CHEMISTRY OF THE CELL
Five Principles <ul><li>The importance of carbon </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of water </li></ul><ul><li>The importanc...
1. Importance of Carbon <ul><li>Carbon-containing compounds </li></ul><ul><li>- domain of organic chemistry </li></ul><ul>...
1. Importance of Carbon <ul><li>1.1fundamental property = valence (4) </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>- Carbon atoms...
1. Importance of Carbon <ul><li>A. Simple organic molecule with single bond </li></ul><ul><li>a. methane  </li></ul><ul><l...
1. Importance of Carbon <ul><li>B. Simple molecules with double bond </li></ul><ul><li>a. ethylene </li></ul><ul><li>(CH 2...
1. Importance of Carbon <ul><li>C. Triple Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>a. molecular nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>(N 2 ) </li></ul...
1. Importance of Carbon <ul><li>1.2 HYDROCARBONS </li></ul><ul><li>- only H atoms are used to complete the valence require...
1.3 Presence of Functional Groups
Functional Groups
2. Importance of Water <ul><li>universal backbone of  </li></ul><ul><li>biologically important  </li></ul><ul><li>molecule...
2. Importance of water e. H 2 O are cohesive (HYDROGEN BOND) f. H 2 O has high temperature stabilizing capacity a. high sp...
2. Importance of water <ul><li>c. High heat of vaporization (amount of  energy required to convert one gram of  liquid int...
2. Importance of water <ul><li>g. H 2 O is an excellent solvent (a fluid in which another substance called the solute can ...
3.  Importance  of selectively permeable membrane <ul><li>Physical barrier that controls the exchange of substance between...
4.  Importance of Synthesis of polymerization
Hierarchical Nature of Cellular structures and their assembly   Summer 2009 CRISTNA C SALIBAY [email_address]
5. Importance of self assembly <ul><li>- Asserts the information required to specify the folding of macromolecules and the...
Chemical substances in an organism Summer 2009
MACROMOLECULES <ul><li>constructed by covalently bonding monomers by condensation reactions where water is removed from fu...
CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>have the general formula [CH 2 O]n where n is a number between 3 and 6. </li></ul><ul><li>function i...
CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>CLASSES OF CARBOHYDRATES </li></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>- simple sugars </li></ul>
CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>2. Disaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>- 2 monosaccharides/sugars </li></ul><ul><li>glucose & fructose <...
CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>3. Polysaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>- insoluble in water </li></ul><ul><li>3.1. Starch </li></ul><u...
CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>3.2. Glycogen </li></ul><ul><li>- liver and skeletal muscles are  major depots of glycogen </li></ul>
CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>3.3. Cellulose </li></ul><ul><li>- structural component in plants  </li></ul>
LIPIDS
LIPIDS
LIPIDS
LIPID (Fatty Acids)
LIPIDS (glycerides)
LIPIDS
LIPIDS
LIPIDS (Non-glycerides)
LIPIDS
LIPIDS
LIPIDS
LIPIDS
LIPIDS
LIPIDS (Complex Lipids)
LIPIDS
LIPIDS
PROTEINS
PROTEINS
PROTEINS
PROTEINS
PROTEINS
PROTEINS
PROTEINS
PROTEINS
PROTEINS
PROTEINS
PROTEINS
PROTEINS
PROTEINS
PROTEINS
PROTEINS
NUCLEIC ACID <ul><li>polymers  composed of  monomer  units known as  nucleotides   </li></ul><ul><li>function </li></ul><u...
NUCLEIC ACID
NUCLEIC ACID
NUCLEIC ACID
NUCLEIC ACID
NUCLEIC ACID
NUCLEIC ACID
NUCLEIC ACID
NUCLEIC ACID
NUCLEIC ACID
NUCLEIC ACID
NUCLEIC ACID
NUCLEIC ACID Summer 2009
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The chemistry of the cell

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The chemistry of the cell

  1. 1. CHEMISTRY OF THE CELL
  2. 2. Five Principles <ul><li>The importance of carbon </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of water </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of selectively permeable membrane </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of synthesis by polymerization of small molecules </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of assembly </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Importance of Carbon <ul><li>Carbon-containing compounds </li></ul><ul><li>- domain of organic chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>- most important atom in biological molecules </li></ul><ul><li>- diversity & stability of carbon-containing </li></ul><ul><li>compounds are due to nature of interactions of C atoms with one another </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1. Importance of Carbon <ul><li>1.1fundamental property = valence (4) </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>- Carbon atoms form covalent bond with one another or with atoms of oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N) and Sulfur (S) </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1. Importance of Carbon <ul><li>A. Simple organic molecule with single bond </li></ul><ul><li>a. methane </li></ul><ul><li>(CH 4 ) </li></ul><ul><li>b. ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>(CH 3 -CH 2 OH) </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1. Importance of Carbon <ul><li>B. Simple molecules with double bond </li></ul><ul><li>a. ethylene </li></ul><ul><li>(CH 2 =CH 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>b. carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>(CO 2 ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1. Importance of Carbon <ul><li>C. Triple Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>a. molecular nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>(N 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>b. Hydrogen cyanide </li></ul><ul><li>(HCN) </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1. Importance of Carbon <ul><li>1.2 HYDROCARBONS </li></ul><ul><li>- only H atoms are used to complete the valence requirements of linear and circular molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Ethane (Ch 3 -CH 3 ) Propane (CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li> Ethylene (CH 2 =CH 2) Acetylene (CH=CH) </li></ul><ul><li> Benzene </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1.3 Presence of Functional Groups
  10. 10. Functional Groups
  11. 11. 2. Importance of Water <ul><li>universal backbone of </li></ul><ul><li>biologically important </li></ul><ul><li>molecule </li></ul><ul><li>b. Universal solvent in </li></ul><ul><li>biological system </li></ul><ul><li>c. 75-85% of cell by weight </li></ul><ul><li>d. Polar (asymmetric charge </li></ul><ul><li>distribution) </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2. Importance of water e. H 2 O are cohesive (HYDROGEN BOND) f. H 2 O has high temperature stabilizing capacity a. high specific heat (amount of heat a substance must absorb per gram to increase its temperature 1 0 C. specific heat water = 1.0calorie/gram
  13. 13. 2. Importance of water <ul><li>c. High heat of vaporization (amount of energy required to convert one gram of liquid into vapor) </li></ul><ul><li>- excellent coolant </li></ul>
  14. 14. 2. Importance of water <ul><li>g. H 2 O is an excellent solvent (a fluid in which another substance called the solute can be dissolved. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophilic (water loving) – sugar, organic acids, amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic (water fearing) – lipids, proteins </li></ul><ul><li>“ LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE” </li></ul>
  15. 15. 3. Importance of selectively permeable membrane <ul><li>Physical barrier that controls the exchange of substance between the internal & external environment </li></ul><ul><li>Bi-lipid layer (amphipathic) </li></ul><ul><li>hydrophilic HEAD </li></ul><ul><li>hydrophobic TAIL </li></ul>
  16. 16. 4. Importance of Synthesis of polymerization
  17. 17. Hierarchical Nature of Cellular structures and their assembly Summer 2009 CRISTNA C SALIBAY [email_address]
  18. 18. 5. Importance of self assembly <ul><li>- Asserts the information required to specify the folding of macromolecules and their interactions to form more complicated structures with specific biological functions. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Chemical substances in an organism Summer 2009
  20. 20. MACROMOLECULES <ul><li>constructed by covalently bonding monomers by condensation reactions where water is removed from functional groups on the monomers </li></ul>
  21. 21. CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>have the general formula [CH 2 O]n where n is a number between 3 and 6. </li></ul><ul><li>function in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>short-term energy storage ( such as sugar ); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intermediate-term energy storage ( starch for plants and glycogen for animals ); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>structural components in cells ( cellulose in the cell walls of plants and many protists ), and chitin in the exoskeleton of insects and other arthropods </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>CLASSES OF CARBOHYDRATES </li></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>- simple sugars </li></ul>
  23. 23. CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>2. Disaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>- 2 monosaccharides/sugars </li></ul><ul><li>glucose & fructose </li></ul>
  24. 24. CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>3. Polysaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>- insoluble in water </li></ul><ul><li>3.1. Starch </li></ul><ul><li>- amylose consists of linear, unbranched chains of several hundred glucose residues (units). </li></ul><ul><li>- amylopectin differs from amylose in being highly branched. </li></ul>
  25. 25. CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>3.2. Glycogen </li></ul><ul><li>- liver and skeletal muscles are major depots of glycogen </li></ul>
  26. 26. CARBOHYDRATES <ul><li>3.3. Cellulose </li></ul><ul><li>- structural component in plants </li></ul>
  27. 27. LIPIDS
  28. 28. LIPIDS
  29. 29. LIPIDS
  30. 30. LIPID (Fatty Acids)
  31. 31. LIPIDS (glycerides)
  32. 32. LIPIDS
  33. 33. LIPIDS
  34. 34. LIPIDS (Non-glycerides)
  35. 35. LIPIDS
  36. 36. LIPIDS
  37. 37. LIPIDS
  38. 38. LIPIDS
  39. 39. LIPIDS
  40. 40. LIPIDS (Complex Lipids)
  41. 41. LIPIDS
  42. 42. LIPIDS
  43. 43. PROTEINS
  44. 44. PROTEINS
  45. 45. PROTEINS
  46. 46. PROTEINS
  47. 47. PROTEINS
  48. 48. PROTEINS
  49. 49. PROTEINS
  50. 50. PROTEINS
  51. 51. PROTEINS
  52. 52. PROTEINS
  53. 53. PROTEINS
  54. 54. PROTEINS
  55. 55. PROTEINS
  56. 56. PROTEINS
  57. 57. PROTEINS
  58. 58. NUCLEIC ACID <ul><li>polymers composed of monomer units known as nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information storage (DNA), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protein synthesis (RNA), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>energy transfers (ATP and NAD). </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. NUCLEIC ACID
  60. 60. NUCLEIC ACID
  61. 61. NUCLEIC ACID
  62. 62. NUCLEIC ACID
  63. 63. NUCLEIC ACID
  64. 64. NUCLEIC ACID
  65. 65. NUCLEIC ACID
  66. 66. NUCLEIC ACID
  67. 67. NUCLEIC ACID
  68. 68. NUCLEIC ACID
  69. 69. NUCLEIC ACID
  70. 70. NUCLEIC ACID Summer 2009
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