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  1. 1. ANDREW GOODWIN<br />Theory of editing 1<br />DancingintheDistraction<br />factory<br />
  2. 2. ANDREW GOODWIN<br />Goodwin wrote a book on his theory of editing which was called ‘Dancing in the Distraction Factory’ in this book he stated that his theories of music video editing style focusing on three areas:- Illustration- Amplification- Disjuncture<br />
  3. 3. ILLUSTRATION<br />Music– The shots always cutonthebeat.<br />Lyrics– The images illustrate the literal meaning or feeling of the lyrics, mainly  just with the band singing and dancing.<br />Band Image - The band simply singing/dancing/playing instruments, usually dressed as would be expected to the genre.<br />
  4. 4. ILLUSTRATION example<br />This Duffy example shows the singer performing the song with some dancers but no real narrative structure – just performance. The video cuts on the beat throughout and demonstrates the literal feeling of the lyrics by showing her overpowering the men and ‘raining on their parades’ as it were.<br />
  5. 5. Amplification<br />Music – Shots cut on and off the beat, to emphasise certain features.<br />Lyrics – The images amplify the lyrics & create a specific narrative, could be used as certain things aren’t picked up from just reading the lyrics. <br />Band Image – The band take on fictional roles in the narrative.<br />
  6. 6. Amplification example<br />Amy Winehouse’s music video for ‘You Know I’m No Good’ portrays Amy as a fictional role – as these situations aren’t actually happening to her although they could be considered metaphorical representations of her own life. <br />The images amplify and reflect the lyrics but don’t fully follow the exact path that the lyrics may create in an ‘illustration’ based video. <br />Shots cut on and off the beat.<br />
  7. 7. Disjuncture.<br />Music – Shots cut off the beat, can be a sign of a badly made music video, (but not in all cases).<br />Lyrics – The images don’t relate to the lyrics that are used, sometimes used by bands who are already very well established, and who can afford to take the risk.<br />Band Image – The band/artist takes on animage that’s completely opposite totheir expected image.<br />
  8. 8. Disjuncture. examples<br />In Katy Perry’s ‘Last Friday Night, T.G.I.F’ disjuncture is used in that her image is completely altered and unexpected, the lyrics aren’t really directly related to the video.<br />
  9. 9. Theory of editing 2<br />CAROL VERNALLIS<br />The Kindest Cut<br />
  10. 10. Carol Vernallis found in Music Videos that...<br />Multiplicity of incomplete, obscure parts of narrative is used<br />Order of shots is unconventional and shifts variably with no typical shot order.<br />Time, space, character and narrative are revealed incompletely.<br />Discontinuity <br />Visual Hooks<br />
  11. 11. But most importantly...<br />THE PHANTASMAGORICAL BODY<br />Shots are put together to encourage to piece together a fantasy body made up of bits we are made to see in the edited cut of a video. This makes the artist appear perfect and become a motivational figure for the viewer. <br />For example, in this Kylie Minogue example, although she’s well into her thirties, we are made to think she’s completely perfect and youthful by only being shown certain parts (mainly rear and legs)<br />
  12. 12. Bordwell and Thompson<br />Theory of editing 3<br />Catergories of editing:<br />Kuleshov Effect<br />Graphic<br />Spatial<br />Temporal <br />Rhythmic<br />
  13. 13. KULESHOV EFFECT<br />How editing can create meaning, for example an establishing shot of a building followed by a shot of somebody indoors would suggest they’re in that building. I’ve put together examples below by using unrelated shots however the system of editing and placing them together creates the idea that they are related.<br />
  14. 14. GRAPHIC<br />When transitions between shots are linked graphically by their pictoral qualities, for example, shape, patterns of light and dark, volume, depth and movement. The below example matches shape and has graphic continuity.<br />GRAPHIC MATCH: Linkage of shots by graphic similarities.<br />GRAPHIC CONTINUITY: Centre of interest is constant throughout cuts, maintaining lighting level and general image.<br />GRAPHIC DISCONTINUITY: contrast colour and footage types<br />
  15. 15. S p a t I a l<br />How ‘space’ relates to shots and those shots following it.<br />CONTINUITY EDITING: Linear/chronological narrative, we ‘see’ same time and location<br />KULESHOV EFFECT: As a viewer we want logic, we assume the location and space are the same. <br />CROSS CUTTING: Emphasises action taking place in several places.<br />
  16. 16. Rhythmic <br />Duration of shots, length of each in relation and its pattern involving accent, beat and tempo.<br /><ul><li>All shots same approx. Length, steady metrical beat
  17. 17. Steadily lengthening shots = gradually slowing tempo
  18. 18. Successively shorter shots = accelerating tempo.
  19. 19. Rapid shots = little time for thought.</li></li></ul><li>TEMP RAL<br /> Time of action contributes to plot manipulation of story time, order duration and frequency such as flashbacks and forwards<br />Ellipsis: Taking out stuff we don’t need to see, such as sleeping.<br />Punctuation: Shot change, dissolve, wipe signalling passing of time.<br />Empty Frames: figure of interest seen moving out of a frame, cuts to empty frame where figure moves into it<br />Cutaways: a shot of another event that doesn’t last as long as the omitted action.<br />