Chapter 13 history introduction to ghana


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Kingdom of Ghana

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Chapter 13 history introduction to ghana

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO Kingdoms of Africa EQ: How did Ghana become a trading empire?
  2. 2. Background Information on Ghana • Kingdom of Ghana lasted from 500C.E. until 1200s. • Existed in the semidry Sahel, spread between Senegal and Niger Rivers – (Modern day Mauritania and Mali)
  3. 3. How Did Ghana Develop into an Empire? • We don’t know for sure! • Possibly a group of warriors used iron weapons to defeat neighbors – Ghana means “war chief” • Control of trade (GOLD) made king and people wealthy
  4. 4. 13.2 Ghana’s Gov’t and Military • Arab scholars called Ghana “land of gold” • Ghana ruled by powerful king – Head of army – Made decisions (justice) – Led religious worship
  5. 5. How did the King Preserve Wealth? • King controlled supply of gold • All of the gold nuggets in kingdom had to be given to king (Some chunks weighed 40 pounds!) – Other people only got gold dust
  6. 6. Daily Life of King • Each day king held court with his people – King arrived to beat of royal drums – He dressed in colorful robes, gold jewels, cap • His people showed respect by kneeling and throwing dust on their heads
  7. 7. What Happened in Court? • King does business within empire • Listens to concerns of people • King is surrounded by young servants, governor, dogs with gold collars • LOTS OF RICHES!
  8. 8. What Did King’s Government Officials Do? • Officials were paid from kingdom’s wealth • Officials in charge of: – Army, business, taxes • King chose governors to rule some parts of his empire
  9. 9. When Kings Died... • Sons DID NOT inherit the throne! • Royal inheritance was matrilineal – BASED ON WOMEN’S FAMILY LINE • In Ghana, the son of the king’s sister took over the throne
  10. 10. Ghana’s Military • Had regular army, reserve forces, and elite (top) soldiers • Regular Army: (Thousands) – Kept borders secure, peaceful – Wore cotton pants, sandals, headdresses – Color of soldier’s shirt, and # of feathers in headdress show rank – Used weapons (Spears, swords, bows and arrows)
  11. 11. During wartime... • King called upon more forces • Every man in empire had to complete military training • 200, 000 soldiers gathered at times! • Top (elite) soldiers selected for courage, honesty, intelligence – Bodyguards, escorts, advisors
  12. 12. Part 2 EQ: Explain How Trade Worked in Ghana… • Ghana between 2 trading areas – North African forests and forests of Southern West Africa
  13. 13. What resources did traders have? North Traders: -crossed Sahara with salt, copper, and cowrie shells (used as $) Traders from S. Western Africa: -had Kola nuts, hides, leather, ivory, gold, even slaves
  14. 14. Ghana’s Location • Allowed it to control TRANSSAHARAN trade • Traders going south had to pass through Ghana • Each time, paid taxes • Taxes led to Ghana’s wealth
  15. 15. What is Trans-Saharan Trade? • Archeologists found evidence to show North Africans brought gold from southern forests in 400B.C.E ! (LONG AGO!) • Travel across Sahara desert is very hard
  16. 16. Increase in Trans-Saharan Trade caused by….. Aren’t I cute!! ? • Use of camels! – Brought to Sahara 300C.E – Traveled well in desert – Drink 25 gallons of water at a time! – Travel many days without stopping • Double eyelashes and hairy ears to keep sand out!
  17. 17. Trade also increased because of the spread of… • ISLAM! • Muslims invaded Ghana’s empire in 7th Century • Muslims converted West Africans to Islam, controlled trade – Muslims became merchants – In 1000, Ghana dominated trade routes between N and W Africa
  18. 18. What was the journey like for traders coming from the North? • Start in N. Africa, travel along border of Sahara • Cross Ghana, Gulf of Guinea, to Chad • 1352: Muslim historian Ibn Battuta crossed Sahara
  19. 19. Battuta described his journey as… • Dangerous • Caravans lost way, some died • No water, killed camels, drank water in stomachs  • Stopped at Taghaza, salt mines • Got salt to take to porters (people who carry loads)