Larry J. Siegel www.cengage.com/cj/siegel Chapter One Crime and CriminologyDennis Souther • Stanly Community College, Albemarle, NC
Crime and Criminology• The Field of Criminology – An academic discipline that uses the scientific method to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior. – Interdisciplinary science involving two or more academic fields.• Criminal Justice – System made up of the agencies of social control, such as police departments, the courts, and correctional institutions, that handle criminal offenders.
Crime and Criminology• What Criminologists Do: The Criminological Enterprise – Criminal Statistics/Crime Measurement • Analysis • Measurement • Identification • Testing
Crime and Criminology• What Criminologists Do: The Criminological Enterprise – Sociology of Law/Law and Society/Socio-Legal Studies • Investigate history of legal though • Assess effects of proposed legal change
Crime and Criminology• Critical thinking – Considering the findings of Zgoba and Bachar, would you advocate abandoning sex offender registration laws because they are ineffective? Or might there be other reasons to keep them active? – What other laws do you think should be the topic of careful scientific inquiry to see whether they actually work as advertised?
Crime and Criminology• What Criminologists Do: The Criminological Enterprise – Developing Theories of Crime Causation • Psychological – Personality, development, social learning, cognition
Crime and Criminology• What Criminologists Do: The Criminological Enterprise – Developing Theories of Crime Causation • Biological – Biochemical, genetic, neurological
Crime and Criminology• What Criminologists Do: The Criminological Enterprise – Developing Theories of Crime Causation • Sociological – Neighborhood, poverty, socialization, group interaction
Crime and Criminology• What Criminologists Do: The Criminological Enterprise – Penology: Punishment, Sanctions, and Corrections • Penology: the correction and sentencing of known criminal offenders. – Rehabilitation – Social control
Crime and Criminology• What Criminologists Do: The Criminological Enterprise – Victimology • Victim surveys • Victimization risk • Victim culpability • Services for crime victims
Crime and Criminology• A Brief History of Criminology – Classical Criminology • Utilitarianism • Free will to choose legal or illegal behavior • Crime is attractive • Crime may be controlled through the fear of punishment • Punishment works best when perceived to be: – Severe – Certain – Swift
Crime and Criminology• A Brief History of Criminology – Positivist Criminology • Scientific method • Logic • Empirical verification • Value-free
Crime and Criminology• Sociological Criminology – Quetelet and Durkheim – Relationship between social factors and crime – Crime is a social phenomenon that can be reduced by improving social and economic conditions – The Chicago School
Crime and Criminology• Conflict Theory – Karl Marx • Burgeoisie • Proletariat – Critical Criminology
Crime and Criminology• Developmental Criminology – Gluecks’ • Complex View – Integration of sociological, psychological, and economic elements • Delinquency
Crime and Criminology• Contemporary Criminology – Rational Choice Theory – Trait Theory – Social Structure Theory – Social Process Theory – Critical Theory – Developmental Theory
Crime and Criminology• Deviant or Criminal? How Criminologists Define Crime – Deviance includes a broad spectrum of behaviors, ranging from the most socially harmful, such as rape and murder, to the relatively inoffensive, such as joining a religious cult or cross- dressing. – A deviant act becomes a crime when it is deemed socially harmful or dangerous; it is then specifically defined, prohibited, and punished under the criminal law.
Crime and Criminology• The Concept of Crime – Consensus View of Crime – Conflict View of Crime – Interactionist View of Crime
Crime and Criminology• A Definition of Crime – “Crime” is a violation of societal rules of behavior as interpreted and expressed by the criminal law, which reflects public opinion, traditional values, and the viewpoint of people currently holding social and political power. Individuals who violate these rules are subject to sanctions by state authority, social stigma, and loss of status.
Crime and Criminology• Crime and the Criminal Law – Code of Hammurabi – Mosaic Code – Common Law • Precedent • Mala in se • Mala prohibitum – Statutory crimes
Crime and Criminology• Contemporary Criminal Law – Social goals • Enforcing social control • Discouraging revenge • Expressing public opinion and morality • Deterring criminal behavior • Punishing wrongdoing • Creating equity • Maintaining social order
Crime and Criminology• Crime and the Criminal Law – Criminal Law • The written code that defines crimes and their punishments • Reflects the values, beliefs, and opinions of society’s mainstream
Crime and Criminology• The Evolution of Criminal Law – Social and Economic Conditions • Stalking • Gay marriage – Future Direction of Criminal Law
Crime and Criminology• Contemporary Criminal Law – Felony – Misdemeanor
Crime and Criminology• Ethical Issues in Criminology – What to Study – Whom to Study – How to Study