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Teaching Reading to LEP StudentsTrinity UniversityEDU 989A Instructor: Ms. Jennifer W. Estenós
Essential for some, useful for all.
Introductions Share your name/position/school. What is one hobby that you enjoy (that you might be enjoying if you weren’t in this class )?
Be open to share personal experiences
Respect the opinions and experiences of others
Actively participate in group discussions
Be on time
Limit Distractions to the Class
Silence cell phones
Cell phones should not be used during class
Save texting for breaks
Session 1 at a Glance Guide to ESOL terms and acronyms Linguistic Theorists Stages of Language Learning Common Errors Process and Factors involved in Second Language Learning Strategies for Beginner and Intermediate Learners
Terms and Acronyms ESOL—English to Speakers of Other Languages ESL—English as a Second Language TESOL—Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages ELL—Engish Language Learner R-ELL—Reclassified English Language Learner ELL Plan—An Accomodations document for ELLs and some RELLs LEP/LM—Limited English Proficient/ Language Minority TOEFL—Test of English as a Foreign Language for college admissions BICS—Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (6mo-2 years) CALP—Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
More Terms and Acronyms Plug-In Pull-out Co-teaching LAS Links Bilingual Education Bilingualism Code Switching L1 vs. L2
Who are ELLs? ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS (ELLs) LEP SUBGROUP (Limited English Proficiency) Current ESOL students and certain former ESOL students NON-LEP SUBGROUP ELLs who have exited the ESOL program more than 2 years ago RECLASSIFIED ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS (R-ELLs) ELLs who have exited the ESOL program within the past 2 years ESOL STUDENTS ELLs presently enrolled in the ESOL program receiving ESOL instruction from the ESOL teacher using the ESOL curriculum Working with English Language Learners is a whole-school effort! Division of ESOL/Bilingual Programs http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/curriculum/esol 3/7/2008
Acronym PreferencesConnotation of terms and acronyms
Society attempts to teach acceptance of language diversity
Our language/terminology reflects some discrimination for non-native English speakers
Limited English Proficient (LEP)
Language Minority (LM)
English Language Learner (ELL)
English for Speakers of Other Languages/ English as a Second Language (ESOL/ESL students)
B.F. SkinnerBehaviorist theory of language development Children learn language through stimulus, response and reinforcement Child’s mind is a tabula rasa, blank slate Could not explain: Novel utterances Sentences that were grammatically correct
Children automatically recognize when language is produced incorrectly as a part of the LAD.
Noam ChomskyCurrently Professor Emeritus of Linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Language is innate
Babies are born with a predisposition to learn language
Children learn the rules to a language as they hear it
Language Acquisition Device:
Understanding of the rules helps children to produce new sentences that they have never heard
There is one language with many local variants
Universal GrammarUniversal language rule: All sentence structures include at least 3 parts; the subject, verb and object.
SVO: The teacher gavea lecture.
75% of all the world’s languages
SOV: The teacher a lecture gave.
Japanese and Tibetan
VSO: Gavethe teacher a lecture.
VOS: Gavea lecture the teacher.
Malagasy (spoken in Madagascar)
OSV: A lecture the teacher gave.
Yoda from Star Wars
Stephen KrashenCurrently Professor Emeritus at the University of Southern California
Emphasis on interpersonal aspects of language
Meaningful interactions are the key to learning a language
Classrooms need to be engaging and non-threatening
Comprehensible Input= i+1
i=level of proficiency
1=the level just beyond the learners current level
Reflection Can you think of learning experiences in your life that involve i+1? Instances where your skills can only improve with the input of something slightly above your comfort level? Example: learning to ski
BICS—Basic Interpersonal Language
Develops in 6month-2 years
Language to have conversational communication
CALP—Cognitive Academic Language
Develops in 4-7 years (up to 10 years)
Language to express more cognitively demanding concepts –require the speaker to synthesize information
Ease of language learning depends of the context
Context Embedded vs. Context Reduced
Language Skills depend on cognitive demands on the student
Cognitively demanding vs. Cognitively undemanding
Take a deeper look at BICS and CALP Which skills are developed as a part of BICS Which skills require a deeper language knowledge
Context Embedded vs. Context Reduced
Context embedded—communication occurs in a context that offers help to comprehension
Meaning is relatively obvious due to help from physical or social nature of conversation
Context Reduced—few cues as to the meaning of the communication apart from the words themselves—language is likely to be abstract
Listening to a lecture
Reading dense text
Cognitively Undemanding vs. Cognitively Demanding
Minimal abstract or critical thinking
Conversation on the playground
Analyze and synthesize information with abstract concepts
Academic content lessons
Multiple choice test
Michael Long & Catherine DoughtyCurrently Professor at Hawaii University Interaction Purposeful communication of language Strategies Pronunciation practice Teach how to form questions Comprehension checks Repetitions of key words and phrases Successful Language Acquisition
Language Theories Influence Language Instruction Components of ESOL Speaking Listening Reading Writing
Describe this stage of language development.
What is important for teachers to know about this stage of language development?
Are students learning BICS or CALP at this stage?
Create a skit to show how a teacher would interact with students at this stage.
Question for Thought What challenges do you think challenges do English language learners face when they attempt to read?
Younger vs. Older Students Background knowledge Knowledge of sentence structure Ability to communicate fluently If the student has not had formal education they will more than likely take longer to acquire English
Selecting the Right TextReading Levels
Too easy will make students get bored or will not sufficiently challenge students
Too hard will frustrate students
Students may give up!
Instructional reading level challenges students with text that has the appropriate level of:
"Awaken people's curiosity. It is enough to open minds, do not overload them. Put there just a spark." - Anatole France
Purpose of Running Records Determine or confirm a student’s instructional reading level 95-100% Independent 90-94% Instructional 89% and below Frustration Identify the cueing system(s) a student uses when encountering an unknown word Meaning Structure Visual Create a record of Reading Progress over time Plan for instruction
Analyzing Student Errors
Meaning (makes sense in that book)
Example: She has one rabbit in her hair. (ribbon)
Structure (sounds right in English)
Example: She has one red ribbons in her hair. (ribbon)
Difficult for ESOL students who don’t know what really sounds right
Visual (looks right in print)
She has one red bow in her hair. (ribbon)
Stage 1: Silent/ Receptive StageImportant Vocabulary/Topics for Reading Text
Places in the School
Classroom Vocabulary (Unique per setting)
Labeled classroomA literacy rich classroom helps students have a greater understanding of the purpose of print
Great On-line Resource Mes-English—Worksheets and flashcards for picture support of numerous topics Activities for language support http://www.mes-english.com/
Questions to Demonstrate Comprension
Multiple Choice Questions
Questions with Picture Support
Fill in the Blank with a word bank
Graphic Organizers Provide a basic scaffolding for writing Organizes and Prepares students for more complex writing Vocabulary Ideas
Answer: This language structure includes do, don’t, does, doesn’t, did and didn’t.