2012 TESOL Seminar 1: Growing up bilingual in multicultural urban Australia: A bilingual approach to TESOL
Bilingualism and languageslearning in Australianschools: A bilingual approach to exploring issues and implications in TESOL Dr Criss Jones Díaz University of Western Sydney Saturday, 17h March: UTS, Sydney TESOL The role of L1 and L2 in learning.
Overview The global cultural, social and economic context of languages. Globalisation of English Benefits of being bilingual Languages as cultural and social capital Subtractive bilingualism and its impact on bilingual children Findings from research (Jones Diaz, 2007) investigating – Children’s experiences of and perspective in being bilingual and learning languages – Dispositions of learning
Globalisation of English What is globalisation? The globalising of cultural, social and economic systems for the benefit of trade, commerce consumerism The global articulation of technology, free trade, open markets, consumerism Profit making agendas Communication and information technologies Power relations that exist between nation states in our society are directly linked to modes of production, trade, commerce and media that operate at global levels (Tierney 2004, Robinson & Jones Díaz 2006)
English as a globallanguage Constituted in modes of production are communication and media technologies These technologies are dominated by the English language English has generated most of its power within the last 50 years (Christie, 1997; Pennycook 1998)
English as a global language English is the 2nd most widely spoken language in the world 5 4% of the world’s population speak English (Nettle & Romaine, 2000) English has not become a powerful language because of inherent linguistic / grammatical features. Or because of the numbers that speak it Its dominance is due to the political, economic and military might of the nation states that adopt it as their official language (Crystal, 1997) Its popularity is due to the social, cultural and economic power yielded through its use
English as a global language Anglo-phone countries, i.e. U.S & Britain are able to dominate global communication technologies, finance, trade and means of production and they have ‘considerable power relative to those that do not control these resources’ (Singh, 2002, p. 17). - ‘Different languages have different political rights, which are not depending on an inherent linguistic trait but on the social structures and power relations that exist between speakers of the different languages’ (Skuttnabb-Kangas 1988, pg, 41) As a consequence - English-only policies in education have emerged in the US, Britain and Australia (Crystal, 2000; Gutierréz, Baquedano-Lopez & Asato, 2000). Examples: - Dismantling of Indigenous language programs in the Northern Territory and Bilingual Programs in California in 1991. - Legislation in California in 1998 led to dismantling of bilingual programs in schools. - Limited funding allocations to CL schools and programs - No mandatory policy of languages support in prior-to-school settings
Impact of globalisation onIndigenous and minority languages Within a context of globalising English, language still remains a significant marker of identity (Robinson & Jones Díaz, 2006) Questions of identity are linked to how we understand ourselves and others. This has political, social and cultural consequences There are more bilinguals in the world then monolinguals. - Monolinguals represents a small but powerful minority - They can function at all levels of society through the medium of their home language and have never been forced to learn another language Disappearance of languages remain a serious threat to the diversity of cultures and identities. Of the 5,000 – 6,000 languages spoken in the world, half these languages will be extinct by the next century (Nettle & Romaine, 2000). Language loss/language shift - Sudden: Environmental disaster or genocide - Gradual: Intergenerational loss or subtractive bilingualism
Being bilingual builds culturaland linguistic capital Bilingual children have diverse linguistic and cultural knowledge, skills, resources & potential Cultural & linguistic capital (Bourdieu, 1990, 1991) Human resources that have value within a social context (field) - Human activity is understood as exchanges that occur within an social and cultural practices which can yield or not yield material and symbolic ‘profits’ (Bourdieu, 1990, 1991; Olneck, 2000). Cognitive, social & linguistic gains from being bilingual are linked to self esteem & cultural identity socio cultural knowledge cognitive and linguistic advantage cultural diversity & difference
Being bilingual builds linguisticcapitals L1 facilitates L2 learning (Cummins, 1984, Skutnabb- Kangas, 1979, Bialystok,1991).s Interdependence Hypothesis (Cummins, 1993) Positive transfer from the 1st language. Partly dependent upon conceptual development and proficiency already achieved in the first language (Baker & Prys Jones 1998). Visual, linguistic & cognitive strategies are transferred to 2nd language literacys Early literacy development is enhanced by early bilingual experiences (Manyak, 2006).s Related to the three cueing systems: semantic, graphophonic and syntactic.
Three forms of cultural and linguisticcapital (Bourdieu, 1990) Embodied – Modes of interaction and expression, dialect, accent, body language and ways of knowing and reasoning. All become ‘embodied’ by the individual. Objectified – Representational artefacts and cultural texts. Books, arts, music, drama, media etc. Institutionalised – titles, qualifications and certificates. Authorised by institutions, which are legitimised by state, corporate and professional institutions.
Metalinguistic awarenessDíaz and Klinger (1991) Knowing about Meanings can be language & how translated. language works. Words can sound & Awareness of look the same but other languages. have different Ability to switch meanings. from one (Hymophonemic language to the awareness) other. Analytical thinking Awareness of about language arbitrariness of labels attached to concepts
Thinking task . . .Share with the person sitting nextto you different examples of howyour students exchange the variousforms of cultural & linguisticcapital through their home language
Subtractive bilingualism inAustralia Children learn the 2nd language at the expense of the 1st language (Cummins, 1991; Wong-Fillmore, 1991) Factors involved in subtractive bilingualism – loss of interest in speaking the home language – proficiency in English increases – early exposure to English-only prior-to-school and early years education – home language is not valued – misinformation about bilingualism and biliteracy
Legitimacy of English at theexpense of other languages Languages other than English may not have ‘capital’ in an ‘English only’ setting Bilingual children have the capital but if not valued it can be wrong currency Depends on the exchange rate of the home language Not all children enter prior-to-school and school settings with identical configurations of capital
Legitimacy of English at theexpense of other languages Distribution of capital is connected to the use of languages in different types of social contexts/fields - Bilingual children move across different social fields/sites, i.e. day care, school, church, community events, extended family - Capital must be activated in a social field in order for it to have value. Not all social fields give currency to linguistic capital - Exchange for other forms of cultural/linguistic capital, i.e. English Bilingual children ‘cash in’ their home language in exchange for English. - Language shift and/or subtractive bilingualism Monolingual and monocultural pedagogies sustain and legitimise this process
Habitus (Bourdieu 1990)Individual’s disposition, practices and behavioursthat make use of capital in any given social field.Habitus is formed by: The values and dispositions gained from our cultural history. The result of social and cultural conditions within which they are acquired. Dispositions that are durable and transposable and stay with us across contexts. The ability to respond to cultural norms but are largely determined & regulated by where we are located in a culture.
Shaping the habitus forlanguages learning Bilingual children’s views of their language shape a negative or positive habitus towards their home language When children are encouraged to speak their home language this fosters positive experiences with and dispositions towards the use of their language Words used by the children to describe their feelings about using Spanish (Jones Diaz, 2007) happy, free, good, normal, fun, great, smart, proud and confident weird, crazy and different
Children’s experiences of andperspective in being bilingual andlearning languagesDiego and Ariel compared their learning of Spanish withlearning Japanese and Chinese:C: Is it a similar kind of feeling, experience?D: When you’re learning Spanish?C: Yeah. To learning Spanish, when you are learningChinese or Japanese?D: No because you’re learning a different language.C: What about, what do you think Ariel?A: I think Spanish is easier, it’s your culture and you’remostly used to it.D: >>> and you’re learning a whole different culture..C: >>> So is it a lot harder?D: >>> and your parents are not gonna speak it and none of your relatives .
The connection between identity andhabitus is found in systems ofdispositions For both boys the use of Spanish in their homes provided them with a sense of cultural history which gave meaning to their cultural practices For Diego & Ariel, Japanese and Chinese were not part of their cultural history, they systems of past dispositions, and consequently these languages did not have the same connection or legitimacy Ariel’s disposition of familiarity, ‘you’re mostly used to it’. Connections between cultural history and disposition. For these boys there was a strong sense of history constituted in their dispositions of past and familiar experiences with their experiences of using Spanish at home
The conversation continues …R: So what do you mean, it’s your culture, it’s easier?A: You got the knowledge and Spanish is in your >>>D: >>> you got Spanish in your blood. You got the knowledge. So it’s easierR: Oh right. So what do you mean, you got the knowledge?A: You already know it and you have been raised by >>>D: >>> by Spanish people, so you’ve heard them talking. Habitus operates as collective and individual expression of cultural history. The individual habitus tends to represent and manifest many group-specific characteristics and is a variant of a collective root. For Diego and Ariel, this variant is found in their individual and different trajectories in learning to speak Spanish. Their shared history and similar dispositions suggests a common ground upon which their close friendship was based.
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