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Instructional Design - Bicycle Model
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Instructional Design - Bicycle Model



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  • Instructional Design is not a linear process. Instead, it is the integration of efforts from the Instructional Designer, the Instructor Guide, and the Learner. In this model, ADDIE hits the road to move learners toward professional goals.
  • The Instructional Designer influences the process in every phase of ADDIE. They are the ones asking questions, making decisions, and creating the final product. To ensure quality, the Instructional designer develops a prototype and conducts a tabletop review to obtain feedback from the Subject Matter Expert (SME) prior to rolling out the course. In our model where ADDIE hits the road, the Instructional Designer is the frame of the bicycle, pulling all the components and phases together in order to move the learner forward and meet market needs and business goals.
  • The front wheel determines the course of the learner. In this model, the front wheel keeps the course with the first three steps of ADDIE. In the first step the Instructional Designer analyzes. Several questions drive this portion of the process in order to properly aim the bike along its course.
  • The Instructional Designer also creates a design document to keep the learner on course. This document details many choices made for the design as well as the order of the objectives, the overall learning approach, and the activities and assessments to be used in the course.
  • Finally, the Instructional Designer actually develops the course, implementing the results of analysis and setting the plan in motion. This phase includes a tabletop review and pilot session to solicit feedback in order to achieve the most effective design.
  • The rear wheel of a bicycle is truly where the rubber meets the pavement. In the implementation phase the instructional designer manages the launch of the course.
  • Once the course has been implemented the Instructional Designer must ensure learning has occurred. This stage leads the process to a summative evaluation.
  • Once the instructor has been trained to deliver the course, she takes on a variety of roles. She may take a behaviorist, cognitivist, constructivist, or combination approach depending up on her style and the needs of the course and learner.
  • In order for the learner to make true progress, he must actively participate in the process. Like the instructor, the learner’s role may vary depending upon the approach taken in the design of the course and the style of the instructor. The learner must take the opportunity to provide feedback in order to ensure the ongoing quality of the instruction.
  • Contrary to a linear or circular representation of instructional design, this model expresses the fluidity and interconnectedness of the Instructional Design process.


  • 1. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN: Moving Learners Toward Professional Goals EDIT6100 Saviour Anyidoho Vivia Hill-Silcott Kathryn Kolencik
  • 2. Instructional Design Framework Ask questions throughout the process  Where are we going?  How will we get there?  How will we know we have arrived? Make decisions throughout the process  Balance quality with timeliness  Select activities, exercises, and best method of delivery Develop prototype and course materials Conduct tabletop review and pilot the course Launch
  • 3. Keeping the Course Analyze: Clarify the instructional problem Needs analysis  Consider entry skills of target audience  Analyze performance gap  Establish means to measure improvement in performance Establish measurable instructional goals, objectives, and metrics Who is the target audience?
  • 4. Keeping the Course Design:  Plan instructional strategy  Select appropriate course format  Write instructional design document     Describe overall learning approach Identify instructional media choices Cluster and sequence objectives Describe activities and assessments
  • 5. Keeping the Course Develop:     Produce instructional materials Test through formative assessment Tabletop review for completeness Pilot session - rapid prototyping   Test design Obtain learner and instructor feedback Is the content accurate and complete?
  • 6. Rubber Meets Pavement Implement:  Launch - deliver training to the target audience    Establish timetable for rollout Train the trainer Manage course logistics  Assess, redesign, and enhance product    Incorporate trainer feedback Incorporate learner feedback Incorporate SME feedback
  • 7. Rubber Meets Pavement Evaluate:  Formative evaluation occurs during development and implementation  Summative evaluation – Kirkpatrick Levels     Response of the learner Learner results Learner behavior Level of achievement of the company’s business goals
  • 8. Instructor Guides the Way Behaviorist view:  Provide stimulus - instruct  Prompt and reward correct responses Cognitivist view:  Direct student through information processing  Assist learner in applying appropriate strategies Constructivist view:  Model, but maintain student-centered environment  Coach the learner through the process of learning  Provide the necessary just-in-time scaffolding
  • 9. Active Learners in Motion Behaviorist View:  Learn through repetitive drill processes Cognitivist View:  Recall prior knowledge and experiences – schema  Change mental structures to accommodate learning Constructivist View:  Construct learning through problem solving, active participation, and reflection
  • 10. Instructional Design Model