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  • Implications for mainstream teachersWe should not assume that non-native speakers who have attained a high degree of fluency and accuracy in everyday spoken English have the corresponding academic language proficiency. This may help us to avoid labelling children who exhibit this disparity as having special educational needs when all they need is more time. The non-native speakers in your classes, who have exited from the ESL program, are still, in most cases, in the process of catching up with their native speaking peers.
  • --Older students develop literacy more quickly. --Younger students pick up oral language more fluenty and quickly.
  • --Neglecting these skills--Structure—verb tenses (example catch/caught—ESOL students don’t know when one sounds right over the other)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Teaching Reading to LEP StudentsTrinity UniversityEDU 989A
      Instructor: Ms. Jennifer W. Estenós
    • 2. Essential for some, useful for all.
    • 3. Introductions
      Share your name/position/school.
      What is one hobby that you enjoy (that you might be enjoying if you weren’t in this class )?
    • 4. Ground Rules
      • Be open to share personal experiences
      • 5. Respect the opinions and experiences of others
      • 6. Ask questions
      • 7. Actively participate in group discussions
      • 8. Be on time
      • 9. Limit Distractions to the Class
      • 10. Silence cell phones
      • 11. Cell phones should not be used during class
      • 12. Save texting for breaks
    • Session 1 at a Glance
      Guide to ESOL terms and acronyms
      Linguistic Theorists
      Stages of Language Learning
      Common Errors
      Process and Factors involved in Second Language Learning
      Strategies for Beginner and Intermediate Learners
    • 13. Terms and Acronyms
      ESOL—English to Speakers of Other Languages
      ESL—English as a Second Language
      TESOL—Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages
      ELL—Engish Language Learner
      R-ELL—Reclassified English Language Learner
      ELL Plan—An Accomodations document for ELLs and some RELLs
      LEP/LM—Limited English Proficient/ Language Minority
      TOEFL—Test of English as a Foreign Language for college admissions
      BICS—Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (6mo-2 years)
      CALP—Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
    • 14. More Terms and Acronyms
      LAS Links
      Bilingual Education
      Code Switching
      L1 vs. L2
    • 15. Who are ELLs?
      (Limited English Proficiency)
      Current ESOL students and
      certain former ESOL students
      ELLs who have exited the ESOL program more than 2 years ago
      ELLs who have exited the ESOL program within the past 2 years
      ELLs presently enrolled in the ESOL program receiving ESOL instruction from the ESOL teacher using the
      ESOL curriculum
      Working with
      English Language Learners
      is a whole-school effort!
      Division of ESOL/Bilingual Programs
    • 16. Acronym PreferencesConnotation of terms and acronyms
      • Society attempts to teach acceptance of language diversity
      • 17. Our language/terminology reflects some discrimination for non-native English speakers
      • 18. Limited English Proficient (LEP)
      • 19. Language Minority (LM)
      • 20. Course preference
      • 21. English Language Learner (ELL)
      • 22. English for Speakers of Other Languages/ English as a Second Language (ESOL/ESL students)
    • B.F. SkinnerBehaviorist theory of language development
      Children learn language through
      stimulus, response and reinforcement
      Child’s mind is a tabula rasa, blank slate
      Could not explain:
      Novel utterances
      Sentences that were grammatically correct
    • 23. Children automatically recognize when language is produced incorrectly as a part of the LAD.
    • 24. Noam ChomskyCurrently Professor Emeritus of Linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Language is innate
      • 25. Babies are born with a predisposition to learn language
      • 26. Children learn the rules to a language as they hear it
      • 27. Language Acquisition Device:
      • 28. Understanding of the rules helps children to produce new sentences that they have never heard
      • 29. Universal Grammar:
      • 30. There is one language with many local variants
    • Universal GrammarUniversal language rule: All sentence structures include at least 3 parts; the subject, verb and object.
      • SVO: The teacher gavea lecture.
      • 31. 75% of all the world’s languages
      • 32. SOV: The teacher a lecture gave.
      • 33. Japanese and Tibetan
      • 34. VSO: Gavethe teacher a lecture.
      • 35. Welch
      • 36. VOS: Gavea lecture the teacher.
      • 37. Malagasy (spoken in Madagascar)
      • 38. OSV: A lecture the teacher gave.
      • 39. Extremely rare
      • 40. Yoda from Star Wars
    • Stephen KrashenCurrently Professor Emeritus at the University of Southern California
      • Emphasis on interpersonal aspects of language
      • 41. Meaningful interactions are the key to learning a language
      • 42. Classrooms need to be engaging and non-threatening
      • 43. Comprehensible Input= i+1
      • 44. i=level of proficiency
      • 45. 1=the level just beyond the learners current level
    • Reflection
      Can you think of learning experiences in your life that involve i+1? Instances where your skills can only improve with the input of something slightly above your comfort level?
      Example: learning to ski
    • 46. Jim Cummins
      • BICS—Basic Interpersonal Language
      • 47. Develops in 6month-2 years
      • 48. Language to have conversational communication
      • 49. CALP—Cognitive Academic Language
      • 50. Develops in 4-7 years (up to 10 years)
      • 51. Language to express more cognitively demanding concepts –require the speaker to synthesize information
      • 52. Ease of language learning depends of the context
      • 53. Context Embedded vs. Context Reduced
      • 54. Language Skills depend on cognitive demands on the student
      • 55. Cognitively demanding vs. Cognitively undemanding
    • Take a deeper look at BICS and CALP
      Which skills are developed as a part of BICS
      Which skills require a deeper language knowledge
    • 56. Context Embedded vs. Context Reduced
      • Context embedded—communication occurs in a context that offers help to comprehension
      • 57. Visual cues
      • 58. Gestures
      • 59. Expressions
      • 60. Meaning is relatively obvious due to help from physical or social nature of conversation
      • 61. Context Reduced—few cues as to the meaning of the communication apart from the words themselves—language is likely to be abstract
      • 62. Listening to a lecture
      • 63. Reading dense text
      • 64. Phone Conversations
    • Cognitively Undemanding vs. Cognitively Demanding
      • Cognitively Undemanding
      • 65. Minimal abstract or critical thinking
      • 66. Conversation on the playground
      • 67. Yes/no questions
      • 68. Cognitively Demanding
      • 69. Analyze and synthesize information with abstract concepts
      • 70. Academic content lessons
      • 71. Multiple choice test
    • Michael Long & Catherine DoughtyCurrently Professor at Hawaii University
      Purposeful communication of language
      Pronunciation practice
      Teach how to form questions
      Comprehension checks
      Repetitions of key words and phrases
      Successful Language Acquisition
    • 72. Language Theories Influence Language Instruction
      Components of ESOL
    • 73. Group Work
      • Describe this stage of language development.
      • 74. What is important for teachers to know about this stage of language development?
      • 75. Are students learning BICS or CALP at this stage?
      • 76. Create a skit to show how a teacher would interact with students at this stage.
    • Question for Thought
      What challenges do you think challenges do English language learners face when they attempt to read?
    • 77. Younger vs. Older Students
      Background knowledge
      Knowledge of sentence structure
      Ability to communicate fluently
      If the student has not had formal education they will more than likely take longer to acquire English
    • 78. Selecting the Right TextReading Levels
      • Too easy will make students get bored or will not sufficiently challenge students
      • 79. Too hard will frustrate students
      • 80. Limited meaning
      • 81. Students may give up!
      • 82. Instructional reading level challenges students with text that has the appropriate level of:
      • 83. Sentence complexity
      • 84. New vocabulary
    • "Awaken people's curiosity. It is enough to open minds, do not overload them. Put there just a spark."
      - Anatole France
    • 85. Purpose of Running Records
      Determine or confirm a student’s instructional reading level
      95-100% Independent
      90-94% Instructional
      89% and below Frustration
      Identify the cueing system(s) a student uses when encountering an unknown word
      Create a record of Reading Progress over time
      Plan for instruction
    • 86. Analyzing Student Errors
      • Meaning (makes sense in that book)
      • 87. Example: She has one rabbit in her hair. (ribbon)
      • 88. Structure (sounds right in English)
      • 89. Example: She has one red ribbons in her hair. (ribbon)
      • 90. Difficult for ESOL students who don’t know what really sounds right
      • 91. Visual (looks right in print)
      • 92. She has one red bow in her hair. (ribbon)
    • Stage 1: Silent/ Receptive StageImportant Vocabulary/Topics for Reading Text
    • Labeled classroomA literacy rich classroom helps students have a greater understanding of the purpose of print
    • 101. Great On-line Resource
      Mes-English—Worksheets and flashcards for picture support of numerous topics
      Activities for language support
    • 102. Questions to Demonstrate Comprension
      • Yes/No Questions
      • 103. Multiple Choice Questions
      • 104. Questions with Picture Support
      • 105. Fill in the Blank with a word bank
    • Graphic Organizers
      Provide a basic scaffolding for writing
      Organizes and Prepares students for more complex writing
    • 106.
      • Answer: This language structure includes do, don’t, does, doesn’t, did and didn’t.
      • 107. Question: What is an auxiliary verb?