introduction and advancement Electro fenton processes for waste water treatment


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This files includes the introduction to Fenton and advancement in Electro fenton treatment for waste water.

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introduction and advancement Electro fenton processes for waste water treatment

  1. 1. Presented by Kathiresan Nadar Mchem. Engg. Under the guidance of Dr. Parag. R. Gogate Assistant prof. ICT Mumbai.
  2. 2. Introduction  Waste water generation.  Impurities in waste water.  Causes of impurities.  Traditional method of water treatment.  Importance of hydroxyl radical.
  3. 3. Fenton Processes
  4. 4. Advantage  No energy input is necessary to activate hydrogen     peroxide Fenton's reagent is relatively inexpensive and the process is easy to operate and maintain Short reaction time among all advanced oxidation processes There is no mass transfer limitation due to its homogeneous catalytic nature There is no form of energy involved as catalyst
  5. 5. Disadvantage  Ferrous ions are consumed more rapidly than they are     regenerated Treatment of the sludge-containing Fe ions at the end of the wastewater treatment is expensive and needs large amount of chemicals and manpower It is limited by a narrow pH range (pH 2–3) Iron ions may be deactivated due to complexion with some iron complexing reagents such as phosphate anions and intermediate oxidation products Additional water pollution caused by the homogeneous catalyst that added as an iron salt, cannot be retained in the process
  6. 6. Fenton Chemistry  H2O2 + Fe2+ Fe3+ +  Fe3+ + H2O2 Fe2+ + HO2 •  Fe3+ + HO2• Fe2+ + O2  H2O2 + OH• H2O + HO2•  Fe2+ + •OH Fe3+ + OH- HO2• H2O2  HO2• +  Fe2+ + H2O2 [Fe(OH)2]2+ OH- + OH• + + + H+ H+ O2 Fe3+ + OH• + OH-
  7. 7. Electrolytic processes for waste water treatment  Electro coagulation This technique involve the addition of coagulant in the form of sacrificial anode  Electroflotation electrically generated tiny bubbles of hydrogen and oxygen gas interact with pollutant particles making them to coagulate and float on the surface of water  Electrocoagulation flotation This method as the name indicate includes both Coagulation and Flotation techniques  Electro Fenton
  8. 8. Electro Fenton  EF technology is based on the continuous electro generation of H2O2 at a suitable cathode fed with O2 or air, along with the addition of an iron catalyst to the treated solution to produce oxidant •OH at the bulk via Fenton’s reaction Advantage 1. The on-site production of H2O2 2. controlling degradation kinetics to allow mechanistic studies 3. The higher degradation rate of organic pollutants because of the continuous regeneration of Fe2+ at the cathode, which also minimizes sludge production 4. The feasibility of overall mineralization at relatively low cost
  9. 9. Classification of electro Fenton EAOPs H2O2 onsite produced at cathode Electrochemical Fenton Processes Photo assisted electro Fenton processes Photo electron Fenton Solar photo electron Fenton Photo peroxy coagulation Photo electrochemical electro Fenton Sonoelectro Fenton Cathodic generation of Fe2+ Combined Fenton Processes Electro chemical peroxide processes Photo assisted fered fenton Fered Fenton Processes Combined Electro Fenton Processes Per oxide coagulation H2O2 is added to the solution from the outside Photo assisted ECP processes Anodic Fenton treatment Plasma assisted fenton Processes Anodic H2O2 electrogeneration
  10. 10. Electrolytic Fenton chemistry  O2(g) + 2H+ + 2e- H2 O 2  O2(g) + 4H+ + 4e- 2H2O  H 2O 2 HO2• + H+ + e-  HO2• O2(g) + H+ + e-  H2O2 + 2H+ + 2e 2H2O2 2H2O O2(g) + 2H2O Production of hydrogen peroxide Destruction of hydrogen peroxide at anode Destruction of hydrogen peroxide at cathode
  11. 11. Production of Hydrogen peroxide O2(g) + H2O +2e- O2(g)+ + 2 H2O + 4e- HO2 - 4OH- + OH-
  12. 12. Divided cell and undivided cell Configuration for H2O2 Production  Divided cell  Undivided cell
  13. 13. Advance Electro Fenton processes
  14. 14. H2O2 generation using water (Novel Electro Fenton processes) Songhu Yuan et al (2011) O2(g) + 4H+ + 2H2O 2H2O + 2e- H2(g) H2(g) H2O2 + O2(g) 4e+ 2OH-
  15. 15. Factor affecting the production of H2O2 pH of the solution accumulated H2O2 maximum concentration was 21.6 mg/L for a pH of 2 but as the pH increased to 3 its concentration falls to 5 mg/L Current in compartment 1 •Increasing the current decreasing the current efficiency though we are increasing the production H2O2. He attributed that solubility of formed hydrogen and oxygen is much less •novel process possesses a moderate ability to accumulate H2O2
  16. 16. Microbial fuel cell as a power source for electro Fenton reaction •Electro Fenton processes for waste water treatment Bruce E Logan et al. used a Microbial fuel cell design (MFCs) for the degradation of phenol •Microbial fuel cells are bio electrochemical systems that use bacteria to oxidize organic wastes and generate electricity •The power output of MFCs has increased from only a few mill watts per square meter of electrode to 4.3 W/m2. These higher power densities could therefore make it practical to use MFCs as power sources for electro-Fenton systems
  17. 17. Combined electro Fenton processes technologies.  Peroxi-Coagulation (PC) Process involve the sacrificial anode as the ferrous anode and gas diffusing cathode production of H2O2 Photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and Solar Photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) Processes The photo electron processes make use of the ultra violate rays for the acceleration in removal of organic pollutants from the solution the attributions Fe(OH)]2+ + hV Fe2+ + Fe(OOCR)2+ + hV Fe2+ + •OH CO2+ + R•
  18. 18.  Sonoelectro-Fenton (SEF) Process  This technique make use of application of ultrasound in waste water solution H2O + ))) •OH + H• Fered-Fenton Process Fered Fenton processes involve the addition of H2O-2 from the outside initially iron catalyst in the form of ferrous or ferric is added to the acidic solution followed by the addition of hydrogen peroxide
  19. 19. Reactors for Electro Fenton processes
  20. 20. Trickle bed reactor •Zhemin Shen et al (2013) •cathode frame which involve the housing of Cathodic particle which helps in the production of hydrogen peroxide •H2O2 was generated at a current of 0.3 A with a CE of 60%. After 2 h of electrolysis, the H2O2 concentration and production rate were 9.43 mmolL−1 and 125 µmolh−1cm−2 •The more effective oxygen transfer from the gas phase to the electrolyte–cathode interface •Dye wastewater with a concentration of 123 mgL−1 was 97% decolorized within 20 min and 87% mineralized within 3h
  21. 21. Bubble Reactor M.A. Sanroman et al. (2009) Lissamine Green B as a model pollutant for graphite cathode This Bubble column reactor follows an ideal CSTR behaviour and it is confirmed by the Residence time distribution (RTD) studies
  22. 22. Fluidised Bed  Lu et al. (2010) had used a fluidized bed Fenton and electro Fenton processes for the degradation of Aniline as a model pollutant  The removal ratio of TOC in the electro-Fenton and fluidized-bed Fenton processes after reacting for 60 min was about 20–30% and 18–35%, respectively  The results show that mineralization efficiency in the fluidized bed Fenton process was higher than that of the electro-Fenton process  Electro Fenton is slightly superior to the Fenton processes since in Electro Fenton complete mineralisation of aniline occur
  23. 23. Parameters for operation
  24. 24.  Parameters are evaluated for the study of degradation of phenol by Mao et al. and removal of reactive 69 by Nader et al.  pH of the solution  Electric current effect
  25. 25.  Type of electrode material  Amount of ferrous ion
  26. 26.  Concentration of hydrogen peroxide Impurities removal enhances with the increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration but it efficiency reduces since destruction of hydrogen peroxide will be enhanced.  Initial concentration of the pollutant  Operating temperature  increasing temperature the rate constant increases this is optimum to temperature up to 40◦C with further increase in temperature hydrogen peroxide degrades to hydrogen and oxygen
  27. 27. Conclusion  Though various pollutant degradation methods are available electro Fenton processes has the indeed advantage of using at ambient temperature and pressure. The strict Ph control and initial concentration of ferrous, H2O2 and pollutant concentration needs to be maintained for the optimum operation of processes.
  28. 28. References  Enric Brillas, Ignasi Sire’s, and Mehmet A.Oturan Electro-Fenton Process and Related Electrochemical Technologies Based on Fenton’s Reaction; Chemistry Chem. Rev 109: France, 2009,; PP 6570–6631.  Xiuping Zhu, Bruce E. Logan, Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment; Journal of Hazardous Materials 252– 253: United States, 2013; PP 198– 203.  Parag R.Gogate, Aniruddha B.Pandit, A review of imperative technologies for wastewater treatment I: oxidation technologies at ambient conditions; Advances in Environmental Research 8: Mumbai, India, 2004; PP 501-551.  E. Rosales, M. Pazos, M.A. Longo, M.A. Sanromán, Electro-Fenton decoloration of dyes in a continuous reactor: A promising technology in colored wastewater treatment; Chemical Engineering Journal 155: Spain, 2009; PP62-67.  Li Jiang, Xuhui Mao, Degradation of Phenol-containing Wastewater Using an Improved Electro-Fenton Process; Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 7: China, 2012; PP 4078 – 4088.  Nader Djafarzadeh and Alireza Khataee; Treatment of Reactive Blue 69 solution by electro-Fenton process using carbon nanotubes based cathode; International Conference on Biology, Environment and Chemistry IPCBEE vol.2: Singapore, 2011; PP 479-484.  Yangming Leia, Hong Liu, Zhemin Shenb, Wenhua Wang; Development of a trickle bed reactor of electro-Fenton process forwastewater treatment; Journal of Hazardous Materials 261: China, 2013; PP 570-576.  Songhu Yuan, Ye Fan, Yucheng Zhang, Man Tong, and Peng Liao; Pd-Catalytic In Situ Generation of H2O2 from H2 and O2 Produced by Water Electrolysis for the Efficient Electro-Fenton Degradation of Rhodamine B; ACS Publication, Environment science and technology 45: China, 2011; PP 8514–8520.  Jin Anotaia, Chia-Chi Sub, Yi-Chun Tsaib, Ming-Chun Lub, Effect of hydrogen peroxide on aniline oxidation by electroFenton and fluidized-bed Fenton processes; Journal of Hazardous Materials 183; Thiland, 2010; PP 888–893.
  29. 29.  Karla Cruz-González, Omar Torres-Lopez, Azucena M. García-León, Enric Brillas, Aracely Hernández-Ramírez, Juan M. Peralta-Hernández, Optimization of electro Fenton/BDD process for decolorization of a model azo dye wastewater by means of response surface methodology; Desalination 286; Mexico, 2012; PP 63-68.  Guohua Chen, Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment; Separation and Purification Technology 38; China, 2004; PP 11-41.  Md. Ahsan Habib, Iqbal Mohmmad Ibrahim Ismail, Abu Jafar Mahmood1 and Md. Rafique Ullah, Decolorization and mineralization of brilliant golden yellow (BGY) by Fenton and photo-Fenton processes; African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Vol. 6: Bangladesh, 2012; PP 153-158.  Ricky Priambodo, Yu-Jen Shih, Yu-Jen Huang and Yao-Hui Huang, Treatment of real wastewater using semi batch (Photo)-Electro-Fenton method; Sustain. Environ. Res., 21: Taiwan, 2011; PP 389-393  J.M. Peralta-Hernández, Carlos A. Martínez-Huitle, Jorge L. Guzmán-Mar and A. Hernández-Ramírez, RECENT ADVANCES IN THE APPLICATION OF ELECTRO-FENTON AND PHOTOELECTRO-FENTON PROCESS FOR REMOVAL OF SYNTHETIC DYES IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT; J. Environ. Eng. Manage; 19: Mexico, 2009; PP 257-265  P.V. Nidheesh, R. Gandhimathi, Trends in electro-Fenton process for water and wastewater treatment: An overview; Desalination 299: Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu, India, 2012; PP 1-15  K. Barbusiński, Toxicity of Industrial Wastewater Treated by Fenton’s Reagent; Polish Journal of Environmental Studies Vol. 14: Gliwice, Poland, 2005; PP 11-16  Wang-Ping Ting, Ming-Chun Lu, Yao-Hui Huang, The reactor design and comparison of Fenton, electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton processes for mineralization of benzene sulfonic acid (BSA); Journal of Hazardous Materials 156: Taiwan, 2008; PP 421-427  Eloy Isarain-Chávez, Catalina de la Rosa, Carlos A. Martínez-Huitle, Juan M. Peralta-Hernández, On-site Hydrogen Peroxide Production at Pilot Flow Plant: Application to Electro-Fenton Process; Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 8: Mexico, 2013; PP 3084-3094