Implications for mainstream teachersWe should not assume that non-native speakers who have attained a high degree of fluency and accuracy in everyday spoken English have the corresponding academic language proficiency. This may help us to avoid labelling children who exhibit this disparity as having special educational needs when all they need is more time. The non-native speakers in your classes, who have exited from the ESL program, are still, in most cases, in the process of catching up with their native speaking peers.
--Older students develop literacy more quickly. --Younger students pick up oral language more fluenty and quickly.
--Neglecting these skills--Structure—verb tenses (example catch/caught—ESOL students don’t know when one sounds right over the other)
Teaching Reading to LEP StudentsTrinity UniversityEDU 989A Instructor: Ms. Jennifer W. Estenós
Session 1 at a Glance Guide to ESOL terms and acronyms Linguistic Theorists Stages of Language Learning Common Errors Process and Factors involved in Second Language Learning Strategies for Beginner and Intermediate Learners
Terms and Acronyms ESOL—English to Speakers of Other Languages ESL—English as a Second Language TESOL—Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages ELL—Engish Language Learner R-ELL—Reclassified English Language Learner ELL Plan—An Accomodations document for ELLs and some RELLs LEP/LM—Limited English Proficient/ Language Minority TOEFL—Test of English as a Foreign Language for college admissions BICS—Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (6mo-2 years) CALP—Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
More Terms and Acronyms Plug-In Pull-out Co-teaching LAS Links Bilingual Education Bilingualism Code Switching L1 vs. L2
Who are ELLs? ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS (ELLs) LEP SUBGROUP (Limited English Proficiency) Current ESOL students and certain former ESOL students NON-LEP SUBGROUP ELLs who have exited the ESOL program more than 2 years ago RECLASSIFIED ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS (R-ELLs) ELLs who have exited the ESOL program within the past 2 years ESOL STUDENTS ELLs presently enrolled in the ESOL program receiving ESOL instruction from the ESOL teacher using the ESOL curriculum Working with English Language Learners is a whole-school effort! Division of ESOL/Bilingual Programs http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/curriculum/esol 3/7/2008
Acronym PreferencesConnotation of terms and acronyms
Society attempts to teach acceptance of language diversity
Our language/terminology reflects some discrimination for non-native English speakers
English for Speakers of Other Languages/ English as a Second Language (ESOL/ESL students)
B.F. SkinnerBehaviorist theory of language development Children learn language through stimulus, response and reinforcement Child’s mind is a tabula rasa, blank slate Could not explain: Novel utterances Sentences that were grammatically correct
Children automatically recognize when language is produced incorrectly as a part of the LAD.
Noam ChomskyCurrently Professor Emeritus of Linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Language is innate
Babies are born with a predisposition to learn language
Children learn the rules to a language as they hear it
1=the level just beyond the learners current level
Reflection Can you think of learning experiences in your life that involve i+1? Instances where your skills can only improve with the input of something slightly above your comfort level? Example: learning to ski
Michael Long & Catherine DoughtyCurrently Professor at Hawaii University Interaction Purposeful communication of language Strategies Pronunciation practice Teach how to form questions Comprehension checks Repetitions of key words and phrases Successful Language Acquisition
Language Theories Influence Language Instruction Components of ESOL Speaking Listening Reading Writing
What is important for teachers to know about this stage of language development?
Are students learning BICS or CALP at this stage?
Create a skit to show how a teacher would interact with students at this stage.
Question for Thought What challenges do you think challenges do English language learners face when they attempt to read?
Younger vs. Older Students Background knowledge Knowledge of sentence structure Ability to communicate fluently If the student has not had formal education they will more than likely take longer to acquire English
"Awaken people's curiosity. It is enough to open minds, do not overload them. Put there just a spark." - Anatole France
Purpose of Running Records Determine or confirm a student’s instructional reading level 95-100% Independent 90-94% Instructional 89% and below Frustration Identify the cueing system(s) a student uses when encountering an unknown word Meaning Structure Visual Create a record of Reading Progress over time Plan for instruction