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The chemistry of the cell
 

The chemistry of the cell

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Created by: Mrs. Lilibeth Mayor

Created by: Mrs. Lilibeth Mayor
Uploaded by: Kathleen Gonzales

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    The chemistry of the cell The chemistry of the cell Presentation Transcript

    • CHEMISTRY OF THE CELL
    • Five Principles
      • The importance of carbon
      • The importance of water
      • The importance of selectively permeable membrane
      • The importance of synthesis by polymerization of small molecules
      • The importance of assembly
    • 1. Importance of Carbon
      • Carbon-containing compounds
      • - domain of organic chemistry
      • - most important atom in biological molecules
      • - diversity & stability of carbon-containing
      • compounds are due to nature of interactions of C atoms with one another
    • 1. Importance of Carbon
      • 1.1fundamental property = valence (4)
      • C
      • - Carbon atoms form covalent bond with one another or with atoms of oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N) and Sulfur (S)
    • 1. Importance of Carbon
      • A. Simple organic molecule with single bond
      • a. methane
      • (CH 4 )
      • b. ethanol
      • (CH 3 -CH 2 OH)
    • 1. Importance of Carbon
      • B. Simple molecules with double bond
      • a. ethylene
      • (CH 2 =CH 2 )
      • b. carbon dioxide
      • (CO 2 )
    • 1. Importance of Carbon
      • C. Triple Bonds
      • a. molecular nitrogen
      • (N 2 )
      • b. Hydrogen cyanide
      • (HCN)
    • 1. Importance of Carbon
      • 1.2 HYDROCARBONS
      • - only H atoms are used to complete the valence requirements of linear and circular molecules
      • Ex. Ethane (Ch 3 -CH 3 ) Propane (CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 3 )
      • Ethylene (CH 2 =CH 2) Acetylene (CH=CH)
      • Benzene
    • 1.3 Presence of Functional Groups
    • Functional Groups
    • 2. Importance of Water
      • universal backbone of
      • biologically important
      • molecule
      • b. Universal solvent in
      • biological system
      • c. 75-85% of cell by weight
      • d. Polar (asymmetric charge
      • distribution)
    • 2. Importance of water e. H 2 O are cohesive (HYDROGEN BOND) f. H 2 O has high temperature stabilizing capacity a. high specific heat (amount of heat a substance must absorb per gram to increase its temperature 1 0 C. specific heat water = 1.0calorie/gram
    • 2. Importance of water
      • c. High heat of vaporization (amount of energy required to convert one gram of liquid into vapor)
      • - excellent coolant
    • 2. Importance of water
      • g. H 2 O is an excellent solvent (a fluid in which another substance called the solute can be dissolved.
      • Hydrophilic (water loving) – sugar, organic acids, amino acids
      • Hydrophobic (water fearing) – lipids, proteins
      • “ LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE”
    • 3. Importance of selectively permeable membrane
      • Physical barrier that controls the exchange of substance between the internal & external environment
      • Bi-lipid layer (amphipathic)
      • hydrophilic HEAD
      • hydrophobic TAIL
    • 4. Importance of Synthesis of polymerization
    • Hierarchical Nature of Cellular structures and their assembly Summer 2009 CRISTNA C SALIBAY [email_address]
    • 5. Importance of self assembly
      • - Asserts the information required to specify the folding of macromolecules and their interactions to form more complicated structures with specific biological functions.
    • Chemical substances in an organism Summer 2009
    • MACROMOLECULES
      • constructed by covalently bonding monomers by condensation reactions where water is removed from functional groups on the monomers
    • CARBOHYDRATES
      • have the general formula [CH 2 O]n where n is a number between 3 and 6.
      • function in
        • short-term energy storage ( such as sugar );
        • intermediate-term energy storage ( starch for plants and glycogen for animals );
        • structural components in cells ( cellulose in the cell walls of plants and many protists ), and chitin in the exoskeleton of insects and other arthropods
    • CARBOHYDRATES
      • CLASSES OF CARBOHYDRATES
      • Monosaccharides
      • - simple sugars
    • CARBOHYDRATES
      • 2. Disaccharides
      • - 2 monosaccharides/sugars
      • glucose & fructose
    • CARBOHYDRATES
      • 3. Polysaccharides
      • - insoluble in water
      • 3.1. Starch
      • - amylose consists of linear, unbranched chains of several hundred glucose residues (units).
      • - amylopectin differs from amylose in being highly branched.
    • CARBOHYDRATES
      • 3.2. Glycogen
      • - liver and skeletal muscles are major depots of glycogen
    • CARBOHYDRATES
      • 3.3. Cellulose
      • - structural component in plants
    • LIPIDS
    • LIPIDS
    • LIPIDS
    • LIPID (Fatty Acids)
    • LIPIDS (glycerides)
    • LIPIDS
    • LIPIDS
    • LIPIDS (Non-glycerides)
    • LIPIDS
    • LIPIDS
    • LIPIDS
    • LIPIDS
    • LIPIDS
    • LIPIDS (Complex Lipids)
    • LIPIDS
    • LIPIDS
    • PROTEINS
    • PROTEINS
    • PROTEINS
    • PROTEINS
    • PROTEINS
    • PROTEINS
    • PROTEINS
    • PROTEINS
    • PROTEINS
    • PROTEINS
    • PROTEINS
    • PROTEINS
    • PROTEINS
    • PROTEINS
    • PROTEINS
    • NUCLEIC ACID
      • polymers composed of monomer units known as nucleotides
      • function
        • information storage (DNA),
        • protein synthesis (RNA),
        • energy transfers (ATP and NAD).
    • NUCLEIC ACID
    • NUCLEIC ACID
    • NUCLEIC ACID
    • NUCLEIC ACID
    • NUCLEIC ACID
    • NUCLEIC ACID
    • NUCLEIC ACID
    • NUCLEIC ACID
    • NUCLEIC ACID
    • NUCLEIC ACID
    • NUCLEIC ACID
    • NUCLEIC ACID Summer 2009