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  • Implications for mainstream teachersWe should not assume that non-native speakers who have attained a high degree of fluency and accuracy in everyday spoken English have the corresponding academic language proficiency. This may help us to avoid labelling children who exhibit this disparity as having special educational needs when all they need is more time. The non-native speakers in your classes, who have exited from the ESL program, are still, in most cases, in the process of catching up with their native speaking peers.
  • --Older students develop literacy more quickly. --Younger students pick up oral language more fluenty and quickly.
  • --Neglecting these skills--Structure—verb tenses (example catch/caught—ESOL students don’t know when one sounds right over the other)
  • Video ppt example 12 mb vid

    1. 1. Teaching Reading to LEP StudentsTrinity UniversityEDU 989A<br />Instructor: Ms. Jennifer W. Estenós<br />
    2. 2. Essential for some, useful for all.<br />
    3. 3. Introductions <br />Share your name/position/school.<br />What is one hobby that you enjoy (that you might be enjoying if you weren’t in this class )?<br />
    4. 4. Ground Rules<br /><ul><li>Be open to share personal experiences
    5. 5. Respect the opinions and experiences of others
    6. 6. Ask questions
    7. 7. Actively participate in group discussions
    8. 8. Be on time
    9. 9. Limit Distractions to the Class
    10. 10. Silence cell phones
    11. 11. Cell phones should not be used during class
    12. 12. Save texting for breaks</li></li></ul><li>Session 1 at a Glance<br />Guide to ESOL terms and acronyms<br />Linguistic Theorists<br />Stages of Language Learning<br />Common Errors<br />Process and Factors involved in Second Language Learning <br />Strategies for Beginner and Intermediate Learners<br />
    13. 13. Terms and Acronyms<br />ESOL—English to Speakers of Other Languages<br />ESL—English as a Second Language<br />TESOL—Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages<br />ELL—Engish Language Learner<br />R-ELL—Reclassified English Language Learner<br />ELL Plan—An Accomodations document for ELLs and some RELLs<br />LEP/LM—Limited English Proficient/ Language Minority<br />TOEFL—Test of English as a Foreign Language for college admissions<br />BICS—Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (6mo-2 years)<br />CALP—Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency <br />
    14. 14. More Terms and Acronyms <br />Plug-In <br />Pull-out<br />Co-teaching<br /> LAS Links<br />Bilingual Education<br />Bilingualism<br />Code Switching<br />L1 vs. L2<br />
    15. 15. Who are ELLs?<br />ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS <br />(ELLs)<br />LEP SUBGROUP<br />(Limited English Proficiency)<br />Current ESOL students and<br />certain former ESOL students<br />NON-LEP SUBGROUP<br />ELLs who have exited the ESOL program more than 2 years ago<br />RECLASSIFIED ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS<br />(R-ELLs)<br />ELLs who have exited the ESOL program within the past 2 years<br />ESOL STUDENTS<br />ELLs presently enrolled in the ESOL program receiving ESOL instruction from the ESOL teacher using the<br />ESOL curriculum<br />Working with<br />English Language Learners<br />is a whole-school effort!<br />Division of ESOL/Bilingual Programs<br /><br />3/7/2008<br />
    16. 16. Acronym PreferencesConnotation of terms and acronyms<br /><ul><li>Society attempts to teach acceptance of language diversity
    17. 17. Our language/terminology reflects some discrimination for non-native English speakers
    18. 18. Limited English Proficient (LEP)
    19. 19. Language Minority (LM)
    20. 20. Course preference
    21. 21. English Language Learner (ELL)
    22. 22. English for Speakers of Other Languages/ English as a Second Language (ESOL/ESL students)</li></li></ul><li>B.F. SkinnerBehaviorist theory of language development<br />Children learn language through <br />stimulus, response and reinforcement<br />Child’s mind is a tabula rasa, blank slate<br />Could not explain:<br />Novel utterances<br />Sentences that were grammatically correct<br />
    23. 23. Children automatically recognize when language is produced incorrectly as a part of the LAD.<br />
    24. 24. Noam ChomskyCurrently Professor Emeritus of Linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology<br /><ul><li>Language is innate
    25. 25. Babies are born with a predisposition to learn language
    26. 26. Children learn the rules to a language as they hear it
    27. 27. Language Acquisition Device:
    28. 28. Understanding of the rules helps children to produce new sentences that they have never heard
    29. 29. Universal Grammar:
    30. 30. There is one language with many local variants</li></li></ul><li>Universal GrammarUniversal language rule: All sentence structures include at least 3 parts; the subject, verb and object.<br /><ul><li>SVO: The teacher gavea lecture.
    31. 31. 75% of all the world’s languages
    32. 32. SOV: The teacher a lecture gave.
    33. 33. Japanese and Tibetan
    34. 34. VSO: Gavethe teacher a lecture.
    35. 35. Welch
    36. 36. VOS: Gavea lecture the teacher.
    37. 37. Malagasy (spoken in Madagascar)
    38. 38. OSV: A lecture the teacher gave.
    39. 39. Extremely rare
    40. 40. Yoda from Star Wars</li></li></ul><li>Stephen KrashenCurrently Professor Emeritus at the University of Southern California<br /><ul><li>Emphasis on interpersonal aspects of language
    41. 41. Meaningful interactions are the key to learning a language
    42. 42. Classrooms need to be engaging and non-threatening
    43. 43. Comprehensible Input= i+1
    44. 44. i=level of proficiency
    45. 45. 1=the level just beyond the learners current level</li></li></ul><li>Reflection<br /> Can you think of learning experiences in your life that involve i+1? Instances where your skills can only improve with the input of something slightly above your comfort level?<br /> Example: learning to ski<br />
    46. 46. Jim Cummins<br /><ul><li>BICS—Basic Interpersonal Language
    47. 47. Develops in 6month-2 years
    48. 48. Language to have conversational communication
    49. 49. CALP—Cognitive Academic Language
    50. 50. Develops in 4-7 years (up to 10 years)
    51. 51. Language to express more cognitively demanding concepts –require the speaker to synthesize information
    52. 52. Ease of language learning depends of the context
    53. 53. Context Embedded vs. Context Reduced
    54. 54. Language Skills depend on cognitive demands on the student
    55. 55. Cognitively demanding vs. Cognitively undemanding</li></li></ul><li>Take a deeper look at BICS and CALP<br />Which skills are developed as a part of BICS<br />Which skills require a deeper language knowledge<br />
    56. 56. Context Embedded vs. Context Reduced<br /><ul><li>Context embedded—communication occurs in a context that offers help to comprehension
    57. 57. Visual cues
    58. 58. Gestures
    59. 59. Expressions
    60. 60. Meaning is relatively obvious due to help from physical or social nature of conversation
    61. 61. Context Reduced—few cues as to the meaning of the communication apart from the words themselves—language is likely to be abstract
    62. 62. Listening to a lecture
    63. 63. Reading dense text
    64. 64. Phone Conversations</li></li></ul><li>Cognitively Undemanding vs. Cognitively Demanding <br /><ul><li>Cognitively Undemanding
    65. 65. Minimal abstract or critical thinking
    66. 66. Conversation on the playground
    67. 67. Yes/no questions
    68. 68. Cognitively Demanding
    69. 69. Analyze and synthesize information with abstract concepts
    70. 70. Academic content lessons
    71. 71. Multiple choice test</li></li></ul><li>Michael Long & Catherine DoughtyCurrently Professor at Hawaii University<br />Interaction<br />Purposeful communication of language<br />Strategies<br />Pronunciation practice<br />Teach how to form questions<br />Comprehension checks<br />Repetitions of key words and phrases<br />Successful Language Acquisition<br />
    72. 72. Language Theories Influence Language Instruction<br />Components of ESOL<br />Speaking<br />Listening<br />Reading<br />Writing<br />
    73. 73. Group Work<br /><ul><li>Describe this stage of language development.
    74. 74. What is important for teachers to know about this stage of language development?
    75. 75. Are students learning BICS or CALP at this stage?
    76. 76. Create a skit to show how a teacher would interact with students at this stage.</li></li></ul><li>Question for Thought <br />What challenges do you think challenges do English language learners face when they attempt to read?<br />
    77. 77. Younger vs. Older Students <br />Background knowledge<br />Knowledge of sentence structure<br />Ability to communicate fluently<br />If the student has not had formal education they will more than likely take longer to acquire English<br />
    78. 78. Selecting the Right TextReading Levels<br /><ul><li>Too easy will make students get bored or will not sufficiently challenge students
    79. 79. Too hard will frustrate students
    80. 80. Limited meaning
    81. 81. Students may give up!
    82. 82. Instructional reading level challenges students with text that has the appropriate level of:
    83. 83. Sentence complexity
    84. 84. New vocabulary</li></li></ul><li>"Awaken people's curiosity. It is enough to open minds, do not overload them. Put there just a spark." <br />- Anatole France <br />
    85. 85. Purpose of Running Records<br />Determine or confirm a student’s instructional reading level<br />95-100% Independent<br />90-94% Instructional<br />89% and below Frustration<br />Identify the cueing system(s) a student uses when encountering an unknown word<br />Meaning<br />Structure<br />Visual<br />Create a record of Reading Progress over time<br />Plan for instruction<br />
    86. 86. Analyzing Student Errors<br /><ul><li>Meaning (makes sense in that book)
    87. 87. Example: She has one rabbit in her hair. (ribbon)
    88. 88. Structure (sounds right in English)
    89. 89. Example: She has one red ribbons in her hair. (ribbon)
    90. 90. Difficult for ESOL students who don’t know what really sounds right
    91. 91. Visual (looks right in print)
    92. 92. She has one red bow in her hair. (ribbon)</li></li></ul><li>Stage 1: Silent/ Receptive StageImportant Vocabulary/Topics for Reading Text<br /><ul><li>Greetings
    93. 93. Dialogue Practice
    94. 94. Routines
    95. 95. Calendar
    96. 96. Weather
    97. 97. Daily Schedule
    98. 98. Places in the School
    99. 99. Classroom Vocabulary (Unique per setting)
    100. 100. Yes/No Questions</li></li></ul><li>Labeled classroomA literacy rich classroom helps students have a greater understanding of the purpose of print<br />
    101. 101. Great On-line Resource <br />Mes-English—Worksheets and flashcards for picture support of numerous topics<br />Activities for language support<br /><br />
    102. 102. Questions to Demonstrate Comprension<br /><ul><li>Yes/No Questions
    103. 103. Multiple Choice Questions
    104. 104. Questions with Picture Support
    105. 105. Fill in the Blank with a word bank</li></li></ul><li>Graphic Organizers<br />Provide a basic scaffolding for writing<br />Organizes and Prepares students for more complex writing<br />Vocabulary<br />Ideas<br />
    106. 106. <ul><li>Answer: This language structure includes do, don’t, does, doesn’t, did and didn’t.
    107. 107. Question: What is an auxiliary verb? </li>