The chemistry of the cell

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Created by: Mrs. Lilibeth Mayor …

Created by: Mrs. Lilibeth Mayor
Uploaded by: Kathleen Gonzales

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  • 1. CHEMISTRY OF THE CELL
  • 2. Five Principles
    • The importance of carbon
    • The importance of water
    • The importance of selectively permeable membrane
    • The importance of synthesis by polymerization of small molecules
    • The importance of assembly
  • 3. 1. Importance of Carbon
    • Carbon-containing compounds
    • - domain of organic chemistry
    • - most important atom in biological molecules
    • - diversity & stability of carbon-containing
    • compounds are due to nature of interactions of C atoms with one another
  • 4. 1. Importance of Carbon
    • 1.1fundamental property = valence (4)
    • C
    • - Carbon atoms form covalent bond with one another or with atoms of oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N) and Sulfur (S)
  • 5. 1. Importance of Carbon
    • A. Simple organic molecule with single bond
    • a. methane
    • (CH 4 )
    • b. ethanol
    • (CH 3 -CH 2 OH)
  • 6. 1. Importance of Carbon
    • B. Simple molecules with double bond
    • a. ethylene
    • (CH 2 =CH 2 )
    • b. carbon dioxide
    • (CO 2 )
  • 7. 1. Importance of Carbon
    • C. Triple Bonds
    • a. molecular nitrogen
    • (N 2 )
    • b. Hydrogen cyanide
    • (HCN)
  • 8. 1. Importance of Carbon
    • 1.2 HYDROCARBONS
    • - only H atoms are used to complete the valence requirements of linear and circular molecules
    • Ex. Ethane (Ch 3 -CH 3 ) Propane (CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 3 )
    • Ethylene (CH 2 =CH 2) Acetylene (CH=CH)
    • Benzene
  • 9. 1.3 Presence of Functional Groups
  • 10. Functional Groups
  • 11. 2. Importance of Water
    • universal backbone of
    • biologically important
    • molecule
    • b. Universal solvent in
    • biological system
    • c. 75-85% of cell by weight
    • d. Polar (asymmetric charge
    • distribution)
  • 12. 2. Importance of water e. H 2 O are cohesive (HYDROGEN BOND) f. H 2 O has high temperature stabilizing capacity a. high specific heat (amount of heat a substance must absorb per gram to increase its temperature 1 0 C. specific heat water = 1.0calorie/gram
  • 13. 2. Importance of water
    • c. High heat of vaporization (amount of energy required to convert one gram of liquid into vapor)
    • - excellent coolant
  • 14. 2. Importance of water
    • g. H 2 O is an excellent solvent (a fluid in which another substance called the solute can be dissolved.
    • Hydrophilic (water loving) – sugar, organic acids, amino acids
    • Hydrophobic (water fearing) – lipids, proteins
    • “ LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE”
  • 15. 3. Importance of selectively permeable membrane
    • Physical barrier that controls the exchange of substance between the internal & external environment
    • Bi-lipid layer (amphipathic)
    • hydrophilic HEAD
    • hydrophobic TAIL
  • 16. 4. Importance of Synthesis of polymerization
  • 17. Hierarchical Nature of Cellular structures and their assembly Summer 2009 CRISTNA C SALIBAY [email_address]
  • 18. 5. Importance of self assembly
    • - Asserts the information required to specify the folding of macromolecules and their interactions to form more complicated structures with specific biological functions.
  • 19. Chemical substances in an organism Summer 2009
  • 20. MACROMOLECULES
    • constructed by covalently bonding monomers by condensation reactions where water is removed from functional groups on the monomers
  • 21. CARBOHYDRATES
    • have the general formula [CH 2 O]n where n is a number between 3 and 6.
    • function in
      • short-term energy storage ( such as sugar );
      • intermediate-term energy storage ( starch for plants and glycogen for animals );
      • structural components in cells ( cellulose in the cell walls of plants and many protists ), and chitin in the exoskeleton of insects and other arthropods
  • 22. CARBOHYDRATES
    • CLASSES OF CARBOHYDRATES
    • Monosaccharides
    • - simple sugars
  • 23. CARBOHYDRATES
    • 2. Disaccharides
    • - 2 monosaccharides/sugars
    • glucose & fructose
  • 24. CARBOHYDRATES
    • 3. Polysaccharides
    • - insoluble in water
    • 3.1. Starch
    • - amylose consists of linear, unbranched chains of several hundred glucose residues (units).
    • - amylopectin differs from amylose in being highly branched.
  • 25. CARBOHYDRATES
    • 3.2. Glycogen
    • - liver and skeletal muscles are major depots of glycogen
  • 26. CARBOHYDRATES
    • 3.3. Cellulose
    • - structural component in plants
  • 27. LIPIDS
  • 28. LIPIDS
  • 29. LIPIDS
  • 30. LIPID (Fatty Acids)
  • 31. LIPIDS (glycerides)
  • 32. LIPIDS
  • 33. LIPIDS
  • 34. LIPIDS (Non-glycerides)
  • 35. LIPIDS
  • 36. LIPIDS
  • 37. LIPIDS
  • 38. LIPIDS
  • 39. LIPIDS
  • 40. LIPIDS (Complex Lipids)
  • 41. LIPIDS
  • 42. LIPIDS
  • 43. PROTEINS
  • 44. PROTEINS
  • 45. PROTEINS
  • 46. PROTEINS
  • 47. PROTEINS
  • 48. PROTEINS
  • 49. PROTEINS
  • 50. PROTEINS
  • 51. PROTEINS
  • 52. PROTEINS
  • 53. PROTEINS
  • 54. PROTEINS
  • 55. PROTEINS
  • 56. PROTEINS
  • 57. PROTEINS
  • 58. NUCLEIC ACID
    • polymers composed of monomer units known as nucleotides
    • function
      • information storage (DNA),
      • protein synthesis (RNA),
      • energy transfers (ATP and NAD).
  • 59. NUCLEIC ACID
  • 60. NUCLEIC ACID
  • 61. NUCLEIC ACID
  • 62. NUCLEIC ACID
  • 63. NUCLEIC ACID
  • 64. NUCLEIC ACID
  • 65. NUCLEIC ACID
  • 66. NUCLEIC ACID
  • 67. NUCLEIC ACID
  • 68. NUCLEIC ACID
  • 69. NUCLEIC ACID
  • 70. NUCLEIC ACID Summer 2009