Implications for mainstream teachersWe should not assume that non-native speakers who have attained a high degree of fluency and accuracy in everyday spoken English have the corresponding academic language proficiency. This may help us to avoid labelling children who exhibit this disparity as having special educational needs when all they need is more time. The non-native speakers in your classes, who have exited from the ESL program, are still, in most cases, in the process of catching up with their native speaking peers.
--Older students develop literacy more quickly. --Younger students pick up oral language more fluenty and quickly.
--Neglecting these skills--Structure—verb tenses (example catch/caught—ESOL students don’t know when one sounds right over the other)
Video ppt example 12 mb vid
Teaching Reading to LEP StudentsTrinity UniversityEDU 989A<br />Instructor: Ms. Jennifer W. Estenós<br />
Save texting for breaks</li></li></ul><li>Session 1 at a Glance<br />Guide to ESOL terms and acronyms<br />Linguistic Theorists<br />Stages of Language Learning<br />Common Errors<br />Process and Factors involved in Second Language Learning <br />Strategies for Beginner and Intermediate Learners<br />
Terms and Acronyms<br />ESOL—English to Speakers of Other Languages<br />ESL—English as a Second Language<br />TESOL—Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages<br />ELL—Engish Language Learner<br />R-ELL—Reclassified English Language Learner<br />ELL Plan—An Accomodations document for ELLs and some RELLs<br />LEP/LM—Limited English Proficient/ Language Minority<br />TOEFL—Test of English as a Foreign Language for college admissions<br />BICS—Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (6mo-2 years)<br />CALP—Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency <br />
More Terms and Acronyms <br />Plug-In <br />Pull-out<br />Co-teaching<br /> LAS Links<br />Bilingual Education<br />Bilingualism<br />Code Switching<br />L1 vs. L2<br />
Who are ELLs?<br />ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS <br />(ELLs)<br />LEP SUBGROUP<br />(Limited English Proficiency)<br />Current ESOL students and<br />certain former ESOL students<br />NON-LEP SUBGROUP<br />ELLs who have exited the ESOL program more than 2 years ago<br />RECLASSIFIED ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS<br />(R-ELLs)<br />ELLs who have exited the ESOL program within the past 2 years<br />ESOL STUDENTS<br />ELLs presently enrolled in the ESOL program receiving ESOL instruction from the ESOL teacher using the<br />ESOL curriculum<br />Working with<br />English Language Learners<br />is a whole-school effort!<br />Division of ESOL/Bilingual Programs<br />http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/curriculum/esol<br />3/7/2008<br />
Acronym PreferencesConnotation of terms and acronyms<br /><ul><li>Society attempts to teach acceptance of language diversity
Our language/terminology reflects some discrimination for non-native English speakers
English for Speakers of Other Languages/ English as a Second Language (ESOL/ESL students)</li></li></ul><li>B.F. SkinnerBehaviorist theory of language development<br />Children learn language through <br />stimulus, response and reinforcement<br />Child’s mind is a tabula rasa, blank slate<br />Could not explain:<br />Novel utterances<br />Sentences that were grammatically correct<br />
Children automatically recognize when language is produced incorrectly as a part of the LAD.<br />
Noam ChomskyCurrently Professor Emeritus of Linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology<br /><ul><li>Language is innate
Babies are born with a predisposition to learn language
Children learn the rules to a language as they hear it
There is one language with many local variants</li></li></ul><li>Universal GrammarUniversal language rule: All sentence structures include at least 3 parts; the subject, verb and object.<br /><ul><li>SVO: The teacher gavea lecture.
1=the level just beyond the learners current level</li></li></ul><li>Reflection<br /> Can you think of learning experiences in your life that involve i+1? Instances where your skills can only improve with the input of something slightly above your comfort level?<br /> Example: learning to ski<br />
Jim Cummins<br /><ul><li>BICS—Basic Interpersonal Language
Language Skills depend on cognitive demands on the student
Cognitively demanding vs. Cognitively undemanding</li></li></ul><li>Take a deeper look at BICS and CALP<br />Which skills are developed as a part of BICS<br />Which skills require a deeper language knowledge<br />
Context Embedded vs. Context Reduced<br /><ul><li>Context embedded—communication occurs in a context that offers help to comprehension
Multiple choice test</li></li></ul><li>Michael Long & Catherine DoughtyCurrently Professor at Hawaii University<br />Interaction<br />Purposeful communication of language<br />Strategies<br />Pronunciation practice<br />Teach how to form questions<br />Comprehension checks<br />Repetitions of key words and phrases<br />Successful Language Acquisition<br />
Language Theories Influence Language Instruction<br />Components of ESOL<br />Speaking<br />Listening<br />Reading<br />Writing<br />
Group Work<br /><ul><li>Describe this stage of language development.
What is important for teachers to know about this stage of language development?
Are students learning BICS or CALP at this stage?
Create a skit to show how a teacher would interact with students at this stage.</li></li></ul><li>Question for Thought <br />What challenges do you think challenges do English language learners face when they attempt to read?<br />
Younger vs. Older Students <br />Background knowledge<br />Knowledge of sentence structure<br />Ability to communicate fluently<br />If the student has not had formal education they will more than likely take longer to acquire English<br />
Selecting the Right TextReading Levels<br /><ul><li>Too easy will make students get bored or will not sufficiently challenge students
New vocabulary</li></li></ul><li>"Awaken people's curiosity. It is enough to open minds, do not overload them. Put there just a spark." <br />- Anatole France <br />
Purpose of Running Records<br />Determine or confirm a student’s instructional reading level<br />95-100% Independent<br />90-94% Instructional<br />89% and below Frustration<br />Identify the cueing system(s) a student uses when encountering an unknown word<br />Meaning<br />Structure<br />Visual<br />Create a record of Reading Progress over time<br />Plan for instruction<br />
Analyzing Student Errors<br /><ul><li>Meaning (makes sense in that book)
Example: She has one rabbit in her hair. (ribbon)
Fill in the Blank with a word bank</li></li></ul><li>Graphic Organizers<br />Provide a basic scaffolding for writing<br />Organizes and Prepares students for more complex writing<br />Vocabulary<br />Ideas<br />
<ul><li>Answer: This language structure includes do, don’t, does, doesn’t, did and didn’t.