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Learning the Language of Persuasion<br />Sally Humphrey<br />Australian Catholic University<br />
Session 2Interpersonal resources for persuading audiencesevaluative vocabularyrhetorical devices<br />
Tools for analysing the language of persuasion<br />Genre (text type): Specific Persuasive PurposeRegister:<br />field:  i...
4<br />A multi-functional view<br />Context of culture<br />Context of situation<br />Genre/ Text types<br />Register<br /...
Band 4<br /><ul><li>Supports reader understanding (more than assertions/opinions)</li></ul>+Band 6<br /><ul><li>Controls w...
Establishes strong credible voice
Crafts writing to influence reader by precise and sustained language choices and persuasive techniques
Takes readers values and expectations into account
Persuade through control of tenor
Appeal to reason, emotions and/or cultural values
Subvert expectations (challenge readers’ values)
Acknowledge wider audience</li></ul>TENOR in analytical– creating authority<br />
?<br />Band 4<br />Sustained and effective use of persuasive devices<br />
Exploring evaluative meanings<br />Exercise 7<br />Highlight the wordings in the following excerpts which express evaluati...
Evaluative vocabulary and meaning<br />Meaning ‘categories’<br />	Positive and negative values of:<br /><ul><li>Affect: to...
Judgement: to praise or criticise peoples’  behaviour
Appreciation: to assess objects, settings and  appearances. </li></li></ul><li>Explicit evaluative vocabulary (inscribed)<...
Text 7<br />Every 3 seconds, a child dies from hunger. This phrase, popularized by the MakePovertyHistory campaign along w...
Implicit evaluative vocabulary (Invoked)<br />
Implicit evaluative meanings<br />Text 2<br />Conservationists, on the other hand, argue that logging and woodchipping are...
Implicit evaluative meanings<br />Text 7<br />Every 3 seconds, a child dies from hunger. This phrase, popularized by the M...
Evaluative vocabulary and Grading<br />Excerpt from Kevin Rudd’s apology<br />Some of these stories are graphicallytold in...
Evaluative vocabulary and Grading<br />
17<br />From retelling to rhetoric – Emotional appeals within Reaction phases<br />HSN: Inscribed Attitudes in Involvement...
Rhetorical devices <br />Creating ‘dialogue’ with audiences<br />interact with Evaluative vocabulary and Grading  systems ...
align audiences with the position of the speaker or writer. </li></li></ul><li>Rhetorical Devices<br /><ul><li> Modality
 Citation
 Concession
Comment/ViewpointAdverbials</li></li></ul><li>Rhetorical Devices<br />Modality: resources used to temper or modulate posit...
Modality<br />Meanings<br />Possibility<br />Tempering opinions about how likely something is.<br />(more common in Analyt...
Grammatical resources:  Modal verbs<br />Text 9<br />Even though TV is valued by some people for its entertainment, it can...
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Persuasive texts TESOL Session 3

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TESOL Seminar 2, 2011

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  • Each of these levels makes meanings in different ways
  • Tenor – here is where we will stop to develop our understandings of interpersonal resourcesDescriptors are very vague
  • Tenor – here is where we will stop to develop our understandings of interpersonal resourcesDescriptors are very vague
  • Tenor – here is where we will stop to develop our understandings of interpersonal resourcesDescriptors are very vague
  • Tenor – here is where we will stop to develop our understandings of interpersonal resourcesDescriptors are very vague
  • Transcript of "Persuasive texts TESOL Session 3"

    1. 1. Learning the Language of Persuasion<br />Sally Humphrey<br />Australian Catholic University<br />
    2. 2. Session 2Interpersonal resources for persuading audiencesevaluative vocabularyrhetorical devices<br />
    3. 3. Tools for analysing the language of persuasion<br />Genre (text type): Specific Persuasive PurposeRegister:<br />field: issue or ideastenor: relationship with the audience <br /> solidarity and/or authoritymode: role of language, image or other modality<br />
    4. 4. 4<br />A multi-functional view<br />Context of culture<br />Context of situation<br />Genre/ Text types<br />Register<br />Field<br />Experiential meanings <br />Mode<br />Tenor<br />Interpersonal meanings: <br />Textual meanings<br />
    5. 5. Band 4<br /><ul><li>Supports reader understanding (more than assertions/opinions)</li></ul>+Band 6<br /><ul><li>Controls writer/reader relationship
    6. 6. Establishes strong credible voice
    7. 7. Crafts writing to influence reader by precise and sustained language choices and persuasive techniques
    8. 8. Takes readers values and expectations into account
    9. 9. Persuade through control of tenor
    10. 10. Appeal to reason, emotions and/or cultural values
    11. 11. Subvert expectations (challenge readers’ values)
    12. 12. Acknowledge wider audience</li></ul>TENOR in analytical– creating authority<br />
    13. 13. ?<br />Band 4<br />Sustained and effective use of persuasive devices<br />
    14. 14. Exploring evaluative meanings<br />Exercise 7<br />Highlight the wordings in the following excerpts which express evaluative meanings. <br />Makes notes about who or what is evaluated, whether the evaluation is positive or negative and the differences in the way evaluation is expressed in the excerpts?<br />
    15. 15. Evaluative vocabulary and meaning<br />Meaning ‘categories’<br /> Positive and negative values of:<br /><ul><li>Affect: to express people’s feelings
    16. 16. Judgement: to praise or criticise peoples’ behaviour
    17. 17. Appreciation: to assess objects, settings and appearances. </li></li></ul><li>Explicit evaluative vocabulary (inscribed)<br />Text 2<br />Conservationists, on the other hand, argue that logging and woodchipping are destroying the forests. The loss of trees affects the entire ecosystem of the forest, including the soil, vegetation and wildlife. Trees protect the soil from erosion and provide habitats for many different kinds of animals. <br />Text 3<br />Itis offensivebecause you are saying that although it is appropriatefor young children to read about heterosexual relationships it is inappropriatefor them to read about homosexual ones. <br />Text 6<br />Let me begin to answer by telling the Parliament just a little of one person's story - an elegant, eloquentand wonderfulwoman in her 80s, full of life, full of funny stories, despite what has happened in her life's journey, …. a member of the stolen generation …<br />
    18. 18. Text 7<br />Every 3 seconds, a child dies from hunger. This phrase, popularized by the MakePovertyHistory campaign along with the Live8 concerts, shows the world what state it is in. Worldwide, 208 million young people live on less than US$1 a day, and a further 515 million live on less than US$2 a day. 85% of young people live in developing countries and most of them live in rural areas where poverty and diseases like HIV/AIDS and malaria cause havoc<br />Text 8<br />So we got into a little leaky fishing boat, more than 100 of us. I was one of 30 children and babies on board. It took us 10 days to get to Australia - 10 days of horror, sadness, no food or drink and so many worries about our future. Can you believe that a child could die in the middle of the ocean without a drop of water? <br />
    19. 19. Implicit evaluative vocabulary (Invoked)<br />
    20. 20. Implicit evaluative meanings<br />Text 2<br />Conservationists, on the other hand, argue that logging and woodchipping are destroying the forests. The loss of trees affects the entire ecosystem of the forest, including the soil, vegetation and wildlife. Trees protect the soil from erosion and provide habitats for many different kinds of animals. <br />Text 3<br />Itis offensivebecause you are saying that although it is appropriatefor young children to read about heterosexual relationships it is inappropriatefor them to read about homosexual ones. <br />Text 6<br />Let me begin to answer by telling the Parliament just a little of one person's story - an elegant, eloquentand wonderfulwoman in her 80s, full of life, full of funny stories, despite what has happened in her life's journey, …. a member of the stolen generation …<br />
    21. 21. Implicit evaluative meanings<br />Text 7<br />Every 3 seconds, a child dies from hunger. This phrase, popularized by the MakePovertyHistory campaign along with the Live8 concerts, shows the world what state it is in. Worldwide, 208 million young people live on less than US$1 a day, and a further 515 million live on less than US$2 a day. 85% of young people live in developing countries and most of them live in rural areas where poverty and diseases like HIV/AIDS and malaria cause havoc<br />Text 8<br />So we got into a little leaky fishing boat, more than 100 of us. I was one of 30 children and babies on board. It took us 10 days to get to Australia - 10 days of horror, sadness, no food or drink and so many worries about our future. Can you believe that a child could die in the middle of the ocean without a drop of water? <br />
    22. 22.
    23. 23. Evaluative vocabulary and Grading<br />Excerpt from Kevin Rudd’s apology<br />Some of these stories are graphicallytold in Bringing them home, the report commissioned in 1995 by Prime Minister Keating and received in 1997 by Prime Minister Howard. There is something terriblyprimal about these firsthand accounts. The pain is searing; it screamsfrom the pages. The hurt, the humiliation, the degradation and the sheerbrutalityof the act of physically separating a mother from her children is a deep assault on our senses and on our mostelementalhumanity. These stories cry out to be heard; they cry out for an apology...<br />
    24. 24. Evaluative vocabulary and Grading<br />
    25. 25. 17<br />From retelling to rhetoric – Emotional appeals within Reaction phases<br />HSN: Inscribed Attitudes in Involvement stage <br />
    26. 26. Rhetorical devices <br />Creating ‘dialogue’ with audiences<br />interact with Evaluative vocabulary and Grading systems to:<br /><ul><li> influence the opinions of readers, listeners and viewers
    27. 27. align audiences with the position of the speaker or writer. </li></li></ul><li>Rhetorical Devices<br /><ul><li> Modality
    28. 28. Citation
    29. 29. Concession
    30. 30. Comment/ViewpointAdverbials</li></li></ul><li>Rhetorical Devices<br />Modality: resources used to temper or modulate positions so that the audience is given some ‘room to move’. <br />Polarity: express non-negotiable or already agreed upon positions (eg. is/isn’t; yes/no). <br />a) Mobile phones are harmful to health (polarity) <br />b) Mobile phones may be harmful to health<br />c) It is clear that mobile phones are not good for you.<br />d) Mobile phones are not harmful to health (polarity) <br />IS<br />ISN’T<br />
    31. 31. Modality<br />Meanings<br />Possibility<br />Tempering opinions about how likely something is.<br />(more common in Analytical persuasion)<br />Obligation<br /> Tempering meanings of obligation or ‘mustness’ so that recommendations do not appear too strong. <br />(more common in Hortatory persuasion)<br />
    32. 32. Grammatical resources: Modal verbs<br />Text 9<br />Even though TV is valued by some people for its entertainment, it can also deceive the responder and prevent them from discovering new worlds or new, fascinating ideas. Books, such as novels allow the responder to enter a whole new world and experience unrealistic features, which may help with the growth of their imagination. Exposing the youth of today with novels will allow them to interpret the story through their imagination and creativity, which further improves their creative thinking and view of the world. Factual books will help expand the youth’s knowledge and way of life, by teaching them the right path to take.<br />
    33. 33. Modality:<br />Additional resources<br />
    34. 34. Exercise 10<br />Highlight examples of modality in Text 10<br />Compare the range of grammatical resources used to express modality in Text 10 to those used by the student in Text 9<br />
    35. 35. Text 10<br />Are mobile phones a problem? Mobile telephony is without doubt one of the most explosive developments ever to have taken place in the telecommunications industry. Mobile phones definitely offer enormous advantages but it seems that there are also costs.<br />The potential impact of mobile phones on the human brain has received little attention until relatively recently, and it is probably still too soon to say what the effects are. However, there are certainly concerns about the frequent use of mobile phones on human health. It is possible that excessive exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) could cause such undesirable effects as memory loss, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, and even brain tumours. It may also be that mobile phone use could affect the nerve cells responsible for short-term memory. This suggests that excessive use of mobile phones causes headaches and fatigue.<br />On the other hand cellular telephony has definitely brought great and new freedoms for youngsters – and increased security and peace of mind for their parents. It is now possible for young people equipped with mobile phones to stay in touch with their parents and for parents to stay in touch with their children. This can help reduce or eliminate the need for meaningless restrictions on young people. Costs might not even be a major issue, since these can be controlled through the use of pre-paid cards.<br />With a little effort on everyone’s part, I believe the benefits of mobile phones can serve to enhance our experience of life, offering us more freedom, and ultimately creating a more connected society.<br />
    36. 36. Text 10<br />Are mobile phones a problem? Mobile telephony is without doubt one of the most explosive developments ever to have taken place in the telecommunications industry. Mobile phones definitely offer enormous advantages but it seems that there are also costs.<br />The potential impact of mobile phones on the human brain has received little attention until relatively recently, and it is probably still too soon to say what the effects are. However, there are certainly concerns about the frequent use of mobile phones on human health. It is possible that excessive exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) could cause such undesirable effects as memory loss, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, and even brain tumours. It may also be that mobile phone use could affect the nerve cells responsible for short-term memory. This suggests that excessive use of mobile phones causes headaches and fatigue.<br />On the other hand cellular telephony has definitely brought great and new freedoms for youngsters – and increased security and peace of mind for their parents. It is now possible for young people equipped with mobile phones to stay in touch with their parents and for parents to stay in touch with their children. This can help reduce or eliminate the need for meaningless restrictions on young people. Costs might not even be a major issue, since these can be controlled through the use of pre-paid cards.<br />With a little effort on everyone’s part, I believe the benefits of mobile phones can serve to enhance our experience of life, offering us more freedom, and ultimately creating a more connected society.<br />
    37. 37. Citation<br />Reporting and challenging the words and ideas of others<br />what is said, thought and believed and found (ie. through studies or experiments). <br />Grammatical resources:<br />reporting verb in a quote or paraphrase. For example: <br />Quote: Somehave asked ‘Why apologise?’<br />Paraphrase: Conservationistsargue thatlogging is destroying the forests<br />
    38. 38. Citation<br />
    39. 39. Adding authority through high status sources<br />. <br />High status in analytical exposition: researchers argue, findings suggest…<br />High status in hortatory exposition: <br />.<br /> <br />
    40. 40. Exercise 11: Highlight the resources used to cite sources in Text, Indicate if the source is high or low status and discuss the rhetorical effect <br />A new study undertaken by Monash University hasreported that soon, kids will be unable to think. Their findingssuggest that the next generation of teenagers will be unable to think, spell or concentrate because of the increase in the use of mobile phones, and text messaging.<br /> “We are not just pulling these figures out of nowhere” A representative from the university said. “Over time text messaging and the many forms of passive entertainment have decreased the ability of teenagers to form extensive or coherent sentences.” The university has called for a ban on mobile phones for under 18’s. This, researchers argue, will encourage a more focused learning environment. <br />This argument has been met with mixed responses. Some parents and teachers supportthe call for a ban on mobile phones, however, teenagers have expressedstrongdisagreement. Student representative from Burmont High school, Kelly Brackenberryhasresponded to the call for a ban with a clear statement “On behalf of the students of this school I’d like to say that we are strongly opposed to the idea of such a law. In fact there is an argument that the abbreviations used in text messaging allow for much quicker communication and allows kids to be creative with language Without further evidence this study can not be taken seriously.”<br />Kids at war with adults is nothing new but this battle is expected to last for a while.<br />
    41. 41. Citation: exercise Text 7.7:Saving Kids from The Unthinkable. <br />A new study undertaken by Monash University hasreported that soon, kids will be unable to think. Their findingssuggest that the next generation of teenagers will be unable to think, spell or concentrate because of the increase in the use of mobile phones, and text messaging.<br /> “We are not just pulling these figures out of nowhere” A representative from the university said. “Over time text messaging and the many forms of passive entertainment have decreased the ability of teenagers to form extensive or coherent sentences.” The university has called for a ban on mobile phones for under 18’s. This, researchers argue, will encourage a more focused learning environment. <br />This argument has been met with mixed responses. Some parents and teachers supportthe call for a ban on mobile phones, however, teenagers have expressedstrongdisagreement. Student representative from Burmont High school, Kelly Brackenberryhasresponded to the call for a ban with a clear statement “On behalf of the students of this school I’d like to say that we are strongly opposed to the idea of such a law. In fact there is an argument that the abbreviations used in text messaging allow for much quicker communication and allows kids to be creative with language Without further evidence this study can not be taken seriously.”<br />Kids at war with adults is nothing new but this battle is expected to last for a while.<br /> <br />
    42. 42. Contrast and Concession <br />Contrast: Strengthening positions through rebuttal<br />Then we come to the argument of intergenerational responsibility, also used by some to argue against giving an apology today. But let us remember the fact that the forced removal of Aboriginal children was happening as late as the early 1970s.<br />Concession: conceding part of the alternate argument before challenging it. <br />It is clear from the above arguments, that while television in moderation has some educational and entertainment value, its benefits are far outweighed by its negative effects. <br />.<br /> <br />
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