Zammit 22 09 10_kcks


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Presentation given at the World Computers Conference, 2010 in the Knowledge Competencies in the Knowledge Society, on 22.9.2010.

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Zammit 22 09 10_kcks

  1. 1. Working with wikis: Collaborative writing in the 21 st Century Katina Zammit School of Education KCKS 2010 Brisbane, Australia
  2. 2. Wikis <ul><li>The word ‘wiki’ (from the Hawaiian wiki wiki ) is translated as ‘to hurry’, and wikis certainly enable rapid and easy authoring direct to the Web ( Parker & Chao, 2007 ; Wheeler, Yeomans, & Wheeler, 2008 ) </li></ul><ul><li>enable students to collaboratively construct knowledge beyond just information gathering and sharing. ( Lamb & Johnson, 2009; Wheeler, Yeomans, & Wheeler, 2008 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ architecture of participation’ (O’Reilly, 2004 cited in Wheeler, Yeomans, & Wheeler, 2008, p. 989) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ wisdom of the masses’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>publish content direct to the Web, including text, images and hyperlinks; to edit existing content; track changes; to return to previous versions (in history function). ( Hazari, North, & Moreland; Morgan & Smith, 2008; Wheeler, Yeomans, & Wheeler, 2008 ) </li></ul>Katina Zammit
  3. 3. Benefits <ul><li>Develop a community of practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>help student groups communicate and develop their &quot;paper&quot; more effectively. (Malaga, 2010, p. 53) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners participate in collaboratively building resources. (Parker & Chao, 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>allows the instructor to provide continuous early feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>help students learn about an important information technology trend. </li></ul><ul><li>students shift from being consumers of the Internet to creators (Lamb & Johnson, 2009) </li></ul>Katina Zammit
  4. 4. <ul><li>energizes reluctant learners, promote group synergy, and encourage authentic learning. (Lamb & Johnson, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>help students with reading, writing, reflective, and collaborative learning skill across content areas (Lamb & Johnson, 2009; Leight, 2008, cited in Hazari, North, & Moreland, p.190) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>students are more engaged with the writing process. (Morgan & Smith, 2008) </li></ul></ul>Katina Zammit
  5. 5. <ul><li>students tend to protect their ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>happy to post their contributions for other group members to read, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resistant to having their contributions altered or deleted by other group members. (Parker & Chao, 2007; Wheeler et al 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the limited capacity of the free wiki software has a detrimental effect on multiple user editing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unable to cope with the simultaneous posting. (Wheeler et al 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>students contribute only when in class. (Wheeler et al 2008, p. 993) </li></ul><ul><li>students tend to read only those pages to which they had contributed (Wheeler et al 2008, p. 993) </li></ul><ul><li>the time to learn how the wiki works. (Ruth & Houghton, 2009) </li></ul>Issues Katina Zammit
  6. 6. Wikis in education <ul><li>stimulate writing ('fun' and 'wiki' are often associated); </li></ul><ul><li>provide a low-cost but effective communication and collaboration tool (with an emphasis on text rather than software); </li></ul><ul><li>promote the close reading, revision, and tracking of preliminary work; </li></ul><ul><li>discourage 'product oriented writing' while facilitating 'writing as a process'; and </li></ul><ul><li>ease students into writing for a wider audience </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lamb (2004, cited in Parker and Chao, p. 61) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>cost, complexity, control, clarity, </li></ul><ul><li>WYSWYG (Malaga, 2010, p. 50) </li></ul>Katina Zammit
  7. 7. Research question <ul><li>What is the educational impact of integrating wikis into a classroom? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What changes occur to a teacher’s pedagogy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the impact on students’ learning and engagement in learning? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the benefits of using a wiki to create a multimodal information report in comparison to a paper-based medium? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the issues of using a wiki? </li></ul></ul>Katina Zammit
  8. 8. Theoretical frames <ul><li>Educational linguistics </li></ul><ul><li>Semiotics / Multiliteracies and multimodality </li></ul><ul><li>Technology and literacy </li></ul>Katina Zammit
  9. 9. Methodology <ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action research cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant comparative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work samples: electronic and paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criteria based assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field notes and Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student focus group interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student questionnaire </li></ul></ul>Katina Zammit
  10. 10. School context Katina Zammit <ul><li>73% LBOTE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>38% Chinese speaking, 29 different language groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>42% of students have been learning English for three years or less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17 indigenous students </li></ul></ul>260 students 11 classes 7 specialist teachers
  11. 11. Classroom Contexts <ul><li>2 classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Year 5 (11 year olds) and year 4/5 (10 and 11 year olds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 teachers: experienced (female) and new graduate (male) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer acess </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laptop trolley (x14) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 PC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Year 5: Interactive Whiteboard </li></ul></ul>Katina Zammit
  12. 12. Writing - term 2 Katina Zammit Information report - Country
  13. 13. Wiki - term 3/4 Katina Zammit #1 [9/9/09]
  14. 14. Katina Zammit #4 [30/10/09]
  15. 15. Katina Zammit # 7 (final)
  16. 16. Best aspects <ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Location (anywhere) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To take notes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare work with others work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working with others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not carrying books etc around </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typing (is better/ is easier) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People help each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No paper, use computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Send emails to each other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remember info more when type </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easy way to learn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paragraph from notes </li></ul></ul></ul>Katina Zammit
  17. 17. <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>about Antarctica </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know more: than if writing; can remember information better </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>about specific section of wiki </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>new facts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical: fonts, colour, adding media, hyperlinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of tech increased/ better </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Website visiting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improve typing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>About wiki </li></ul></ul></ul>Katina Zammit
  18. 18. Outcomes <ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working with a partner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking for assistance via email - to students / teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teacher input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit teaching of e-note taking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assistance with content - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in class; on wiki via questions or email </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Student input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More involvement of disengaged students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More input from students from ESL and with learning difficulties </li></ul></ul>Katina Zammit
  19. 19. <ul><li>Use of technology to create text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use of e-note taking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information placed, re-worked on wiki </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct input of multimodal texts (written, visual, audio and video) onto wiki page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypermedia - use of hyperlinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typography: fonts, colour, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of working on text </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of the content area </li></ul>Katina Zammit
  20. 20. <ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students can compare their work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rubric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not just based on final product </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Included content, process and collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul>Katina Zammit
  21. 21. <ul><li>students tend to protect their ideas </li></ul><ul><li>the limited capacity of the free wiki software has a detrimental effect on multiple user editing. </li></ul><ul><li>students contribute only when in class. </li></ul><ul><li>students tend to read only those pages to which they had contributed </li></ul><ul><li>the time to learn how the wiki works. </li></ul>Issues?? Katina Zammit
  22. 22. Issues <ul><li>Getting students to change information on someone’s wiki page/s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the text or layout of partner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing, adding or moving the texts of other’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Working on the wiki simultaneously </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work on 1 computer at school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work in Word while partner working on wiki page </li></ul></ul></ul>Katina Zammit
  23. 23. <ul><li>Limitations of design features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Of Wikispaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access for use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System controls and permissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portal for students </li></ul></ul>Katina Zammit
  24. 24. <ul><li>Hazari, S., North, A., & Moreland, D. Investigating Pedagogical Value of Wiki Technology. Journal of Information Systems Education, 20 (2), 187-198. </li></ul><ul><li>Lamb, A., & Johnson, L. (2009). Wikis and collaborative inquiry. School Library Media Activities Monthly, 8 (April), 48-51. </li></ul><ul><li>Malaga, R. (2010). Choosing a wiki platform for student projects - Lessons learned. Contemporary Issues In Education Research, 3 (2), 49-54. </li></ul><ul><li>Morgan, B., & Smith, R. (2008). A wiki for classroom writing. The Reading Teacher 62 (1), 80-82. </li></ul><ul><li>Parker, K. R., & Chao, J. T. (2007). Wiki as a teaching tool. Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects, 3 , 57-72. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruth, A., & Houghton, L. (2009). The wiki way of learning. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 25 (2), 135-152. </li></ul><ul><li>Wheeler, S., Yeomans, P., & Wheeler, D. (2008). The good, the bad and the wiki: Evaluating student generated content for collaborative learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39 (6), 987-995. </li></ul>Katina Zammit
  25. 25. Thankyou <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>Katina Zammit