Chapter 2 explaining abnormality


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Chapter 2 explaining abnormality

  1. 1. Explaining Abnormality Chapter 2 WHAT CAUSES PSYCHOPATHOLOGY?
  2. 2. Explaining Abnormality: The Core Concepts <ul><li>Cultural and Historical Relativism </li></ul><ul><li>“ Primitive” Explanations: Animism and Spiritual Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Animism - belief in the existence and power of a spirit world </li></ul><ul><li>exorcism </li></ul><ul><li>clairvoyance </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cultural and Historical Relativism <ul><li>The Ancient Greeks: Early Biological Theories </li></ul>yellow bile black bile blood phlegm Four humours Hippocrates
  4. 4. Cultural and Historical Relativism <ul><li>The Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li> Asylums </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cultural and Historical Relativism Phillipe Pinel Moral Treatment
  6. 6. Cultural and Historical Relativism Dorothea Dix Deinstitutionalization The social policy, beginning in the 1960s, of discharging large numbers hospitalized psychiatric patients into the community
  7. 7. Cultural and Historical Relativism <ul><li>Paradigms </li></ul>Overall scientific worldviews which radically shift at various points in history.
  8. 8. The Principle of Multiple Causality <ul><li>Reductionism </li></ul><ul><li> Explaining a disorder or other complex phenomenon using only a single idea or perspective. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Principle of Multiple Causality <ul><li>Precipitating cause </li></ul><ul><li>The immediate trigger or precipitant of an event. </li></ul><ul><li>Predisposing cause </li></ul><ul><li>The underlying processes that create the conditions making it possible for a precipitating cause to trigger an event. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Principle of Multiple Causality <ul><li>Diathesis-stress model </li></ul><ul><li>The view that the development of a disorder requires the interaction of a diathesis (predisposing cause) and a stress (precipitating cause). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mind-Body Connection <ul><li>Monism </li></ul><ul><li>Dualism </li></ul>
  12. 12. Mind-Body Connection <ul><li>General paresis </li></ul><ul><li>A disease, due to a syphilis infection, that can cause psychosis, paralysis, and death </li></ul><ul><li>Psychosocial dwarfism </li></ul><ul><li>A rare disorder in which the physical growth of children deprived of emotional care is stunted </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mind-Body Connection <ul><li>Biopsychosocial model </li></ul><ul><li>A perspective in abnormal psychology that integrates biological, psychological, and social components </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Theoretical Perspectives <ul><li>Biological Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>The Central Nervous System </li></ul>The control center for transmitting information and impulses throughout the body, consisting of the brain and the spinal cord Neuron - an individual nerve cell
  15. 15. Biological Perspectives Cortex - the folded matter on the outside of the brain that controls humans’ advanced cognitive functions Thalamus - a subcortical brain structure involved in routing and filtering sensory input Hypothalamus - a subcortical brain structure that controls the endocrine, or hormonal, system Basal ganglia - a subcortical brain structure involved in the regulation of movement
  16. 16. Biological Perspectives <ul><li>Neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals that allow neurons in the brain to communicate by traveling between them. </li></ul><ul><li>Synapse </li></ul><ul><li>Point of connection between neurons. </li></ul><ul><li>Synaptic cleft </li></ul><ul><li>The tiny gap between one neuron and the next at a synapse. </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors </li></ul><ul><li>The areas of a neuron that receive neurotransmitters from adjacent neurons. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Biological Perspectives <ul><li>Leftover neurotransmitters linger in the synaptic cleft, until they are either broken down by special enzymes in a process called degradation or reabsorbed by the presynaptic neuron in a process called reuptake . </li></ul>
  18. 18. Biological Perspectives <ul><li>The Peripheral Nervous System </li></ul>S k e l e t a l ( S o m a t i c ) S y m p a t h e t i c P a r a s y m p a t h e t i c A u t o n o m i c P e r i p h e r a l N e r v o u s S y s t e m
  19. 19. Biological Perspectives <ul><li>Peripheral nervous system (PNS) – network of nerves throughout the body that carries information and impulses to and from the CNS. </li></ul><ul><li>Somatic nervous system - connects the central nervous system with the sensory organs and skeletal muscles. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Biological Perspectives <ul><li>Autonomic nervous system (ANS) - The part of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary bodily systems, such as breathing and heart rate; it is made up of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathetic nervous system - the part of the autonomic nervous system that activates the body’s response to emergency and arousal situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic nervous system - the part of the autonomic nervous system that regulates the body’s calming and energy conserving functions. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Biological Perspectives <ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Family pedigree studies - studies designed to investigate whether a disorder runs in families </li></ul><ul><li>Twin studies - studies which compare concordance rates for identical and nonidentical twins for a given disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Concordance rate - in a group of twins, the percentage that both have the same disorder. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Biological Perspectives <ul><li>Adoption studies - studies designed to compare the concordance rates for a given disorder of biological versus non-biological parent-child pairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic linkage - studies looking for the specific genetic material that may be responsible for the genetic influence on particular disorders. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Biological Perspectives <ul><li>Prefrontal lobotomy - the surgical destruction of brain tissue connecting the prefrontal lobes with other areas of the brain. (Kennedy daughter) </li></ul><ul><li>Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) - a treatment for severe depression that involves passing electric current through the brain to induce seizures. (Lou Reed, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Biological Perspectives <ul><li>Most common biological treatments </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotropic Drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>antianxiety (or anxiolytic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>antidepressant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>antipsychotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mood-stabilizing drugs </li></ul></ul>Agonists - drugs that increase neurotransmission Antagonists - drugs that reduce or block neurotransmission.
  25. 25. Psychodynamic Perspectives <ul><li>Sigmund Freud </li></ul>Unconscious - descriptively, mental contents that are outside of awareness; also, the irrational, instinctual part of the mind in Freud’s topographic theory.
  26. 26. Psychodynamic Perspectives <ul><li>Freud’s model </li></ul><ul><li>Topographic model </li></ul><ul><li>conscious </li></ul><ul><li>preconscious </li></ul><ul><li>unconscious </li></ul>
  27. 27. Psychodynamic Perspectives <ul><li>Freud’s Structural Model </li></ul><ul><li>Id - the part of the mind containing instinctual urges </li></ul><ul><li>Superego - the part of the mind that contains moral judgments and evaluates the self </li></ul><ul><li>Ego - the part of the mind that is oriented to the external world and mediates the demands of the id and superego </li></ul>
  28. 28. Psychodynamic Perspectives COMMON DEFENSE MECHANISMS Repression - Motivated forgetting Denial/minimization - Ignoring or minimizing particular facts Projection - Attributing one’s own feelings to someone else Rationalization - A false but personally acceptable explanation for one’s behavior Displacement - Transferring a feeling about one situation onto another situation Reaction-formation - Turning an unacceptable feeling into its opposite Isolation of affect/Intellectualization - Avoiding painful feelings by focusing only on ideas
  29. 29. Psychodynamic Perspectives Compartmentalization - Keeping different parts of one’s emotional life separate Undoing - Using ritualized behavior to create an illusion of control Dissociation - Trancelike detachment Splitting - Viewing self or others as all-good or all-bad to ward off conflicted or ambivalent feelings Withdrawal/avoidance - Emotional or behavioral flight from painful situations Fixation - Clinging to a particular developmental phase Regression - Returning to an earlier developmental phase Turning against the self (Masochism) - Redirecting an unacceptable hostile impulse toward oneself Sublimation - Finding a constructive outlet for an unacceptable wish COMMON DEFENSE MECHANISMS
  30. 30. Psychodynamic Perspectives <ul><li>Contemporary Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Kleinian school of psychoanalysis </li></ul><ul><li>The Object-Relational perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Self-psychology </li></ul>Melanie Klein
  31. 31. Psychodynamic Treatment Interventions <ul><li>Free association </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Transference </li></ul><ul><li>Countertransference </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Working through </li></ul>
  32. 32. Humanistic and Existential Perspectives <ul><li>Humanistic Explanations </li></ul>Carl Rogers Self-actualization - the pursuit of one’s true self and needs Unconditional positive regard - the provision of unconditional love, empathy, and acceptance in relationships Conditions of worth - parental standards that must be met in order to be loved or valued
  33. 33. Humanistic and Existential Perspectives <ul><li>Humanistic Treatment Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Client-centered therapy - A humanistic treatment approach developed by Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><li>motivational interviewing - it is effective in treating substance-use disorders </li></ul>
  34. 34. Humanistic and Existential Perspectives <ul><li>Existential Explanations and Treatment Interventions </li></ul>Existentialists view emotional health as the ability to face these facts and to create a meaningful life by accepting this responsibility. Common principles in existential therapy techniques include encouraging clients to face painful truths and to develop courage in the face of life’s inevitable difficulties.
  35. 35. Behavioral Perspectives <ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>The theoretical perspective that emphasizes the influence of learning, via classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and modeling, on behavior </li></ul>John B. Watson
  36. 36. Behavioral Perspectives <ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning that takes place via automatic associations between neutral stimuli and unconditioned stimuli . </li></ul>Temporal contiguity - two events occurring closely together in time. Ivan P. Pavlov
  37. 37. Behavioral Perspectives <ul><li>Unconditioned stimulus - a stimulus that automatically elicits a response through a natural reflex </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned response – the natural reflex response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus </li></ul>
  38. 38. Behavioral Perspectives <ul><li>Conditioned stimulus - a previously neutral stimulus that acquires the ability to elicit a response through classical conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned response - the response elicited by a conditioned stimulus </li></ul>
  39. 39. Behavioral Perspectives
  40. 40. Behavioral Perspectives <ul><li>Operant Conditioning </li></ul>B. F. Skinner Operant conditioning - a form of learning in which behaviors are shaped through rewards and punishments. Reinforcement - any environmental response to a behavior that increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated.
  41. 41. Behavioral Perspectives <ul><li>Punishment - in operant conditioning theory, any environmental response to a behavior that decreases the probability that the behavior will be repeated. </li></ul><ul><li>Law of effect - Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by pleasurable consequences are likely to be repeated while behaviors followed by aversive consequences are not. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Behavioral Perspectives <ul><li>Modeling/Social Learning </li></ul>Learning based on observing and imitating the behavior of others Albert Bandura
  43. 43. Behavioral Perspectives <ul><li>Behavioral Treatments </li></ul>Extinction - the weakening of a connection between a conditioned stimulus and a conditioned response. Exposure - technique of deliberately confronting a conditioned stimulus (such as a feared object) in order to promote extinction. Systematic desensitization - intervention involving gradually increased exposure to a conditioned stimulus (such as a feared object) while practicing relaxation techniques.
  44. 44. Behavioral Perspectives <ul><li>Behavioral Treatments </li></ul><ul><li>Aversion therapy - behavioral technique involving pairing an unwanted behavior with an aversive stimulus in order to classically condition a connection between them </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency management - the use of reinforcements and punishments to shape behavior in adaptive directions </li></ul><ul><li>Token economies -the systematic use of coin-like tokens as rewards in an operant-conditioning treatment program </li></ul><ul><li>Social skills training - the use of operant conditioning techniques and modeling in order to improve social skills </li></ul>
  45. 45. Cognitive Perspectives Cognitive schemas - mental models of the world that are used to organize information. Cognitive restructuring - therapy techniques that focus on changing irrational and problematic thoughts. Aaron Beck
  46. 46. Cognitive Perspectives <ul><li>Cognitive distortions - irrational beliefs and thinking processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative automatic thoughts - negative thoughts generated by negative cognitive schemas. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive triad - in cognitive theory, the triad consisting of one’s self, one’s future, and one’s world. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Cognitive Perspectives <ul><li>Cognitive Treatment Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy - refers to confidence that one can successfully achieve desired outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Rational-emotive behavior therapy - disputes pathogenic irrational beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive-behavioral - approaches that combine cognitive and behavioral principles </li></ul>
  48. 48. Sociocultural and Family Systems Perspectives <ul><li>Sociocultural Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>focuses on the influence of large social and cultural forces on individual functioning. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Sociocultural and Family Systems Perspectives <ul><li>Family Systems Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>focuses on the importance of family dynamics in understanding and treating mental disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis - the tendency of systems, such as family systems, to maintain a stable pattern. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Sociocultural and Family Systems Perspectives <ul><li>Enmeshed families - families in which boundaries between members are weak and relationships tend to be intrusive. </li></ul><ul><li>Disengaged families - families in which relationships tend to be distant and unemotional. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Sociocultural and Family Systems Perspectives <ul><li>Genogram - diagram of the structure of a family. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Sociocultural and Family Systems Perspectives <ul><li>Family Systems Treatment Interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Identified patient - the member of the family identified by the family as having problems </li></ul>