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Traumatic brain injuries

Traumatic brain injuries






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    Traumatic brain injuries Traumatic brain injuries Presentation Transcript

    • Traumatic Brain Injuries Katrina Dickey February 22, 2011
    • Definition
      • Injury to the brain caused by an external force (Smith, et al, 230);
      • An injury to the head that may cause interference with normal brain functions (Smith, et al,230);
      • An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. (Heward, 459)
    • Types of TBI
      • Open Head Injuries
        • not very common
        • occur when the brain is penetrated by a foreign object and neural fibers are torn
        • causes of open head injuries are bullet wounds or blows to the head with hard or sharp objects
        • can cause serious behavior and sensory difficulties in the area of the brain where the damage has occurred
      • Closed Head Injuries
        • much more common
        • no penetration of the brain involved
        • usually the result of the head hitting an object with extreme force (internal compression, stretching and rubbing)
        • As a result of this force the brain collides against the skull and nerve connections within the brain are damaged
        • Some common causes of closed brain injuries are car accidents, falls, sports-related injuries, abuse and Shaken Baby Syndrome. (Heward, 460)
    • Severity
      • Mild Severity TBI
        • typically caused by concussions which result in brief loss of consciousness (seconds to a maximum of 30 minutes)
        • after affects include headaches, dizziness and fatigue
        • If repeated over a short period of time (hours, days or weeks) the damage can be extensive and possibly fatal
        • An example of a mild TBI would be a concussion during a sport activity
    • Severity
      • Moderate Severity TBI
        • results in bruising, swelling and bleeding of the brain
        • blood vessels of the brain can rupture and cause a hematoma, putting excess pressure on the brain
        • can result in loss of consciousness over a period of 30 minutes to a maximum of 24 hours
        • may be confused for a few days or weeks and suffer significant behavioral and cognitive impairment over the following months
    • Severity
      • Severe TBI
        • result in comas that can last anywhere from days to weeks, and possibly longer
        • there is often a loss of oxygen to the brain, known as anoxia.
        • cause permanent damage to the individual; physically, cognitively and behaviourally.
    • Signs and Symptoms of TBI
      • Physical and Sensory Indicators
        • chronic headaches
        • Dizziness
        • Nausea
        • vision impairment
        • hearing impairment
        • sleeping problems
        • Depression
        • Seizures
        • poor balance and coordination
        • reduced motor speed
        • difficulty regulating body temperature
      • Cognitive Indicators
        • difficulty concentrating
        • easily distracted
        • Confusion
        • organization difficulties
        • difficulties with reading comprehension
        • inability to understand verbal and non-verbal cues
        • difficulty expressing language, both orally and written
    • Signs and Symptoms of TBI
      • Social, Emotional and Behavioural Indicators
        • agitation
        • Irritability
        • Anxiousness
        • aggressive behaviour
        • inability to control anger/temper outbursts
        • excessive talking
        • reduced judgment
        • over estimation of personal abilities.
    • Tips for Teachers
      • shorter day
      • frequent breaks
      • reduced work load
      • rehearsal of social situations
      • provide clear instructions and prompts
      • provide multi-step (broken down) instructions
      • use auditory and visual cues together
      • have resource time for the student at the beginning and end of each day
      • offer behaviour counseling
      • tape-record lessons
      • assign note taker
      • extra time for assignments and tests
      • review and modify the student’s IEP every 30 days
      • maintain high expectations
      • multiple assignments for practice   
      • encourage questions
      • emphasize main points and key ideas frequently
      • repeat information often
      • provide specific feedback to the student about their performance and behaviour on a regular basis
      • being each class with a review of pas material and overview of new material
      • teach mnemonic strategies
      • teach social skills
      • keep family updated
      • use images and diagrams to simplify material
      • educate fellow students about TBI
    • Resources
      • Hallahan, Daniel P., et al. Exceptional Learners: An Introduction to Special Education . (USA: Pearson Education, Inc., 2009)
      • Heward, William L., Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education (New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2009)
      • Smith, Tom E.C., et al, Teaching Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Settings: 2 nd Canadian Edition , (New Jersey: Pearson Education Canada, Inc., 2006)