Codes and convention

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Codes and convention

  1. 1. Codes and Convention Katie Farmer
  2. 2. Conventional expectations • • • • • Non-fiction About the ‘real’- historical, political etc.. Unstaged Based on observation rather than intervention Informative, educational
  3. 3. Placing the audience in the action • • • • • • • • Location shooting Uneven, hand held camera work Film makers visible presence Interviews with witnesses Natural light Following the action Synchronous sound recording Amateur effect
  4. 4. Techniques that allow the audience to be objective • • • • • Voiceover Archive footage Expert testimonial Material shaped into a narrative Material structures into an argument
  5. 5. The voiceover • Authoritive • Tricks the audience into thinking they have specialist knowledge • Or it can be seen as the ‘right’ opinion that people should pay attention to. E.g. Michael Moore and Nick Brookfield
  6. 6. Real footage of events • Seen as non-fiction • All events presented to us are seen as ‘real’ by the audience • Documentaries often go to great lengths to convince us that the footage is real and unaltered in any way. However editing and voice overs can effect what the viewers see
  7. 7. Technicality of realism • Suburbia city sounds, non-diegetic sounds • The way the shots are taken to create realism • Not everything is filmed so it’s unreal although it has real examples • Including ‘natural’ sound and lighting- Nick Broomfield ran out of sound when recording Biggie and Tupac
  8. 8. Archive footage/stills • To aid authenticity and to add further information which the film maker may be unable to contain themselves.
  9. 9. Interviews with experts • Authenticate the views expressed in the documentary • Sometimes they will disprove with the message of the documentary although the filmmaker will usually disprove them in some way
  10. 10. Sound • Non-diegetic sound- music added? -effect caused? -meaning? • e.g.- “Supersize me”
  11. 11. Setups • • • • Reconstructions of events Typical scenes Set up a scene However if fake scenes are played too often, the audience believes it as being the normal thing to do. Anything else, other than this, can be seen as fake by the audience
  12. 12. Visual coding • Mise en scene and props • e.g. –doctors- white lab coat - stethoscope
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