Fallacies
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Fallacies

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Fallacies Fallacies Presentation Transcript

  • Fallacies
  • Definition of a Fallacy
    • An error in reasoning or a mistaken belief
    • Weakens your credibility as a speaker
    • Many different kinds
  • Hasty Generalizations
    • When the speaker does not have enough evidence to support his conclusions
      • Ex. You flip through the television channels and all you see is commercials. You conclude the only thing on television is commercials.
      • Ex. On your visit to Africa your plane lands in the desert. All you can see is desert. Therefore, you assume all of Africa is desert.
  • Mistaken Causality
    • Assuming that because one event follows another, it was caused by it
    • Also known as “post hoc”
      • Ex. Watching television causes you to get bad grades.
      • Ex. Wearing my lucky socks makes me win my tennis match.
  • False Analogy
    • Comparing things that are dissimilar in some important way
      • Ex. You used to teach at a school with a 10 student average class size. Now you work at a school with a 30 student average class size. Assuming that classroom management would be the same at both schools.
      • Ex. My Labrador and your poodle are guaranteed to enjoy hunting equally.
  • Begging the Question
    • Assuming as decided what has actually not been proved
      • Ex. In an antiabortion speech referring to the fetus as an “unborn child” without discussing when human life begins
      • Ex. How do you like my delicious apple pie?
  • Ad Hominem
    • Latin for “against the man”
    • Attacking the person rather than the point
      • Ex. Charging your opponent as “little old ladies in tennis shoes”
  • Non Sequitur
    • Latin for “It does not follow”
    • Provide evidence to back up a statement but the evidence does not really prove the point
      • Ex. “If combat means living in a ditch, females have biological problems staying in a ditch for 30 days because they get infections . . . . [Moreover,] males are biologically driven to go out and hunt for giraffes.” – Newt Gingrich
  • Bandwagon Technique
    • Speaker asks listeners to “jump on the bandwagon,” to become part of an overwhelming group in favor of some person, product or idea.
      • Ex. You should buy an ipod nano. All the cool kids at Jordan carry them around to class.
  • False Premise
    • An error in deduction
      • Ex. Dogs have two ears. I have two ears. Therefore, I am a dog.
      • Ex. Teenagers are known for being irresponsible. You are a teenager. Therefore, you are known for being irresponsible.
  • Your Task
    • Split into groups of 3
    • Brainstorm an idea of a product to “sell” to the class
    • Write a commercial/ infomercial for your product
    • Include as many fallacies as you can
    • When you present the class will identify the fallacies you used