ul>...
Signs and Symptoms of TBI <ul><li>Social, Emotional and Behavioural Indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agitation </li></ul><...
Tips for Teachers <ul><li>shorter day </li></ul><ul><li>frequent breaks </li></ul><ul><li>reduced work load </li></ul><ul>...
Resources <ul><li>Hallahan, Daniel P., et al.  Exceptional Learners:  An Introduction to Special Education . (USA:  Pearso...
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Traumatic brain injuries

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Traumatic brain injuries

  1. 1. Traumatic Brain Injuries Katrina Dickey February 22, 2011
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>Injury to the brain caused by an external force (Smith, et al, 230); </li></ul><ul><li>An injury to the head that may cause interference with normal brain functions (Smith, et al,230); </li></ul><ul><li>An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. (Heward, 459) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of TBI <ul><li>Open Head Injuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not very common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>occur when the brain is penetrated by a foreign object and neural fibers are torn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>causes of open head injuries are bullet wounds or blows to the head with hard or sharp objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can cause serious behavior and sensory difficulties in the area of the brain where the damage has occurred </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closed Head Injuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>much more common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no penetration of the brain involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually the result of the head hitting an object with extreme force (internal compression, stretching and rubbing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result of this force the brain collides against the skull and nerve connections within the brain are damaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some common causes of closed brain injuries are car accidents, falls, sports-related injuries, abuse and Shaken Baby Syndrome. (Heward, 460) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Severity <ul><li>Mild Severity TBI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>typically caused by concussions which result in brief loss of consciousness (seconds to a maximum of 30 minutes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>after affects include headaches, dizziness and fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If repeated over a short period of time (hours, days or weeks) the damage can be extensive and possibly fatal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An example of a mild TBI would be a concussion during a sport activity </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Severity <ul><li>Moderate Severity TBI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>results in bruising, swelling and bleeding of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blood vessels of the brain can rupture and cause a hematoma, putting excess pressure on the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can result in loss of consciousness over a period of 30 minutes to a maximum of 24 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be confused for a few days or weeks and suffer significant behavioral and cognitive impairment over the following months </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Severity <ul><li>Severe TBI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>result in comas that can last anywhere from days to weeks, and possibly longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>there is often a loss of oxygen to the brain, known as anoxia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cause permanent damage to the individual; physically, cognitively and behaviourally. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Signs and Symptoms of TBI <ul><li>Physical and Sensory Indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chronic headaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dizziness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vision impairment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hearing impairment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sleeping problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seizures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poor balance and coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduced motor speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>difficulty regulating body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>difficulty concentrating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>easily distracted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organization difficulties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>difficulties with reading comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inability to understand verbal and non-verbal cues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>difficulty expressing language, both orally and written </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Signs and Symptoms of TBI <ul><li>Social, Emotional and Behavioural Indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irritability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aggressive behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inability to control anger/temper outbursts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>excessive talking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduced judgment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>over estimation of personal abilities. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Tips for Teachers <ul><li>shorter day </li></ul><ul><li>frequent breaks </li></ul><ul><li>reduced work load </li></ul><ul><li>rehearsal of social situations </li></ul><ul><li>provide clear instructions and prompts </li></ul><ul><li>provide multi-step (broken down) instructions </li></ul><ul><li>use auditory and visual cues together </li></ul><ul><li>have resource time for the student at the beginning and end of each day </li></ul><ul><li>offer behaviour counseling </li></ul><ul><li>tape-record lessons </li></ul><ul><li>assign note taker </li></ul><ul><li>extra time for assignments and tests </li></ul><ul><li>review and modify the student’s IEP every 30 days </li></ul><ul><li>maintain high expectations </li></ul><ul><li>multiple assignments for practice    </li></ul><ul><li>encourage questions </li></ul><ul><li>emphasize main points and key ideas frequently </li></ul><ul><li>repeat information often </li></ul><ul><li>provide specific feedback to the student about their performance and behaviour on a regular basis </li></ul><ul><li>being each class with a review of pas material and overview of new material </li></ul><ul><li>teach mnemonic strategies </li></ul><ul><li>teach social skills </li></ul><ul><li>keep family updated </li></ul><ul><li>use images and diagrams to simplify material </li></ul><ul><li>educate fellow students about TBI </li></ul>
  10. 10. Resources <ul><li>Hallahan, Daniel P., et al. Exceptional Learners: An Introduction to Special Education . (USA: Pearson Education, Inc., 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Heward, William L., Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education (New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, Tom E.C., et al, Teaching Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Settings: 2 nd Canadian Edition , (New Jersey: Pearson Education Canada, Inc., 2006) </li></ul>

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